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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

554 




I UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I 
£ — — — — — — — — ■ — & 




16—53001-1 



THE 

AMERICAN 

ournal of Pharmacy 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



HENRY 



PUBLICkTlC\N COMMITTEE FOR. I9O5. . > <" - 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER, JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, 

WALLACE PROCTER, M. I. WILBERT, 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME 77 



PHILADELPHIA : 

1905. 

8343 L 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, 1 905. 



THE PROPER SCOPE OF SCIENTIFIC (SO-CALLED EX- 
PERT) TESTIMONY IN TRIALS INVOLVING PHAR- 
MACOLOGIC QUESTIONS. 1 

By Solomon Sous Cohen, M.D., of Philadelphia, 
Professor of Clinical Medicine in Jefferson Medical College. 

It is by request of your committee of invitation that I shall devote 
the address I have the honor to make to you to-day to the con- 
sideration of the subject of " expert testimony " in certain of its 
relations having a common interest for physicians and pharmacists. 
My criticisms will be addressed principally to our own faults, not to 
those of others. Doubtless there are many motes in the eyes of the 
lawyers ; but before we discuss the best method of extracting these 
motes, let us try to discover how we can get rid of the beams that 
tend to make our own vision oblique. 

It is not to be denied that the '" medical expert " or " chemical 
expert" witness is often an object of suspicion to courts and juries; 
that lawyers out of court find no impropriety in ridiculing him, while 
in court, if he is on the other side, their attitude toward him is not 
invariably one of the highest respect for his knowledge or his devo- 
tion to the truth. Moreover, this unflattering estimate of the sin- 
cerity ©f the expert witness is not confined to courts ■ and lawyers ; 
it is reflected in the press and in the comments of the man in the 
street. It would be soothing to wounded vanity to attribute the 
distrust of expert testimony entirely to the obscurity of the difficult 
scientific questions so often involved and the inadequacy of the legal 
methods of the day for the development and presentation of such 



1 An address delivered before the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Novem- 
ber 15, 1904. 

(1) 



2 



Expert Testimony. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1905. 



questions. Undoubtedly these impersonal elements are important 
factors; but it must be admitted that there are also personal factors, 
and that for the latter, physicians and chemists are not without 
blame. When men , of equal reputation and competence can be 
found, apparently in any desired number, to form either of two 
opposite opinions upon the same apparently simple set of facts ; can 
be induced to express positive and conflicting views upon questions 
concerning which the evidence is insufficient for the formation of a 
positive view of any kind ; and are willing, moreover, to suggest to 
an attorney questions that seem to have no other purpose than to 
confuse scientific colleagues who may appear as witnesses on the 
other side, or unfairly to impugn and belittle the evidence given by 
such colleagues — is the assumption wholly without plausibility that 
the nature of the testimony given by any expert witness is in effect 
determined by the necessities of that side of the case upon which he 
is employed ? We know, and many attorneys know, that, despite its 
plausibility, the assumption is far from being correct. But that is 
because we and the attorneys know what the newspapers and the 
public do not know and cannot know ; namely, how often physicians 
.and chemists decline to testify in behalf of interests that have con- 
sulted them, because on examination of the facts they find that they 
cannot truthfully give the testimony desired. That incompetent, 
inaccurate, overzealous, or even untruthful persons sometimes appear 
■via <the role of expert witnesses, playing it very much to the satisfac- 
tion not only of their employers, but also of the jury and the specta- 
tors — may be admitted. With this phase of the subject, however, 
I do not purpose to deal at this time. I shall consider only the 
difficulties besetting competent men, desirous to tell the truth and 
nothing but the truth, when they go upon the witness stand to in- 
struct courts and juries upon pharmacologic and toxicologic questions. 

In the first place, it is often requisite to state technical facts in 
cimtechnical language. There is much difference between lack of 
technicality and simplicity. The simplest statement is always the 
foest; but the untechnical statement is not always the simplest — fre- 
quently it is the most complex. Consider for a moment only the 
physical and chemical questions of osmosis, of atomic weight, of 
^valency, of crystallization, of stereochemism, of ionization ; or the 
pharmacologic questions of the effects of drugs upon metabolism 
<or upon cell structure. How can such matters be expressed in other 



A j^u°S, P i h 905 m -} Expert Testimony. 3 

than technical terms, and yet be expressed both clearly and ade- 
quately ? The only' way out of the difficulty is not to try to get out 
of it. Let us state our technical position for the record, as simply 
as possible ; that is, in technical terms. We may then explain in 
untechnical language for the jury. One common result of the effort 
to avoid technical statements is a multiplication of words from which 
juries, even more intelligent than the average, can gather no clear 
idea. Another is an impossible simplification of a difficult problem, 
which is consequently, even though a correct conclusion be reached, 
open to just criticism — a fortiori to captious criticism. Just here 
comes to light one grave fault of medical and chemical experts. 
We are too prone to make and to suggest that very kind of captious 
criticism of the testimony of an opposing witness, not for the purpose 
of eliciting truth, but in order to score a point in the game. Such 
tactics may be perfectly proper on the part of an advocate, but not 
on the part of one who professes to be impartially devoted to science. 

And this brings into view a second difficulty. Theoretically, the 
expert witness is an adviser of the court. He is called in, because 
of his supposedly superior knowledge, to help the judge and jury to 
understand the significance of certain facts testified to by himself or 
others, which cannot be understood without such assistance. He 
should have no interest in the bearing of these facts upon the verdict 
to be rendered. Was or was not arsenic present in a certain liver 
or stomach examined by him ? Do or do not certain post-mortem 
appearances, or certain symptoms observed during life, indicate death 
from poisoning ? Is or is not the continuous and unsuspected ad- 
ministration of unknown quantities of boric acid or salicylic acid or 
sodium sulphite injurious to health? These and like matters are 
the subjects upon which he is called to state judgments of fact or to 
express opinions, and in consequence to detail the observations and 
explain the reasoning upon which such judgments or opinions are 
based. But his interest in the matter should be entirely scientific. 
It should be no concern of his, as a witness, whether the presence 
or absence of arsenic in the tissues or other materials that he has 
examined, or the significance of the symptoms described, or the 
harmfulness or harmlessness of chemicals used as food preservatives, 
may lead to the conviction or acquittal of any individual or the gain 
or loss of any commercial interest. His function in court is quite 
clear. It is (a) to describe the methods and the results cf his ex- 



4 



Expert lestimony. 



f Am. Jour. Pharui. 
I January, 1905. 



animations ; to state the conclusions that his study and obser- 
vation in general enable him to draw rom a given set of facts ob- 
served and described by him or testified to by others ; (r) to enlighten 
the court as to matters of scientific knowledge relevant to the issues 
presented, but not dependent upon any testimony as to fact given in 
the special cause at trial. Beyond that his testimony, his advice v 
his interest, should not go. 

Under present methods, however, the expert witness is not sum- 
moned in his theoretical capacity of impartial teacher and adviser. 
He is called apparently, and often in reality, as a partisan and an 
advocate. Indeed, whatever his own view may be as to his relation 
to the case, he is usually regarded and treated as a partisan and 
advocate by judge, jury, lawyers, spectators and newspapers. How 
often do we read in great headlines of the " Battle of the Experts ! " 
How often is the speculation heard, privately or publicly, as to 
whether the prosecution or the defense will " get Dr. A.," with the 
implication that the other side will then necessarily " get Dr. B.," 
and that Drs. A. and B. will, of equal necessity, express in court 
opposite opinions on the same facts. 

There is unquestionably a legitimate field of work for the scientific 
or " expert " advocate ; but it is tjy the side of counsel, not on the 
witness stand. As witness, one is bound by his oath and by his duty 
to the court and to the State to endeavor to assist judge and jury 
to reach correct conclusions, without reference to the effect of those 
conclusions upon the verdict to be rendered. He is to distort 
nothing, magnify nothing, minimize nothing ; assert as positive 
nothing doubtful, throw doubt upon nothing certain ; introduce 
nothing irrelevant, suppress nothing material ; give utterance to no 
statement of fact, advance no theory, that he would shrink from 
defending before a learned society. But as advocate, one may 
properly consider the bearing of testimony upon the verdict and 
endeavor to have judge and jury impressed with the especial im- 
portance of those facts and theories making for his side of the case, 
and with the doubtfulness and unimportance of those making for 
the opposing side. The functions of the witness and of the advo- 
cate should therefore never be united in the same person. Human 
nature being what it is, however, our present methods tend to im- 
bue expert witnesses with somewhat of the advocate's spirit. Some 
do not realize this tendency ; others, despite their effort to avoid 



^ja&SS? 1 -} Rxpert Testimony, 5 

partisan advocacy, are badgered into it by the unfair efforts of cross- 
examiners to throw doubt and obscurity upon their direct testi- 
mony. Unfortunately these efforts are sometimes instigated and 
directed by the expert witnesses of the other side. 

The remedy for this difficulty lies wholly in our own hands. It 
will not do to abuse the lawyers for it, however much they may 
abuse us when we are on the witness stand. Use, abuse or misuse 
what and whom they will, they cannot make use of us for any 
purpose for which we refuse to be made use of. 

A third order of difficulties has been alluded to, but may now be 
considered more fully. It is often assumed that expert witnesses 
are not called to give testimony as to fact, but merely to express 
opinions, and that hence opinion may properly be set against opinion. 
This is but partially true. Expert witnesses are frequently called to 
express opinions upon facts which they must themselves first testify 
to, or to express judgments of fact, and not opinions at all — upon' 
investigations that they have themselves made. This is especially 
the case with chemists and pathologists. We can here confine our 
attention to chemists. 

A chemist or pharmacist may be asked, for example, to make 
certain analyses in order to determine the purity of pharmaceutical 
products, or to acertain whether foods or articles of commerce have 
been adulterated or have had foreign substances added to them to 
color, disguise, or preserve them ; or to discover whether certain 
substances — sometimes human tissues — contain poison. He submits 
the suspected articles to certain physical and chemical manipula- 
tions ; examines them with the naked eye, with the microscope, 
with the spectroscope, and otherwise. Upon the results of these 
examinations he forms a judgment. When describing in court the 
methods and results of his examinations, it will be generally 
admitted that he testifies as to facts. How about the judgment he 
has formed? That judgment, when stated in court, is commonly 
treated as an expression of opinion. In reality, it is a judgment as 
to fact, as valid as any other judgment as to fact that can be made 
the subject of testimony. It differs from ordinary judgments in 
that special skill and knowledge are required, first, to obtain its data, 
and, secondly, to understand their significance ; but so do many 
other judgments that we never think of treating as matters of opin- 
ion—which are, indeed, recognized to be therefore more accurate — 



6 



Expert Testimony. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
i January, 1905. 



not more dubious, than ordinary judgments; for example, that of a 
navigator as to the position of his ship, or of a surveyor as to the 
dimensions of a certain plot of ground, or of a skilled weigher as to 
the number of pounds contained in a heap of coal. The differences 
that may exist among these various judgments are not those of 
kind, but merely ot degrees of complexity. Such judgments may 
be mistaken; but that, while it subjects them to correction, does 
not remove them to the category of opinions — unless the term 
opinion be extended to include every mental operation in the nature 
of a judgment. 

Testimony concerning chemical analysis and its results is properly 
to be subjected to criticism as to the pertinency, correctness, skill, 
and accuracy of the manipulations and as to their conclusiveness ; 
but such criticism deals with fact, and must be kept within due 
bounds. It is perfectly proper to point out, for example, that in the 
attempted identification of poisons, a careless observer may mistake 
antimony for arsenic; but it is misleading — and a competent chemist 
must consider it deliberately so — to attempt to make a jury believe 
that discrimination between arsenic and antimony is at all uncertain 
when the right tests have been made with due care and intelligence 
It is not in any degree a matter of opinion subject to debate and 
dispute, but an acknowledged fact of science. No expert should 
lend himself to a pettifogging practice of the nature described. 

Again, it is proper to point out and inquire about all sources of 
error in manipulation; but undue insistence upon widespread con- 
tamination of vessels and reagents with, for example, arsenic, can 
be considered only captious criticism in the presence of statements 
that due care has been taken by blank tests and otherwise to exclude 
that source of error and when amounts have been found not to be 
accounted for even approximately by these common contaminations. 
I have elsewhere suggested that important examinations by official 
analysts should be made in the presence of experts representing the 
other side ; or that both sides should, in cases in which this method 
is possible, be permitted to have analyses made by their respective 
experts. The further suggestion was also made that analysts 
should be required to be preserve the results of final and decisive 
tests for exhibition and criticism in court. Such procedures would 
go far, I think, to avert the sort of criticism here deprecated and also 
to guard against incompetence, carelessness or error, in official or 
partisan analysis. 



A ji2!Srfi£ m '} E*P*rt testimony. 7 

Opinions may, in certain cases of chemical analysis, differ as to 
the scope and conclusiveness of special tests. In all such cases it is 
a simple matter for the expert witnesses on both sides to state the 
issue, first in technical terms for the record, secondly in non-tech- 
nical terms for the enlightenment of court and jury, and in such a 
way as to make clear the exact point in dispute and its bearing on 
the final judgment of fact. It is also easy to take the opposite 
course with intent to becloud the issue. Were the straightforward, 
scientific, impartial way obligatory in every instance, many issues 
which have been allowed to occupy much of the time and attention 
of courts and juries would at once be shown to be based on triviali- 
ties ot no possible importance in the cause at trial. 

Still another source of confusion between fact and opinion arises 
from the questioning of expert witnesses as to what may be termed 
facts of science, and the -failure of courts to rule uniformly as to 
just what testimony of this kind is admissible. One court will 
permit the widest and wildest latitude ; another will exclude as 
" hearsay " all matters outside the personal experience of the expert 
witness. I do not purpose to discuss these conflicting rulings from 
a legal viewpoint. Shall doctors decide when judges disagree ? But 
I may be permitted to point out the logical and scientific difficulties 
involved in both positions. 

First let us consider the position of an expert witness called upon 
to differentiate between the knowledge he has obtained from read- 
ing and that which he has acquired by personal observation. 
How far a chemist or pharmacist may be able to do this, I do not 
know. If you have all verified by balance-tests and other appro- 
priate methods the atomic weights, the valencies, the electric posi- 
tions, and other properties of all the elements, and the structures 
of all the compounds, perhaps you may begin to think of qualifying 
under the " no hearsay " rule. I doubt, however, whether any phy- 
sician could state accurately how much of the composite pictures 
he carries in his mind of the symptomatology and pathology of 
diseases and of the effects of drugs — even of a disease so common 
as typhoid fever or of a drug so much used as opium or mercury — 
is based upon cases personally observed, to the exclusion of those 
read about. One of the best known pathologists in America, a man 
of enormous experience, told me that he had never personally made 
a post-mortem examination of a case of combined sclerosis of the 



8 



Expert Testimony. 



f Am, Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1905. 



spinal cord, although of course he had seen and studied sections of 
cords from such cases. Some physicians have never seen a case of 
infantile scurvy ; but they know that the affection exists and that 
it gives rise to discolorations of the skin that are often mistaken for 
bruises, and upon which unfounded charges of cruelty to children 
may* be brought. I have never examined a thyroid gland for 
iodin or arsenic, yet I know that iodin is constantly and arsenic 
sometimes found in thyroid glands of men and animals, apparently 
in each case as a normal constituent. If the question of the possi- 
ble presence of iodin or arsenic in normal thyroid glands should 
be of importance in a given trial, could I not properly state my 
knowledge as book knowledge ? Must one send for Mendel or 
Gautier to testify to personal analysis ? I have never seen an insane 
person commit homicide or suicide, yet I have testified in court that 
certain persons ought to be kept under restraint lest they should kill 
themselves or others, and I believe that the testimony was properly 
given and properly accepted. Would not the "no hearsay" rule 
exclude this testimony also ? Even had I seen the dead bodies of 
insane suicides or of the victims of homicidal maniacs, that fact 
would not seem to remove my knowledge from the hearsay cate- 
gory ; nothing would do that except actually seeing the killing. I 
know that arsenic poisoning has been caused by contaminated beer, 
by wall paper, by stockings ; though I have never analyzed beer, 
wall paper or stockings for the presence of arsenic. I know that 
in this city fatal lead poisoning has been caused by cakes colored 
with chrome yellow, though I did not see any of the cakes. I have 
not even seen the men at work painting or making lead, whom I 
have treated for lead poisoning acquired in such occupations. 

That iodin is a constant normal constituent of the thyroid gland, 
and that Gautier, Bertrand, and others have found arsenic in the 
normal thyroid gland and other normal tissues ; that maniacs have 
committed homicide and suicide ; that arsenic poisoning has been 
caused by contaminated beer — are facts, not opinions. They are 
facts known only or best to certain persons, because those persons 
have made special studies involving the knowledge of such facts ; 
and whatever the law may be, it would appear reasonable that when 
facts of this order are relevant to the issue, qualified persons should 
be permitted to testify concerning them as part of the sum total of 
the knowledge acquired by reading and observation. On the other 



A jan T ^ y P i905 m } Expert Testimony. g 

hand, when a fact of this nature is uncommon it is perfectly 
proper to bring out its rarity ; and, if such be the case, to show that 
while an integral portion of the witness's knowledge, it is, neverthe- 
less outside of his personal observation. 

So much for the one position. Now for the other. To confine 
ourselves to a chemical illustration, which may have toxicologic 
bearing, let us take Gautier's observation of the presence of arsenic 
in the normal human body. If this bare statement should be per- 
mitted to be made in court in a case in which the presence of 
arsenic in a given body is the basis of a murder trial, one can see 
that justice might easily be defeated. Were Gautier himself testi- 
fying, he would say, as he has written, that arsenic could be found 
in normal human bodies only by the use of a certain very delicate 
technique, which I need not here describe ; that he had found it 
only in the ectodermic structures, and chiefly in the thyroid gland ; 
that he had never found it in the normal liver or normal stomach or 
normal muscles. He would add, that even in the thyroid gland 
he had found it only in minute quantity — about y 1 ^- of a milli- 
gramme in the average human thyroid ; that is to say, in the 
proportion of about 400000000 °^ tne avera g e body weight ; so 
that if by any inconceivable post-mortem diffusion the thyroid' 
arsenic should escape into all the tissues, it wojjld be in a propor- 
tion absolutely beyond detection — the least that he has been able to 
detect being ?0 1 0> that is to say, of a milligramme in 100 
grammes of tissue. To translate this into grains, it would take 1 00 
thyroids — or, if diffused, 1 00 entire human bodies — to yield 
% grain of normal arsenic to Gautier's test ; or to follow Gautier's 
fair statement to the letter, even doubling the assumed quantity of 
normal arsenic in a cadaver to -^fo of a milligramme to allow for 
possible traces in the skin and its appendages, we should need a 
mass equal to fifty bodies to give us the yl grain. A simple arith- 
metic calculation therefore shows that this observation, whatever 
may be its physiologic importance, has little medico-legal bearing. 
But the partial expert witness — that is, one who is telling only part of 
the truth in order to serve one side of the case — might say that 
Gautier had found arsenic in the normal human body in recogniz- 
able quantity and omit to say anything further. Or he might be 
ignorant of the details of Gautier's studies, even were the attorney 
for the prosecution sufficiently well posted to inquire concerning 



10 



Expert Testimony. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1905. 



them on cross-examination; and the whole truth thus failing to be 
brought out, a false impression would be left on the minds of the 
jurymen. Again, the widespread distribution of arsenic in nature 
and art might be testified to by expert witnesses, truthfully in a 
sense, and yet partially, and therefore untruthfully in the large 
sense. By such testimony a jury might easily be misled as to the 
real significance of the facts. For this is all matter of fact, not of 
opinion, whether or not it be matter of personal observation. 
While, therefore, the mere circumstance that a witness has not per- 
sonally observed the fact of science concerning which he is ques- 
tioned should not bar his testimony, it does seem that courts should 
exercise considerable caution as to the admission of such testimony, 
and might rightfully insist, first, that its relevancy to the special 
cause at trial be established ; secondly, that the witness should be 
required to affirm his familiarity with all the pertinent details of the 
special facts to be testified to, and, furthermore, be required to state 
them, even in the absence of cross-examination. Failure on the 
part of a witness to make such full statement should then be con- 
sidered sufficient reason, if shown, to throw out all his testimony, 
This rule would at least tend to discourage witnesses from giving 
partial and misleading testimony. 

Another order of testimony given by experts relates to matters 
purely of opinion. Here the position becomes more difficult both 
for court and witness. 

A pharmacist testifying as a matter of chemical fact that he has 
found a certain quantity of arsenic or strychnin in a human body, 
may be asked whether it is sufficient to kill or indicates that there 
has been in the body at any time sufficient to kill ? The least quan- 
tity of arsenic or any other poison necessary to kill a human being 
should be a matter of fact ; it is, however, for many reasons, one of 
opinion. In the first place, the experiment has never been made 
under rigorous conditions. In the second place, in most, if not all 
of the recorded cases of poisoning, alike in those attended with re- 
covery and those ending fatally, either the exact quantity taken is 
unknown, or it is so large that no estimate of a minimum lethal dose 
can be based upon it — while in cases of recovery from large doses 
there has often been evacuant, antidotal, or other treatment. In 
the third place the individual variations in responses to drugs of all 
kinds are great. Moreover, the hearsay element must be large in 



A j; n J u a^, P i9o a 5 m -} Expert Testimony. n 

such opinions. A pharmacist has knowledge of the doses ordinarily 
prescribed, and from his reading has some knowledge of the symp- 
tomatology of drug poisoning ; but his observation has not been, 
like the physician's, of a character that such reading may be assim- 
ilated therewith ; and there thus seems to be a valid objection to the 
admission of his answer. Similarly he may be questioned as to the 
harmfulness of adulterants or preservatives of food. Here again his 
observation is not of such a character that his answer can be any- 
thing more than opinion, and the line of his studies does not ordi- 
narily lend authoritative weight to his opinion on such topics. But 
the physician occupies a different position in respect to these ques- 
tions. They form an important part of his studies and are integrated 
with the whole mass of his knowledge. He is therefore entitled to 
express an opinion concerning them ; and although he may never 
have poisoned any one with boric acid or salicylic acid, deliberately 
or accidentally, or may never have recognized impure benzoic acid 
as the cause of stomach and kidney disease- in his patients, his 
opinion that such substances can and do injure the human stomach 
and kidneys, should be accepted in evidence. Absence of knowledge 
on these subjects, should not, moreover, be twisted by an expert 
witness into knowledge of absence o : injurious effects. 

Other cases, however, present difficulties to a physician asked to 
give an expert opinion. Thus, on matters of chemistry and phar- 
macy outside his experience, his opinions are ordinarily of very 
limited value. But let us also consider cases that may be within his 
experience. 

A physician who has observed a patient during life and has not 
suspected poisoning, may, after the death of the patient, have his 
suspicion aroused, and in reflecting upon the symptoms he may see 
a new significance in them. This suspicion may be confirmed by the 
post-mortem examination and the chemical analysis. His honest 
opinion based upon all the facts may then be different from one pre- 
viously expressed upon partial knowledge or even embodied in a 
death certificate. Yet, unfortunately, he is exposed to animadver- 
sion because of his change of view. Still more difficult is- the 
question presented in a case of suspected poisoning to a physician 
who has not seen the living person or the corpse, but is asked to 
express an opinion, on facts described by others, as to the nature of 
symptoms during life, and as to the cause of death. Here the ques- 



12 



Expert Testimony. 



( Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
1 January, 190o. 



tion is one of pure opinion, for the facts are all beyond his knowledge. 
It is evident that in the absence of complete and careful observation 
the facts may be so manipulated as to give apparent basis for dis- 
crepant opinions. One set of circumstances is made prominent by 
witnesses for defence, another by witnesses for prosecution. Few, 
if any, scientifically accurate observations have been made ot symp- 
toms. The autopsy may have been defective in various ways. The 
testimony of witnesses not only on opposite sides, but on the same 
side may be contradictory or even in certain particulars self-destruc- 
tive, from a scientific viewpoint. The physician may thus be inclined 
to minimize in his own mind certain testimony, which nevertheless 
he is called upon in his sworn opinion to give credence to. Evi- 
dently when he cannot form a positive opinion, it is his duty to say 
so, and not to attempt to twist dubious or insufficient evidence into 
the support of a partisan, because partial, view. Again, an expert 
is forbidden to formulate questions which he is to be called upon to 
answer, and yet some error in the formulation may apparently color 
his testimony otherwise than he desires. He must avoid this by 
so formulating his answer that it shall tell its own story independ- 
ently of the question, and by limiting his answer so that it may be 
positive only so far as the facts are positive; and qualified as to 
uncertainty or probability when the facts so demand. 

Many other difficulties affecting expert testimony on pharma- 
cologic questions might be stated, but those discussed seem to be 
the main ones, and perhaps if they can be averted the others will 
to a large extent disappear. 

In addition to the practice of controlled examinations and exhi- 
bition of results already alluded to, I have elsewhere suggested a 
method that would do away with our main difficulties, but this 
method is not likely to be adopted for many years, if at all. It is 
too simple and direct. That method is the submission of purely 
scientific questions to a commission of experts, who shall, in ad- 
vance of the jury trial, hear the relevant testimony as to matters of 
fact, including the methods and results of any scientific examinations, 
but no mere opinions from witnesses — opinions being put forth by 
experts frankly appearing as advocates, and arguing upon the testi- 
mony submitted. Such a commission could submit to the court a 
report or reports, which could thus become part of the evidence 
heard by the jury that has to find the verdict, and before whom no 
expert should appear as witness. 



A jan J u°ary^ m -} William Procter, Jr. 13 

In the absence of this simple and direct way out of present diffi- 
culties, is there any other ? Yes — if we, physicians, chemists and 
pharmacists — choose to take it. When we are called upon to con- 
sider the facts in a given case in order to determine their significance, 
and what testimony we can give concerning them, we should make 
certain stipulations, and I may add that there is little difficulty in 
securing the assent of attorneys to reasonable conditions. An 
attorney who should refuse his assent would, I judge, be a first-class 
attorney not to be associated with. These stipulations are : 

(1) That there is no obligation to testify or to give counsel in- 
volved in the acceptance of a fee to examine papers or otherwise 
look into the facts. This is, I believe, usually understood. 

(2) That the nature of the testimony to be given, in case the pre- 
liminary examination permits an agreement to testify at all, is sub- 
ject to modification by the subsequent disclosure of new facts at the 
trial or otherwise; and that the attorney must then decide for him- 
self whether or not to call one as a witness. 

(3) That one is to be asked only simple and direct questions per- 
mitting the framing of answers that will bring out the whole truth 
as one sees it, and not merely fragments of the truth. 

(4) That one is not to be expected to be positive upon uncertain 
matters, or to throw doubt upon those that are not doubtful. 

(5) That one is not to be asked questions to which correct 
answers must be highly technical, and which can therefore only 
obscure the issue. That, indeed, one is not to be asked such ques- 
tions for the very purpose of obscuring the issue. 

[ To be continued.^ 



WILLIAM PROCTER, JR., THE FATHER OF AMERICAN 

PHARMACY. 1 

By John F. Hancock, Baltimore. 

I esteem it a privilege to be welcomed by the members of this 
time-honored institution. 

In being your guest this evening my mind reverts to the days 



T An address delivered at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, on Tues- 
day evening, December 13, 1904. 



r 



14 



William P?'octer, Jr. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1905. 



that have long since passed, and memory recalls many pleasant 
associations with the members of your College. 

Mentally, I can see the men who made the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy illustrious in the past, and this evening I am pleased 
to meet with those who have diligently striven to maintain and 
perpetuate the good character and usefulness of this noble educa- 
tional work. 

For many years your College stood alone, on this vast continent, 
in providing the means of a systematic course of instruction to 
those who had elected pharmacy as their life work. Early in the 
past century your city became the centre of medical and pharma- 
ceutical learning, and there were more celebrities in the two pro- 
fessions — medicine and pharmacy — found here than in any part of 
the United States. I believe the two professions were more inti- 
mately associated in Philadelphia than in any other city of the 
Union. Educational interests brought them close together in a 
common cause. This condition of things produced a mutual health 
and strength, highly beneficial to each, and equally so to the patrons 
of the two professions. 

When I entered the ranks of pharmacy in 1854, exchanging the 
farm life for that of the city, I soon made the acquaintance of a 
graduate of your College, who had served an apprenticeship with 
the late Caleb H. Needles. He came as a clerk to the pharmacy 
where I was engaged, and I found him a useful companion. In less 
than two years after entering the business, I became part owner of 
the pharmacy — the firm being Landis & Hancock, and the clerk 
referred fo remained in our employ, becoming my pharmaceutical 
instructor. This gentleman made me acquainted with the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. 

The books that engaged my attention at this time were the 
United States Dispensatory, by Wood and Bache, and Mohr, Red- 
wood and Procter's Practical Pharmacy, edited by William Procter, 
Jr. Later on I learned to know more of the value of these books 
and their distinguished authors. 

The Maryland College of Pharmacy was reorganized in 1856, 
and at great inconvenience to myself I matriculated as a student in 
1857, and attended the lectures on Chemistry. I was graduated in 
i860, joined the: College, as a member, one year after, and in 1863 
joined the American Pharmaceutical Association. 



Am Jour. Pbarm. \ 
January, 1905. J 



William Procter, Jr. 



15 



At this meeting of the'Association I made the acquaintance of 
a distinguished pharmacist of your city, whom I was proud to 
meet, because I had heard so much of him. My surprise was to 
find him so approachable and pleasant, for I had thought that his 
high position would remove him from one so humble as myself 
I met him frequently after that meeting, and always found him uni- 
form in his demeanor. Towering above most other men in 
ability and position, he was kind to the most humble, but always 
maintained a mild and sympathetic dignity. He was not harsh in 
criticism, and his mildness of manner would give encouragement to 
those who were timid. He is not visible with us this evening, but 
he lives in affectionate memory of those who knew him personally, 

I come to you this evening to pay my loving tribute to his 
memory. It would be useless for me to attempt to eulogize his 
valued life before an audience in this College. These halls are sacred 
to his memory. I come to plead with you for a public and lasting 
recognition of his services in the past, that his example may serve 
as a beacon, to encourage and stimulate the minds of those who 
would ennoble the duties of the pharmacist, in the present and 
future. Let us perpetuate the memory of one who has done so 
much for humanity by elevating his chosen calling to the dignity 
of a profession, in having qualified himself for its practice and re- 
jecting the grosser garb of commercial pharmacy. 

You have had in your College, since its organization in 1 82 1, 
many examples of noble worth in its membership, and in those 
who, having graduated, have done missionary work in distant 
places. Their names are too numerous to mention, but you have 
had only one William Procter, Jr., and I venture to state that no 
one here will suggest his superior, past or present, in the ranks of 
pharmacy on the American Continent. As apprentice, college stu- 
dent, alumnus, professor, editor, author, he distinguished himself in 
each position, and never accepted any duty that he was not qualified 
to fill with credit to himself. His collateral studies and investigations 
had the object of magnifying the importance of pharmacy. He was 
constant and unabating in his efforts from the beginning to the end 
of his pharmaceutical career, and none knew it better than those I 
now address. Others may have shown superior ability in some 
directions, but his was a substantially rounded lie, useful to others 
and an honor to himself. 



1 6 



William Procter, Jr. 



( Am. Jour. Pnarni. 
\ January, 1905. 



Should such a life be passed into forgetfulness, and can it be re- 
garded as ostentatious, to preserve such a memory in a substantial 
and public way ? Is there any one present who would not mark 
the resting-place of a departed loved one with a stone, however 
humble, in commemoration of the lost friend or relative ? If, by 
common consent, we accept the late William Procter, Jr., as the 
Father of American Pharmacy, should we not, as his children by 
adoption, commemorate the fact, and call the attention of future 
generations of pharmacists, druggists and chemists to his spotless 
reputation? I claim that it would not only be an honor to his 
memory, but also to those who recognize his worth and to Ameri- 
can Pharmacy. 

It would be useless at this time to -recite the ancestry of this 
good man or to relate in detail what he did for pharmacy and phar- 
macists. The pages of The American Journal of Pharmacy and 
the proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association will 
-fully gratify any one who wishes detailed information on the subject. 

I am proud that he was a son of Baltimore, and equally so to 
know that he achieved his noble character and reputation in the 
city of Philadelphia. The tribute that I think should be paid to 
his memory is not for local fame. Living as he did, at about what 
was then the centre of population in the United States, there were 
drawn to him the youthful minds, from all directions and long dis- 
tances, those who were prepared by him and his colleagues in the 
College for the higher duties of pharmacy. On returning to their 
respective homes these graduates of your College have been import- 
ant factors to their Alma Mater. 

The radiations from the centre were, in the many cases under 
my observation, impregnated with the noble principles of Procter, 
that made them more useful in the practice of pharmacy than they 
might have been under less favorable circumstances. Unfortunately, 
the teacher does not always reflect seriously his moral forces on 
the mind of the pupil. 

We can not regard the late Professor Procter as a brilliant or 
smart man in the sense in which these terms are generally applied* 
The terms able, strong, reliable would have been more applicable in 
his case. He was a great and just man, and, beyond all, a gentleman. 

Let us briefly survey what he achieved and the difficulties he 
must have encountered. At the age of three years death robbed 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
January, 1905. / 



William Procter, Jr. 



'7 



him of the support of his father. His mother was left with a large 
family of children and limited means, which deprived him of the 
advantages of a liberal education. One of his schoolmates related 
that " the boy William was studious, gentle and companionable, and 
greatly beloved by his teacher and classmates." William was taken 
from school at an early age to look after business interests for his 
mother. At the age of fourteen years he went to Philadelphia to 
visit a friend of his mother ; at this time he made the acquaintance 
of the late Joseph C. Turnpenny, who was an apprentice with Henry 
M. Zollickoffer, at the corner of Sixth and Pine Streets. Young 
William Procter, Jr., became very much interested in the adopted 
business of his young friend, and without delay offered himself to 
Mr. Zollickoffer as an apprentice, which offer was accepted. The 
two lads were mutually interested in the study of pharmacy, Turn- 
penny graduating in 1833 and Procter in 1837. The two worked 
together as members of your College, until separated by the death 
of Procter. 

From the beginning of William Procter's experience in phar- 
macy, he was a sober, painstaking, industrious student, verifying 
by experiments what he had learned from the study of books. His 
searching inquiry, integrity of purpose and unostentatious display 
of what he had learned, together with the love of imparting knowl- 
edge, ripened into a rich harvest of useful information that made 
him an authority in whatever he attempted to teach. We should 
not only feel a keen appreciation of his moral and intellectual 
worth, but seek to demonstrate it in a way to make his example 
most impressive on the lives of others. His disciples should not 
be the only ones to honor his memory and profit by his example, 
but physicians as well, and those who patronize them should be 
made acquainted with his noble character, that they may properly 
respect and estimate what the lite and works of Procter have meant 
to pharmacy. For the standard which he upheld for so many years 
and labored to make possible for others, and in which he assisted 
his colleagues to establish in the practice of pharmacy, should 
receive the highest commendation of all classes. 

The pharmacist occupies a peculiar position in the community, 
in being both a professional and a trades man. Professional ethics 
and commercial interests are often inharmonious. Unlike the pro- 
fessions generally, the ethical pharmacist is subservient to the physi- 



i8 



William Procter, Jr. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1905. 



cian, who naturally precedes him in attendance on the sick. The 
physician deals with the head of the home, and the pharmacist, in 
many cases, with servants and children. In the social life the 
physician holds the higher position and his duties are not so much 
of a drudgery. 

The pharmacist has too many interests to serve, and it becomes 
very difficult for him to keep evenly poised. Should he lean to 
the commercial side and cater to the whims and wishes of public 
patronage, he is likely to offend physicians. Should he assume 
the ethical conduct of the professional side of pharmacy the public 
may lose interest in him. To be a money maker, commercial tact 
is necessary. To be an ideal pharmacist, one must adopt the Golden 
Rule for his guide and conduct. To support the dignity of his 
profession may result in appeasing his conscience rather than filling 
his purse. Should he be a commercial artist he is more likely to 
become popular with the masses, if he can succeed in posing as an 
ethical pharmacist while practising the schemes of the quack. 

Professor Procter seems to have harmonized the various conflict- 
ing interests without sacrificing his self-respect. At least, while he 
was teacher, editor and essayist, his pharmacy did not suffer, as has 
been the case with some who have diverted their attention from the 
main issue. In all his varied interests none were seriously neglected, 
and he was confided in and respected in them all. He demonstrated 
the fact that one with scientific and practical qualifications, sup- 
ported by industry, economy, good judgment and conservative 
integrity, can succeed in the practice of pharmacy, and should he not 
bequeath to his family a large financial fortune, he may leave a good 
name and a good example, which, after all, is the richest inheritance 
of humanity. Not by leaps did he ascend to the summit, but by 
systematic and persistent climbing. On reaching the goal, he 
remains the central figure in the pharmaceutical group. 

The late Professor Huxley remarked on one occasion " that a 
good teacher is not usually a fluent speaker." This would apply to 
our late friend, yet he was an interesting speaker, and those who 
knew him well had implicit confidence in his statements. In debate 
he was respectful and convincing ; as a writer he was clear and 
logical; as an investigator, painstaking and thorough ; as a chemist 
and pharmacist, thoroughly reliable ; in judgment, broad and 
liberal ; and, as a companion, cordial and sincere. In the constancy 



A jaSar r y P i h 9or-} William Procter, Jr. 19 

of his work, his ability, responsibility and the results of his many 
years of uninterrupted labor in the promotion of pharmacy, he was 
the acknowledged superior of all American pharmacists, and enjoyed 
both a national and international reputation for his achievements. 

I claim, therefore, that his memory is worthy of our highest con- 
sideration, and that a monument to Prof. William Procter, Jr., the 
father of American pharmacy, should be erected at the national 
capital, and that a portion of the Smithsonian grounds should be 
requested as the most suitable site. 

At the annual meeting of the Maryland Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion in 1903, the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the Maryland Pharmaceutical Association favors 
the erection of a bronze statue of William Procter, Jr., the father of 
American pharmacy, in the Smithsonian grounds at Washington, 
D. C, as the most fitting testimonial of that illustrious pharmacist, 
under such rules and regulations as may be necessary. 

A committee on the Procter monument, of the same association, 
made a report, and a similar resolution was unanimously passed 
at its meeting this year. Maryland is on record favoring the monu- 
ment. At the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in Kansas City this year, I had the honor to read a paper favoring 
this movement. 

And at the last general session I offered the following, which was 
adopted without a dissenting voice : 

Whereas, The American Pharmaceutical Association from its 
inception has enrolled as members the most reputable and accom- 
plished pharmacists and druggists of America, who, by the charac- 
ter of their annual contributions, have made it an ideal organiza- 
tion ; and 

Whereas, One of its founders, the late Prof. William Procter, Jr., 
became its most distinguished and honored member, through his 
untiring energy, ability and valued services to the close of his life ; 
therefore be it 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the president, 
said committee to be known as the Committee on the William Proc- 
ter, Jr., Monument Fund, whose business it shall be to solicit sub- 
scriptions for a memorial monument. 

Resolved, That when a sufficient amount shall be collected by 
subscriptions, this Association shall authorize and have erected in 



20 The Anatomy of Edible Berries. { A j; n J u °^ p £ m - 

the Smithsonian grounds at Washington, D. C, a bronze monument 
commemorative of the late Wiiliam Procter, Jr., the father of Ameri- 
can pharmacy. 

Resolved, That the committee be authorized to invite the co- 
operation of the various State pharmaceutical associations, and all 
other bodies and individuals in sympathy with the undertaking, and 
that due credit be given to each subscriber. 

Resolved, That the American Pharmaceutical Association shall be 
the custodian of all funds collected, and shall disburse the same for 
the object herein named, under such rules and regulations as may 
be adopted. 

The committee provided for by the resolution has been appointed 
by President Beal, as follows : Henry Kraemer, of Philadelphia ; 
Frank C. Henry, of Washington, D. C; Benjamin T. Fairchild, of 
New York ; C. S. N. Hallberg, of Chicago ; John F. Hancock, © r 
Baltimore. The committee will soon be organized for work, and 
they will have to formulate a plan of procedure. We need all the 
light and assistance we can possibly get, believing that by united 
action the money necessary can be collected through the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, the State pharmaceutical associations 
and any other bodies and individuals interested in the laudable 
work. 



THE ANATOMY OF EDIBLE BERRIES. 
By A. Iv. Winton. 
{Concluded from p. 5/5. ) 

the American gooseberry {Ribes oxyacanthoides L.). 
American cultivated gooseberries are largely derived from the 
native species R. oxyacanthoides L. The Downing, the variety 
studied by the writer, is believed by Bailey 1 to be a descendant of 
this species. 

Macroscopic Structure The gooseberry has much the same gen- 
eral structure as the currant, but the fruit is larger (1 to 2 centimeters 
in diameter), the calyx and style are longer (6 millimeters in length), 
and are pubescent, and the smooth pericarp is thicker {Fig. 22). 
The gelatinous coat of the seed is thicker (often 2 millimeters thick 



1 Loc. tit, p. 393. 




same size as in the currant, although somewhat narrower and more 
nearly terete. Unlike the European gooseberry, the surface is free 
from prickles. 

Histology. — Pericarp (i) The Epicarp and (2) Hypoderm are 

practically the same as in the red currant. 

(3) Mesocarp. — This layer is composed of extraordinarily large 
cells (often 0-5 millimeter in diameter), which are evident to the 
naked eye and are separated from each other by a network of cells 
hardly 05 millimeter in diameter. In the inner layers the small 
cells are less numerous or entirely lacking. Crystal clusters are 
abundant, particularly in the inner layers. 

(4) Endocarp. — The most striking histological distinction between 
the currant and the gooseberry is in the structure of the endocarp, 



Fig. 22. — American Gooseberry {Ribes oxyacanthoid.es). I Whole fruit, X 1. 
II Transverse section of fruit with seeds, X .1. Ill Seeds deprived of gela- 
tinous coat, X 8. 

which in the currant is a dense sclerenchymatous tissue, in the 
gooseberry a layer of parenchyma cells with walls so thin that they 
are studied with difficulty. This remarkable difference in structure 
of two fruits of the same genus led the writer to examine the fruit 
of R. aureum, the only other species of this genus available for 
study. In this fruit, which resembles more the black currant than 
the gooseberry, the endocarp cells, although apparently parenchy- 
matous, had thicker walls than those of the latter, and the cells were 
arranged in a manner similar to those of the sclerenchymatized 
endocarp of the currant. A study of this coat in other species, and 
in all stages of development, would doubtless disclose other inter- 
mediate forms. 

Testa, Endosperm, and Embryo. — The microscopic structure of the 
seed is practically the same as that of the currant seed. 




22 



The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1905. 



Floral Parts {Fig. 23). — The remains of the floral parts are usually 
deep brown, and can be studied to advantage only after bleaching, 
preferably with sodium hypochlorite, and staining. A prominent 
mid-vein runs from the base almost to the summit of each of the 
calyx and corolla lobes. About four secondary veins branching near 
the base, partly from the calyx midrib, partly from the corolla mid- 
rib, also run through nearly the length of the calyx lobes. Lateral 
branches from the midrib are numerous in the corolla, less so in the 
calyx. 

The epidermal cells of the calyx are for the most part slightly 
elongated, and are arranged end to end in longitudinal rows. Near 
the ends of the lobes they have wavy outlines. The outer surface of 
the calyx and the upper part of the inner surface bear only a few 



scattering hairs. The calyx throat, however, is densely pubescent. 
These hairs are all thin-walled, and vary in length up to 1 milli- 
meter or more, the longest being in the calyx throat {Figs. 24. 
and 25). 

The deeply parted styles are covered with epidermal cells, for the 
most part quadrilateral, and arranged end to end in rows, and on 
the lower half bear numerous thin- walled hairs 1 millimeter or more 
in length. 

Microscopic Examination of Gooseberry Preserves. — The epidermis, 
mesocarp and seed have the same structure as the corresponding 
parts of the currant, but the endocarp is not sclerenchymatized as 
in the latter fruit and is not evident in preserves. The floral parts 
are of about the same length as in the black currant (6 millimeters) 




Fig. 23. — Gooseberry. Floral parts. 
X 5. 



Fig. 24. — Gooseberry. Epi- 
dermis from margin of calyx, 
with hairs. X 160. 



A Januar r yf^ 1 9S.5 m •} The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 23 

but the calyx throat and the styles bear numerous long hairs, 
whereas these parts in the black currant are smooth, or only 
sparingly pubescent. 

the European gooseberry (Rides Grossularia L.). 

The European or prickly gooseberry, owing to the mildew to 
which it is subject, is not so successfully grown in America as the 
smooth-berried varieties derived from native species. Some of our 




Fig. 25. — Gooseberry. Epidermis Fig. 26. — European Gooseberry {R. 
from throat of calyx, with hair. X Grossularia). Prickles with and with- 
160. out globular head. X 32. 

popular varieties, however, have a few prickles on the fruit, and have 
doubtless European ancestors. 

Garcin 1 describes the microscopic structure of the pericarp of 
R. Uva-Crispci [R. Grossularia). Blyth 2 devotes but a single sen- 
tence to the gooseberry, evidently the common European species. 

A study was made by the writer of the berries of ''Carmen," a 
prickly variety grown in the Station garden ; and also of an unknown 
variety, unquestionably R. Grossularia, grown in Scotland. 



1 Recherches sur l'histogenese des pericarpes charnus. Ann. sc. nat, 
Botanique, ye series, 1890, 12, p. 175. 

2 Loc. cit., p. 162. 



24 The Anatomy of Edible Berries. {^A^SC' 

Except for the prickles, the structure of both is the same as of the 
fruit of R. oxyacanthoides. 

The Prickles have a broad base and are often over I millimeter 
long. Some have a blunt point, others a head of globular form. 
Both forms are shown in Fig. 26. 

The Epidermal Cells of the prickles are elongated, and are arranged 
end to end in longitudinal rows. At the base they pass into the 
isodiametric cells of the epicarp. 

THE CRANBERRY. 

Bailey writes of this fruit as follows : 1 

"The cranberry ( Vacciniitm macrocarpon Ait.), the most unique 
of American horticultural products, was first cultivated, or rescued 




Fig. 27. — Cultivated cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpum). I Berry seen 
from above, X 1. II Transverse section of berry, X 1. Ill Seed, X 8. IV 
Transverse section of seed, X 15. S, epidermis of testa ; S 7 , inner testa ; R, 
raphe ; B, endosperm ; Em, embryo. 

from mere wild bogs, about 1810. Its cultivation began to attract 
attention about 1840, although the difficulties connected with the 
growing of the new crop did not begin to clear away until about 
1850. Cape Cod was the first cranberry-growing region, which was 
soon followed by New Jersey, and later by Wisconsin and other 
regions. The varieties now known are over a hundred, all having 
been picked up in bogs, and the annual product from tame bogs in 
the United States is more than 800,000 bushels. . . . 

" This cultivated cranberry is Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. There 
are other edible species, but they are not cultivated. The cowberry, 
or mountain cranberry, Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea L., is gathered in 
great quantities in Canada, where it is used for sauces. It is also 
native to Europe, where it is also much prized as a culinary fruit." 



1 Loc cit., pp. 41 A t 424. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1905. 



The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 



25 



Macroscopic Structure. — Different varieties of the cultivated cran- 
berry vary in shape (spherical, oval, pear-shaped), in color (pink, 
red, maroon, mottled), and in size (diameter up to 15 millimeters). 

The epicarp is smooth, and bears on the summit four short tooth- 
like calyx lobes, which are usually bent inward. Between the calyx 
lobes is a circular spot with a dot in the centre, formed by the drop- 
ping of the floral parts. 




Fig. 28. — Cranberry. Epicarp 
and hypoderm. X 160. 




Fig. 29. — Cranberry. Endocarp with 



The berry is four-celled, each cell containing on a central placenta 
a number of seeds which fill only a small part of the otherwise 
empty cavity {Fig. 2J). 

In the nearly ripe fruit only the epicarp is colored, the other parts 
being white ; but in the fully ripe fruit all the tissues are usually red. 

The yellow short-beaked seeds have a thick testa and a bulky 
endosperm, with an elongated embryo of moderate size, consisting 
chiefly of the radicle, in the axis. 

The mountain cranberry has practically the same macroscopic 
structure as the cultivated species, but is much smaller. 

Histology. — The following description applies to both the culti- 



26 



The Anatomy of Edible Berries. { A j;Sy, P wo5. m ' 



vated and the mountain cranberry, the two being nearly, if not quite, 
identical in microscopic structure. 




Fig. 30. — Cultivated Cranberry. Seed in transverse section, ep, epidermis 
of testa with sclerenchymatized and mucilaginous layers ; m, inner testa ; B, 
endosperm. X 160. 





Fig. 31. — Cultivated Cranberry. Epidermis of testa in surface view. X 160. 

Pericarp. — (1) The Epicarp {Fig. 28) is very simple in structure, 
with cells as seen in surface view from 0-02 to 0-05 millimeter in 



A januar r yX m '} The Anatomy of Edible Berries, 27 

diameter, and cell walls about 0-003 millimeter thick. Cross-sec- 
tions show that this layer is about O O25 millimeter thick and that 
the cuticle is strongly thickened. 

(2) The Hypoderm {Fig. 28) is for the most part only one cell- 
layer thick, and the cells are more or less isodiametric in cross-section. 
Evaporation is largely prevented by the thick cuticle, rendering a 
more strongly developed hypoderm unnecessary. 

(3) The Mesocarp cells are mostly isodiametric, and range up to 
0-20 millimeter in diameter, but in the partitions of the fruit cavities 
they are somewhat smaller. 

(4) The Endocarp {Fig. 20) is from 0-02 to 0-05 millimeter thick 
and is made up of a single layer of cells. As is seen in surface 
preparations, the cells are for the most part longitudinally extended 
and are more or less curved or wavy in outline. The indistinctly 
porous cell walls are somewhat thicker than those of the mesocarp, 
but unlike those in some Vaccinium species are not conspicuously 




Fig. 32. — Mountain Cranberry ( Vaccinium Vitis-Idaed). Transverse section 
of testa. X 160. 

sclerenchymatized. Although stomata are entirely lacking in the 
epicarp, it is a remarkable fact that they occur in considerable num- 
bers in the endocarp. 

Testa. — (1) Epidermis (Fig. 30, ep, Fig. jr). — Of all the tissues 
of the cranberry, this layer is the most characteristic and remark- 
able. The cells in the mature seed range in width up to O-i milli- 
meter and in length up to 0-4 millimeter, but in abortive seeds are 
much smaller. As is seen in cross section, the outer walls (Fig. 
30, ep) are thin and convex, but the deep yellow or brown inner 
and radial walls are sclerenchymatously thickened (double radial 
walls often 02 millimeter thick), and in addition the radial walls 
and sometimes the outer and inner walls have a transparent muci- 
laginous layer of distinctly stratified structure which nearly fills the 
cell cavity. Treated with zinc-chloride-iodine the mucilaginous 
formation is stained blue, the cell walls proper remaining yellow. 
In V. Vitis-Idaea the outer and inner walls often have a swollen 



28 



The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 



f Am. Jour. Fharaa. 
\ January, 1905. 



layer, but this may also occur in V. macrocarpon and may not be 
characteristic of the former species {Fig. J2). The sclerenchymatous 
radial and inner walls are pierced with numerous pores which, in 
the immature or abortive seeds, are nearly circular, but in the fully 
ripe seeds are usually much elongated. 

(2) Inner Testa. — -The remainder of the testa consists of two or 
three layers of large thick-walled porous cells, the innermost layers 
being more or less collapsed. In dried or cooked specimens, all of 
these cells are collapsed {Fig. jo, m). 




Fig. 33. — H uckleberry 
{Gaylussacia resinosa). I 
Fruit seen from above, X 1. 
II Transverse section of fruit, 
X 1. Ill Stone, X 8. IV 
Transverse section of stone, X 
8. End, endocarp ; S, testa; 
B, endosperm ; em, embryo. 




mes 



(I X/ 

Fig. 34. — Huckleberry. Transverse section 
of outer portion of the pericarp, epi, epicarp; 
hy, hypoderm; mes, mesocarp; st, stone cells. 
X 160. 



Endosperm {Fig. jo, E). — The average diameter of the cells is 
0*035 millimeter. Protein grains are present throughout; starch 
is entirely absent. 

The Embryo is not interesting in its microscopic structure. 

Microscopic Examination of Cranberry Preserves. — Fragments of 
the epicarp and endocarp (the latter with stomata), bundles from the 
mesocarp, and seeds, may be found in preserves. The large porous 
epidermal cells of the testa with sclerenchymatous and mucilaginous 
layers are especially characteristic and may be studied in surface 
preparations. In unripe or abortive seeds these cells are smaller, 
thinner-walled, and have pores more nearly round than in the mature 



A ^ua?y P i h 9o.5 m '} The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 29 

'seeds. Isolated stone cells detached by cooking from the testa of 
immature seeds, sometimes occur in the gelatinous portion of the 
preserve. 

the huckleberry (Gaylussacia resinosa Torr. and Gray). 

This berry is abundant in the northern United States, and furnishes 
large quantities of fruit for the market. So far as the writer can 
learn, it is not cultivated; but some of the blueberries (Vaccinium), 
which are closely allied botanically and are similar in appearance 
and flavor, are now being improved by Munson 1 at the Maine Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. 

Macroscopic Structure.— -The huckleberry is globular in form, 
blue-black in color, and 1 centimeter or less in diameter {Fig. 33, 
I and II). 

It is not a true berry, but a ten-celled drupe, the hard coverings 
of the so-called seeds being the inner walls of the pericarp cells. 

The epicarp is smooth and the fruit is crowned with five pointed 
calyx lobes much like those of the cranberry. In the centre, between 
these lobes, is a small depression, the scar of the style. 

The pits are closely crowded about the axis and as a consequence 
are wedge-shaped {Fig, jj, III and IV). Under the hand lens they 
have a rough granular appearance. 

Within the thick endocarp is the seed with a thin testa and a bulky 
endosperm ; in the axis of the endosperm is an elongated embryo. 

Histology. — Pericarp. — (1) Epidermis {Fig. 33, epi). — Surface 
mounts show the cells of this layer to be much the same in form 
and size as those of the cranberry epicarp ; cross-sections, however, 
show that the cuticle is much thinner. 

(2) The Hypodermal Coat (Fig. 34., hy) is several cell-layers 
thick, and thus furnishes a protection against evaporation, which is 
not necessary in the case of the cranberry owing to its thick cuticle. 

(3) Mesocarp (Fig. 34., mes). — Owing to the presence of numerous 
stone cells (st) this layer is strikingly different from the mesocarp 
of the other small fruits investigated, but resembles that of the 
quince and pear, although the stone cells are thinner walled and the 
parenchyma cells about them are not strongly elongated, and are 



1 Maine Ag. Bx. Sta. Rep. 1898, 164-172. Bui. 76, August, 1901. Am. Gard. 
20, 1899, 852. 



30 



The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1905. 



not arranged in a marked radiating pattern. These stone cells are* 
angular or elliptical and vary in diameter up to 0-2 millimeter. The 
walls (0 02 millimeter or less thick) are pierced with numerous 
small pores. They occur either singly or in groups throughout the 
mesocarp, and may be readily separated from the soft tissues by 
pressure. 

(4) Endocarp {Fig, 35, end).— Most of the elements of this hard 
coat are stone cells, about the same size and shape as those of the 




Fig. 35. — Huckleberry. Transverse section of endocarp and seed, end, 
endocarp with large isodiametric stone cells and If, narrow longitudinally 
extended fibers; S, testa; N, hyaline layer (nucellus); E, endosperm. X 160. 

mesocarp (although usually thicker-walled), but in the wall adjoin- 
ing the mesocarp there is a group of narrow sclerenchymatous fibers 
running parallel with the axis of the fruit and similar fibers form 
the inner layer of the coat. 

The pits of the huckleberry crush more readily between the teeth 
than those of the bramble fruits, owing to the larger size of the 
stone cells and the relatively larger cell cavities. 

Testa [Fig. 35, S). — There is but one layer of cells in this coat, 
which may be removed after cutting off the endocarp and studied 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
J anuary , 1905. 



The Anatomy of Edible Berries. 



31 



in surface view {Fig. j6). Most of the cells are of fantastic form 
with wavy outline, and often reach a length of 0-2 millimeter. The 
walls are beautifully reticulated, the nearly circular pores being 
0-004 millimeter in diameter. This coat is highly characteristic. 
The raphe is not conspicuous. 

The Endosperm {Fig. jjf, E) and Embryo are much the same in 
structure and form as in the cranberry. 




Fig. 36. — Huckleberry testa in surface view. X 300. 

Microscopic Examination of Huckleberry Preserves. — The charac- 
teristic elements of the huckleberry which may be found in preserves 
are the large stone cells of the mesocarp and endocarp, and the 
reticulated cells of the testa. Stone cells of the mesocarp are dis- 
tributed throughout the preserve, but those of the endocarp should 
be examined in transverse section. The testa is best seen in surface 
preparations. 



32 



Editorial. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1905. 



EDITORIAL. 

THE PROCTER MONUMENT. 

The Pharmaceutical meeting held at the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy on Tuesday evening, December 1 3th, might be fittingly 
styled a Procter Memorial Meeting ; the occasion furnishing a 
beautiful tribute to the memory of Professor William Procter, Jr. 
It must have been exceedingly gratifying to those of his family who 
were present, to hear not only the encomiums of his work as a 
teacher, scientist, author and editor, but also to hear the words of 
deep affection of those who had a personal acquaintance with him. 
The presence of Dr. Hancock from Baltimore, the birth-place of 
William Procter, in the hall of the institution where he achieved his 
renown, was significant as showing the general esteem in which his 
memory is held, and as further indicating that the movement to 
honor him is destined to succeed. 

It is not too much to say that Professor Procter did more in his 
various capacities to place American pharmacy on a professional 
basis than any other man. As a professor he recognized the obli- 
gations of the teacher, not only imparting instruction in the special 
branch which he taught, but also training his students in the con- 
sideration of the higher ethical problems of the profession. As an 
editor he showed how keenly he appreciated the responsibilities in 
the conduct of a journal. As a member of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association he showed to the fullest extent what member- 
ship in an association of this kind involves. 

American pharmacy to-day is greatly in need of high ideals and 
there is a necessity of keeping before our minds the worthy ex- 
amples of our calling ; the more we can symbolize and memorialize 
the qualities of those who raised this calling to the rank of a pro- 
fession the better it will be for the future of this pro ession. The 
tendencies in pharmacy at the present time are entirely too 
utilitarian, and we can never hope to raise pharmacy to a higher 
plane until we have changed the mental attitude of pharmacists 
themselves. By putting aside the utilities for a season let us hope 
that we will be able to carry on a work to completion which will not 
only be an honor to one of the most distinguished men in American 
pharmacy, but will also have an educational value in showing to the 
world that there is a profession of pharmacy, and in showing to 
pharmacists that they have a profession to maintain. 



A ?anu O ary, P 190r-} Editorial. 33 

The movement to honor the memory of Professor Procter in a 
tangible way may be said to have begun at the Put-in-Bay meeting 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, when after the report 
of the Committee on Semi-Centennial Celebration, Albert E. Ebert 
said (See Proc. A.Ph.A., 1899, p. 114): — 

If that committee is to be continued I would like to draw their attention to 
one feature. There is one man who belonged to this association — he was one 
of the founders of the association^-who is seemingly forgotten. He is the 
father of pharmacy of this country, and that is William Procter. It seems to 
me, without saying anything against the other men who have lived and worked 
for the advancement of pharmacy and this association, that it is possible or 
this association at the time of our fiftieth anniversary to do something to com- 
memorate his valuable work; it would be a grand thing for the association. 
There has been no man associated with this organization who has done so much, 
who has been such a faithful servant of this association in times gone by, who 
cared for it to that extent that William Procter did; and I hope in some way, 
when we meet in Philadelphia in 1902, that his memory, above all others, will 
be brought out in a way to hand it down to the twentieth century, because we 
are somewhat forgetting the grand work William Procter has done for American 
pharmacy. 

At this same meeting Mr. Ebert told the editor of this Journal 
that some years before he had spoken to the late Professor Trimble 
about this matter and he seemed to feel that we should take the 
initiative in an effort to revive the memory of Professor Procter, 
whereupon the editor of this Journal, who was also secretary of the 
Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, invited Professor Remington to prepare a memorial 
sketch of Professor Procter for presentation at one of these meet- 
ings, but as the time was approaching for the annual meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association it was thought better to pre- 
sent it there. This address was subsequently published in the 
Proceedings of the A. Ph. A. (1900, p. 22) and in this Journal 
(June 1, 1900), where we also published a portrait of Professor Proc. 
ter, as he was better known perhaps to those who still recollect him, 
and which was taken from the oil painting in the museum of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

In the same year (October, 1900) we published letters containing 
some recollections and reminiscences of Prof. Procter from Frederick 
Hoffmann, James T. Shinn and George W. Sloan. In an editorial 
published in the November number were considered some of the 
forms of memorials which would be most suitable as a testimonial 
to Professor Procter. During the next year (February, March and 



34 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1905. 



April) this matter was further discussed by various members of the 
Association in a series of letters. The following are the names of 
those who contributed to this discussion : — 



Frederick Hoffmann, 

W. L. Scoville, 

J. U. Lloyd, 

J. M. Good, 

Albert B. Prescott, 

S. W. Fairchild, 

Horatio N. Fraser, 

W. M. Searby, 

S. A. D. Sheppard, 

J. H. Beal. 

George W. Sloan, 

H. V. Amy, 

J. F. Patton, 

A. R. Iy. Dohme, 

Frederick J. Wulling, 



Joseph Helfman, 

G. H. C. Klie, 
A. B. Lyons, 
Edward Kremers, 
F. B. Power, 

J. E. Morrison, 

H. M. Whelpley, 

E. L. Patch, 
William C. Alpers, 
R. G. Eccles, 

F. G. Ryan, 
L. E. Sayre, 
H. P. Hynson, 
H. M. Whitney. 



It looked at one time as though there was a possibility of starting 
a movement favoring the establishment ot a research laboratory in 
honor of Professor Procter and various members of the Association 
were invited to express their opinion of the matter (Am. Jour. Ph., 
May, June, July and August, 1901). Replies were received frorrl the 
following : 



A. B. Prescott, 

J. N. Hurty, 

Leo Eliel, 

W. S. Thompson, 

Edsel A. Ruddiman, 

E. L. Patch, 

H. V. Amy, 

J. O. Schlotterbeck, 

Frederick J. Wulling, 

A. R. L. Dohme, 

W. M. Searby, 

L. E. Sayre, 

Merck & Co., 



E. Fougera, 
R. G. Eccles, 

The Wm. S. Merrell Chemical 

Company, 
Lehn & Fink, 
Johnson & Johnson. 
Frederick Stearns, 
Horatio N. Fraser, 
John F. Patton, 
Charles Caspari, Jr., 
Joseph P. Remington, 
C. Lewis Diehl, 
John Uri Lloyd. 



In his address before the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in 1 90 1, President John F. Patton referred to the proposed Procter 
memorial, whereupon a resolution was adopted favoring the 
appointment of a Procter Memorial Committee, which committee 
was subsequently appointed by President Whelpley and made a 
report at the semi-centennial meeting in Philadelphia in 1902 (this 



A Januar ^ yf^905 rIU •} Tributes to Professor Procter. 35 

Journal, 1902, p. 488). At this same meeting a memorial sketch 
was read by Albert E. Ebert at the special jubilee session (this 
Journal, 1902, p. 461). The Committee of the A. Ph. A. made a 
report at the Mackinac meeting in 1903. At this same meeting John 
F. Hancock presented a paper advocating the establishment of a 
monument as a memorial to Professor Procter. A similar paper 
appeared in this Journal in July, 1903. The matter was again 
brought to the attention of the Association last year by Mr. 
Hancock, and the Association has taken official action in the matter 
and appointed a Procter Monument Committee. 

Meantime the question of a Procter Memorial has been consid- 
ered by several of the State Pharmaceutical Associations and a 
number of them have evinced a cordial interest in the matter, and 
at the present time at least two of them, viz., the Maryland and New 
Jersey Associations, have committees for considering the matter and 
stand ready to co-operate with any national movement. 

It is thus seen that the idea of a Procter monument has been in 
process of evolution for a number of years and with the form of 
memorial fixed it is sincerely hoped that all of those who have the 
best interests of American pharmacy at heart will join heartily in a 
work which will reflect everlasting credit upon the pharmaceutical 
profession in America. 

TRIBUTES TO THE MEMORY OF PROFESSOR PROCTER. 

At the Pharmaceutical meeting on Tuesday evening, December 
13th, the following tributes were paid to the memory of Professor 
Procter : 

PRESIDENT HOWARD B. FRENCH 

in introducing Dr. Hancock, said : 

Professor William Procter, Jr., one of the most esteemed mem- 
bers of the faculty of our College and one of the most influential 
characters in American pharmacy, was born on May 3, 18 17, in the 
city of Baltimore. He came to Philadelphia in 1 831 and entered 
the drug business as an apprentice, and was graduated from our 
College in 1837. 

On September 21, 1846, the chair of pharmacy was established 
in this College, and Professor Procter was made the first incumbent, 
holding the chair until March 16, 1866, when he resigned. 

Professor Procter was also editor of The American Journal of 



36 



Tributes to Professor Procter. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1905. 



Pharmacy from July, 1850, until April, 1871. He was one of the 
founders of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Indeed it 
would seem that his work in this Association was co-ordinate with 
his work in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. It is perhaps 
not too much to say that up until a few years ago the American 
Pharmaceutical Association was looked upon, in a measure at least, 
as being the child of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

In 1899 Mr. Ebert, of Chicago, suggested that something be done 
to revive the memory of Professor Procter. The matter has been 
considered by the American Pharmaceutical Association, by some 
of the State Pharmaceutical Associations, and has been considered 
at length in the columns of The American Journal of Pharmacy. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association has now appointed a 
committee to devise ways and means for erecting a monument to 
the memory of Professor Procter, and Dr. John F. Hancock, one of 
the best known manufacturing pharmacists of Baltimore, is chair- 
man of this committee. Dr. Hancock was a personal friend of 
Professor Procter, and will address us this evening on " William 
Proctor, Jr., the Father of American Pharmacy." 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, 

at the conclusion of Dr. Hancock's address (see page 13), 
said : 

I am pleased to welcome Mr. Hancock and thank him for his 
eloquent tribute to the memory of William Procter, whose assistant 
I was, and whom I knew most intimately for eleven years, and for 
two years was in almost daily contact with him. 

Mr. Hancock has dwelt upon his professional career ; this was all 
and more than he described, but great as he was as a pharmacist, 
he was even greater as a man. It is well that he should be called 
" the Father of American Pharmacy." He labored at a time when 
this College was small and pharmacy in this country was in its 
infancy. He was the first professor of pharmacy in this College, 
and probably the first in America. In those days, before the chair 
of pharmacy was founded, chemistry and materia medica were the 
only branches taught at college, and pharmacy was taught in the 
store. Under Professor Procter's initiative the " rule of thumb " 
method of teaching was followed by systematic and graded instruc- 
tion. The syllabus on pharmaceutical subjects, originally proposed 



A janSar r yfi b 4 rm '} Tributes to Professor Procter. 37 

by Soubeiran and modified by Professor Procter, is the basis to-day 
of the best classification that we have. 

It is meet and proper that Mr. Hancock should come to us from 
our sister city in this brotherly and kindly way and tell us of the 
movement which he has started to honor the memory of this great 
man. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy will do its full duty. 
I might mention the fact as showing his powers of concentration 
that Professor Procter performed his literary duties coincidently 
with his practical store duties. Those matchless editorials and lucid 
papers whose meaning could be grasped alike by student and 
scholar, were often prepared at his little desk near the prescription 
counter, from whence at any moment he might be called upon to 
wait upon a customer. But there is his monument — in his daily 
life ; the original work, the hundreds of papers to be found in the 
American Journal of Pharmacy and the Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, covering every class of pharma- 
ceutical subjects. 

He was a genius, if by this is meant the capacity for great labor. 
I assure you, Mr. President, of my hearty co-operation in the work. 

dr. adolph w. miller 

said: I left the distant city of St. Paul, Minn., in i860 for the 
single purpose of attending the lectures in the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy. It so happened that the very first lecture that I 
listened to in the old College Building on Filbert Street was delivered 
by Prof. Wlliam Procter. As has been stated by the previous 
speakers, his delivery was not by any means fluent or brilliant, but 
he impressed me very forcibly with the profundity of his learning, with 
the marvelous amount 01 care and study that he must have given to 
the subject under his consideration at that time. I immediately rec- 
ognized in him the foremost representative of the art and science of 
pharmacy, as he had previously been represented to me by my former 
preceptors, so that the first slight disappointment on account of the 
manner of his delivery was at once effaced. 

In subsequent years I frequently had occasion to calf on Professor 
Procter for advice and counsel in scientific matters pertaining to 
pharmacy, and I invariably was met by him in the most cordial and 
genial manner. The rich stores of knowledge which he possessed 
were always at the service of whosoever asked for them, and it 



38 



Tributes to Professor Procter. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1905. 



really seemed to give delight to Professor Procter to be of assistance 
to any one in pursuit of investigations in his domain of study. 

I am indeed very glad that Dr. Hancock has taken in hand the 
erection of a bronze statue to our departed friend, and I most sin- 
cerely hope that his project will soon be realized. It occurs to me 
that no more fitting locality for the placing of this lasting monument 
could possibly be selected than the vicinity of the Smithsonian 
Institute in our National Capital, where Professor Procter will stand 
in close proximity to that other esteemed teacher of mine, the father 
of American Surgery, the late Prof. Samuel B. Gross, which statue 
was placed there by the physicians and surgeons of the United 
States. By placing Professor Procter's statue in his company, we 
will in a manner emphasize the equal claims with pharmacy and 
surgery in the esteem of future generations of visitors to the National 
Capital. 

GEORGE M. BERINGER 

said : " It was not my privilege to know Prof. William Procter, Jr., 
as he had passed away before my entrance into the drug business, 
but I am acquainted with his more than five hundred contributions 
to the pages ot the American Journal of Pharmacy. I fully ap- 
preciate the useful and practical nature of many of these contribu- 
tions and the high ideal of pharmacy which were therein promul- 
gated. 

" It appears to me that at least three States have a peculiar 
interest in perpetuating the memory of Prof. William Procter, Jr. — 
Maryland, as his birthplace and the State wherein he spent the days 
of his childhood ; Pennsylvania, where he achieved his success and 
performed his monumental labors in behalf of pharmacy ; and New 
Jersey, wherein he spent a short portion of his declining days, and 
which State has furnished a final resting-place for his body. 

" The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, recognizing the 
propriety of perpetuating his memory, several years ago appointed 
a committee on Procter Memorial. This committee has been con- 
tinued, awaiting the crystallization of the various plans suggested 
into a national movement that might be considered definite and 
feasible. 

" I have no doubt that the movement now inaugurated by the 
appointment of a committee of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 



Am. Jour. Pnarrn. \ 
January, 1905. J 



Tributes to Professor Procter. 



39 



ciation, looking toward the establishment of a monument on the 
grounds of the Smithsonian Institute, at Washington, will receive 
the co-operation and support of the New Jersey Association." 

M. I. WILBERT 

spoke as follows : (< While I am heartily in favor of the proposed 
statue, I am not so sanguine of the feasibility of securing the neces- 
sary funds at the present time. But whether this is actually accom- 
plished or not, I feel that pharmacists in general, and the members 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in particular, owe a debt of 
gratitude to Mr. Hancock for reviving the memory of William Proc- 
ter, his ideals, precepts and teachings at a time when all the prevail- 
ing tendencies appear to be drifting along commercial lines. 

" In this connection I would like to call particular attention to 
' An Address to the Pharmacists of the United States,' written by 
William Procter fifty years ago and published in the volume of the 
* Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association ' for that 
year (1854.) Other volumes of the proceedings of this same asso- 
ciation, notably those for 1852, 1853 and 1858, also contain contri- 
butions along these same lines. 

" I wish especially to call attention to what I consider the most 
important, and in many respects the most appealing, expression by 
William Procter on the question of professional pharmacy. This is 
contained in the valedictory address to the class of 1866, when 
William Procter resigned from the chair of the practice of pharmacy 
in this college. This valedictory was intended as a farewell not 
alone to the class of that year, but also to the members of the 
college and others on his retiring from active life as a teacher, and 
contains a number of thoughts that are particularly appropriate to 
present conditions. While Professor Procter did resume the chair 
of the practice of pharmacy on'the death of Professor Parrish, he did 
not live to again address a graduating class at an annual commence- 
ment." 

Mr. Wilbert then read the following extract from this address : 
" The custody, preservation and preparation of the various me- 
dicinal agents demand intelligence and skill, and they in whom the 
trust is reposed should have received a careful educational training 
and be animated by higher motives than those which usually rule in 
trade and commerce. 



40 



Tributes to Professor Procter. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm 
' January 1905 



"Pharmaceutical education, animated by correct moral principles, 
is the only lasting basis for the reform, yet so sadly needed in the 
practice of pharmacy. The great tendency of our times is to 
acquire wealth quickly without labor, or with labor but for a brief 
period. Any course that opposes this is distasteful. Under the 
influence of this, even in pharmacy, there is a growing disposition 
to avoid making costly and troublesome preparations by referring 
them to the chemist or manufacturing pharmaceutist. Many stores 
are annually becoming more and more mere dispensaries. The 
laboratory is fast disappearing as an indispensable appendage to the 
dispensary, while the mercantile department is proportionately 
developing and extending. In a word, the apothecary is becoming 
a merchant, and the value of a clerk is rated by some, less by his 
scientific skill than by his ability as a salesman. 

" In Germany the pharmaceutist is responsible for the quality of 
the preparations he dispenses. He is bound either to make them 
himself or by testing them to be assured of their good quality. Let 
us hope that this rule may some day obtain here and sift out the 
pretenders who, to so large an extent, enjoy the confidence and 
patronage of the public. Let us remember that each one of us has 
a mission in this world, and, having adopted pharmacy, let us do 
our best with it, infusing the true and right into its rules and pro- 
cesses, and leave it better than we found it to those that succeed us." 

JAMES T. SHINN, 

having been called upon for some remarks, said : " I remember Pro- 
fessor Procter when he lectured in the college building on Zane 
Street over the casks of sugar stored in the cellar. Though not a bril- 
liant speaker, he was clear and forceful in style. The quiz was held be- 
fore each lecture, and I remember when I only knew four out of five 
answers to his questions. I did not say anything, though he would 
have kindly helped me out with the last one. Years after he and I 
canvassed the lower part of the city for contributions to the College 
Building Fund, and his manner was kind and genial as well as 
persuasive. He was active in the pharmaceutical meetings, often 
reading papers of practical interest. 

" His memorial has already been erected in the work he has done 
for our College, the American Journal of Pharmacy and hosts of 
young men who were privileged to study under him. A monument 



A Ta£a^v P i905 rm 'l Tributes to Professor Procter. 41 

ot bronze as proposed by Mr. Hancock might perpetuate his memory 
to future generations, and though his retiring spirit would object to 
such a public display, and my Quaker training would lead me to 
disapprove of it, I fear I would be inconsistent enough to subscribe 
towards its erection." 

EVAN T. ELLIS 

spoke as follows : " I .cannot recall the exact time of my first ac- 
quaintance with Professor Procter, being in doubt as to whether it 
was when he was an apprentice with the dear old-time apothecary, 
Henry M. ZollickofTer, in the '40's, or soon after he located in his 
own store at Ninth and Lombard Streets. I rather believe it was 
the latter (1844). As our own store, through my dear father, was 
the publication office of the Journal, or rather the business office 
of the Journal for nearly half a century, it was my fortune to see 
much of Professor Procter. With his great attainments in the 
pharmaceutical world, there was one thing that greatly impressed 
myself and all who were brought in relations with him — his great 
modesty and retiring nature. When in after years his name had 
been known and honored not only throughout our own country, but 
abroad, William Procter, Jr., was the same. 

" ' Not the applause of listening Senates to command ' 

could ever have made William Procter, Jr., different from what he 
was." 

EDWIN M. BORING* 

spoke as follows : " To have Dr. Hancock, who is one of the most 
popular members of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
come here to present the claims for recognition of Professor Procter's 
services to pharmacy, seems like carrying coal to New Castle, but 
we must admit that he has done this work well." 

It was my privilege to sit under Professor Procter's lectures in the 
winters of '65 and '66; also to meet him at our pharmaceutical 
meetings up to the time of his death. His learning, moral worth, 
sincerity of purpose and great modesty commanded the admiration 
and respect of all who knew him. 

JOHN F. HANCOCK 

said : I desire to explain that my address was made as brief as 
possible that others might have time to discuss the subject. 



42 Tributes to Professor Procter. { A ^£^5*5™ 

I had read the views expressed in the journals, recommending 
various means of honoring the memory of the late Professor Procter. 

I was present at the dedication of the bronze monument in com- 
memoration of the American surgeon, the late Professor Samuel D. 
Gross, of your city, in the Smithsonian grounds at Washington, 
D. C, and it then occurred to me, that of all the views expressed in 
favor of memorializing the life work of the American pharmacist, 
the late Prof. William Procter, Jr., the ''monument" would be the 
most appropriate. 

This thought so impressed me at the time that I have become 
zealous and feel a willingness to work for its consummation. 

The research laboratory idea that has been popular with some 
pharmacists, is to me inadequate. 

In the beginning it might be highly creditable, but like some 
changeable creation of man it may become in the course of time in- 
consistent with so distinguished a character. 

The proposed medals would be too ephemeral and quite insignifi- 
cant. Being small and easily lost they would soon elude public 
notice, but the " monument " given over to the custody of the 
United States Government, in commemoration of him, would be 
looked after, cared for, and remain a chapter of our Nation's history 
while our civilization endures. 



WILLIAM MCINTVRE 

paid the following tribute'to the memory of Proessor Procter: 

The former speakers have in elegant and forcible language told us 
what a very practical and scientific man William Procter was. Xow 
as a student of his I can bear testimony to his intense interest in us. 
An incident or two will develop what I mean. At my final ex- 
amination he exhibited a beautiful porcelain-like specimen of Ar- 
senious Acid and inquired, what is it ? I failed to recognize it. A 
bottle of alcohol was then shown and recognized. After several 
questions on the subject he said to me — " Be as careful in its use as 
you would of the Arsenious Acid." 

Meeting him a few years later he said : Why you seem to be making 
the mistake of so many young apothecaries. Continuous attention 
to the store had impaired my health. He suggested I cultivate the 
habit of taking a vacation, and recommended the meetings of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association as being just the right thing. 
I have reason to be thankful for his good advice. 



A ^a^uaryS ra '} Tributes to Professor Procter. 43 

Feeling that I will express the sentiment of all the ladies and 
gentlemen present, I now offer a motion — that the thanks of the 
meeting be given to Dr. John F. Hancock for his address relative 
to a monument to William Procter. 

HENRY A. BORELL 

sent the following letter : 

I met Prof. William Procter, Jr., a few times in my early appren- 
ticeship ; it was on matters of business. I was sent to him, I think, 
in reference to Pepsin. I was most favorably impressed with his 
quiet and easy manner, and often afterwards regretted that he no 
longer was of the teaching faculty of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. 

THOMAS S. WIEGAND, 

when asked to give some of his personal recollections of Professor 
Procter, said : 

I regret my health does not permit me to be out after nightfall, or 
I should have been most glad to have attended the meeting held last 
evening and voiced my remembrances of my friend, Prof. William 
Procter, Jr. My acquaintance with him began about the year 1844 
or 1845, and from that time up to the time of his decease our rela- 
tions were of the most cordial character. 

The most prominent trait, and one which made all his friends con- 
fide in him so fully, was his perfect frankness and sincerity — always 
expressing his full opinion and conviction upon any subject he dis- 
cussed. This always made any one who consulted him on any sub- 
ject feel sure of good, wholesome, sound advice. To estimate his 
position in pharmacy, one must consider the changes that have 
taken place in the business of pharmacy from his active participa- 
tion in it and its present status. 

When Professor Procter entered into business the apothecary was 
pre-eminently a practical man, a worker in the art, a real maker of 
the materials he supplied to his customers and used in the com- 
pounding of prescriptions and the preparations he dispensed ; hence 
he became fitted by his work and his careful habit of observation to 
give that information which all who knew him so much appreci- 
ated, and this fitted him for that place which so many of his con- 
freres have been pleased to bestow on him — the Father of American 
Pharmacy. 



44 



Tributes to Professor Procter, 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. January, L905. 



The pages of The American Journal of Pharmacy will show 
to those who did not have the great privilege of his personal ac- 
quaintance, that by a rough and hasty count of papers in the Index 
there are over 500 different papers furnished by him, and this it 
must be remembered was accomplished while the responsibilities of 
a large retail business were on his shoulders and the lectureship in 
the College also demanded his personal attention. Papers also con- 
tributed to the proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation must not be overlooked, and the syllabus of the course of study 
for pharmaceutical classes, which will* ever be a lasting memorial 
of his clear-sighted view of pharmacy in its relation to the educa- 
tion of those who chose pharmacy for their calling. It has been a 
frequent source of regret that the writer did not enjoy the great 
advantages of the courses of lectures given by Professor Procter 
at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

The present generation of pharmacists have, however, the 
advantages of being the elcves of those who were instructed by 
Professor Procter, and as these pupils of Professor Procter are and 
have been in many instances scattered over our country and teach- 
ers in many of the colleges of pharmacy it is easily to be seen how 
very greatly the influence of the Professor's teaching has extended 
throughout our land. 

This short review of his influence, it seems to me, makes it most 
eminently proper that a fitting memorial to his worth and ability 
should be erected in some place where the national character of his 
influence on pharmacy would call the attention of all who visit our 
country and especially our capital for all time to come. 

HENRY CRAMER, 

of Germantown, wrote as follows: "I acknowledge receipt of yours 
of December 9, 1904. Advanced years and continued impaired 
health forbid my attendance at the Pharmaceutical meeting during 
evening of December 13th. Regretting inability to be present, I 
hereby earnestly support the intention to create a monument in 
memory of Professor Procter, the ' Father of American Pharmacy,' 
as he is deservingly styled in your call for the meeting. 

" Not long after my arrival in Philadelphia — July, 1849 — I became 
acquainted with him. He met me with his well-known kindliness 
— continual to his last days — I bear him grateful remembrance." 



A jwS!£y^ m '} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 45 

PHARMACEUTICAL MEETINGS. 

(NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER.) 

The stated Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, November 15th, with 
Howard B. French, President of the College, in the chair. 

The first speaker introduced was M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., who pre- 
sented a communication on " Progress in Pharmacy," this being a 
quarterly review of the advances in pharmacy and materia medica. 
(See this Journal, December, 1904.) 

In the discussion following the paper, Mr. Wilbert said that there 
were some twenty odd names for epinephrin — all trade-marked and 
each the property of the house applying it. He said that likewise 
there were almost as many proprietary names for hexamethylene 
tetramine as cystogen, formin, etc., and although this salt under the 
true chemical name is cheaper in price than the proprietary articles, 
these must be dispensed if prescribed. He therefore agreed with the 
proposition to refer this question to some scientific society, as the 
American Therapeutical Association, to see whether these products 
are identical in solubility, therapeutic action, etc., and to correlate 
the results and select one common name for them. 

Dr. C. B. Lowe was of the opinion that manufacturers would ob- 
ject to such a proceeding, each one claiming superiority for his 
product. 

George M. Beringer thought that in the case of pharmacopoeial 
articles it might be safer to say that the proprietary articles are said 
to be the same as those in the Pharmacopoeia. 

The therapeutic properties of epinephrin having been alluded to 
by Dr. Lowe, Wallace Procter said that he was inclined to believe 
that when this substance came to be more definitely known it would 
be treated in much the same way as pepsin is at present. He said 
that pepsin is now recognized by the Pharmacopoeia and that 
manufacturers vie with one another to come up to the official 
standard, and that while there are a good many commercial kinds 
an effort is made to make them correspond to the U.S. P. re- 
quirements. 

President French next called attention to the historical scientific 
exhibit to be held shortly in London by Henry S. Wellcome, and 
stated that Mr. Wellcome desired the loan of historical objects 



46 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January. 1905. 



illustrating the development of the art and science of healing 
throughout the ages, and that he would have the articles insured 
while in his possession and en route, if desired, and also pay for 
their transportation both ways. 

Dr. Lowe spoke of Mr. Wellcome's interest in scientific matters 
and referred to his explorations in South America to determine 
whether the Indians or the Spanish were the first to use Cinchona 
as a medicine. 

George M. Beringer, A.M., presented a paper entitled, " A Record 
of Several Toxicological Investigations, " and exhibited in connec- 
tion therewith the specimens that had been prepared for the trials 
referred to in his paper. The paper will be published in a later 
issue of this Journal. 

In prefacing his remarks, Mr. Beringer said, it must not be sup- 
posed that in toxicological examinations of the kind recorded the 
work can be entirely carried out according to the books, but that 
each case is a law unto itself. 

In commenting upon the fact that no inflammation of the walls 
of the stomach was noted in the arsenic poisoning case referred to 
by Mr. Beringer, Dr. John Marshall said that when arsenic is ad- 
ministered in the form of arsenite no inflammation o the membrane 
o the stomach takes place, as the poison is so quickly absorbed; 
but, on the other hand, there is no case on record of administration 
of the oxide in which inflammation does not take place. 

Dr. S. Solis Cohen, Professor of Clinical Medicine in Jefferson 
Medical College, gave an address on " The Proper Scope of Scientific 
(so-called Expert) Testimony in Trials involving Pharmacological 
Questions," an abstract of which follows (see also page i): 

Physicians and pharmacists called upon to testity in court should 
not permit themselves to be placed, even apparently, in the position 
of partisans. They should by trie directness, simplicity, complete- 
ness and frankness of their answers to both sides, show their sin- 
cerity and truthfulness. The scientific or expert advocate has a 
legitimate place in court, but it is by the side of counsel, not in the 
witness box. The two functions should not be united. 

The function of a scientific witness is to enlighten the judge and 
jury as to the significance of certain facts and relations beyond the 
ordinary knowledge, but of which he has made a special study. His 
testimony must be based in part upon fns reading, in part upon his 



A jannar r y fi905 rm '} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 47 

observation. To exclude as hearsay that which is based upon read- 
ing — even when it can be discriminated — might exclude testimony 
as to the homicidal and suicidal tendencies of maniacs if one had 
never actually seen a maniacal killing, as well as testimony as to the 
possibility of death from strychnin, if one had never actually seen a 
person die from such cause, or as to the presence of arsenic in a 
normal thyroid gland if one had not made a personal analysis. 

Expert witnesses concerning pharmacologic questions are called 
upon to give four different orders of testimony not usually discrimi- 
nated. They are all treated as matters of opinion, but in reality 
three relate to matters of fact. (1) Personal observations on the 
part of the witness as to the effect of drugs on the human or animal 
body are judgments of fact. They may be mistaken judgments, as 
may also be the judgment of a surveyor as to the location or dimen- 
sion of a certain plot of ground, but both judgments are of the same 
order ; they both depend on the interpretation of data observed by 
special methods. They differ from ordinary judgments of fact and 
from each other, not in kind, but in degree of complexity. (2) The 
methods ot chemical analysis and their results are obviously matters 
of fact. The conclusions based thereon are judgments of fact as in 
the case first cited. That arsenic has or has not been found in a 
given case is not a matter of opinion, but one of fact. It is to be 
criticised lrom that standpoint. If the methods pursued have been 
faulty, or if the results have been inconclusive, that can properly be 
shown, but also as matters of fact. (3) Matters of general scientific 
knowledge, e.g., as to the action of drugs, or the contamination of 
foods, drugs and manufactured articles of various kinds by poisons, 
or as to chemical and pharmaceutic incompatibilities, and so forth, 
are also matters of fact, whether within or without the personal 
observation of the witness. Concerning matters, however, which 
are not only outside the observation of the witness, but beyond the 
usual range of his studies, he can only have an opinion. He cannot 
know them as facts, and he should refuse to testify concerning 
them. (4) When the witness has made no personal observation, 
and is called upon to form judgment upon data which consist of the 
descriptions and judgments of others bearing upon a particular case, 
he cannot know the facts, and he cannot give testimony; he can 
only express an opinion. The fact that the opinion is expressed 
in court and under oath does not alter its character. It is purely 



4 8 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1905. 



subjective, and represents the state of mind of the witness and 
nothing else. As such it will have weight with judge and jury 
according to the estimate they make as to the fitness and capacity 
of the witness to form opinions upon facts of the order submitted. 
One great difficulty arises from the necessity to avoid technical 
terminology in matters that cannot be made entirely clear without 
it, but the slighting opinion often expressed or intimated as to 
the value or sincerity of medical and pharmaceutic expert testi- 
mony is but partly due to this or to the obscurity of the question 
concerning which they testify. It is in part to be attributed to the 
willingness of experts to combine the discordant functions of advo- 
cate and witness; in part to the fact that experts do not use suffi- 
cient care in framing their answers to avoid the appearance of 
giving a positive judgment when the facts are insufficient for posi- 
tiveness; in part to the fact that experts permit themselves to 
answer questions that can have no object but to confuse the minds 
of the jury; questions that are not relevant, questions that are 
simply captious criticism of unimportant details of the testimony of 
others, or questions that twist absence of knowledge into knowledge 
of absence. The expert should distort nothing, magnify nothing, 
minimize nothing; assert as positive nothing doubtful, throw doubt 
upon nothing certain; introduce nothing irrelevant, suppress noth- 
ing material. He should say nothing that he would be unwilling to 
defend before a learned society ; he should be as frank upon cross- 
examination as upon direct examination ; his efforts should be bent 
to elucidate truth, and not to score points for or against either side. 
The court should restrict examinations to matters having actual 
bearing upon the cause at trial, but the testimony of the expert 
should be given only with reference to scientific accuracy, and not 
with reference to its effect upon the verdict. 

Among those taking part in the discussion of the address were 
Dr. Lowe, President French, Mr. Wilbert, Dr. Marshall, and Mr. 
Beringer. 

Referring to the effects of the metallic poisons, Mr. French said 
that in an experience of sixty odd years the firm with which he is 
connected, namely Samuel H. French & Co., paint manufacturers, 
had never had a case o ~ lead poisoning, and this he attributed to the 
fact that the workers in dry lead are advised to use olive oil freely 
with their food. He said that his firm had recommended this pre- 
caution to lead manufacturers throughout the United States. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 
January, 1905. / 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



49 



In considering the question of expert testimony, Mr. Wilbert said 
that he had found that one way of keeping out of court was to in- 
sist on telling the truth. 

Dr. Marshall said that Dr. Cohen had made a very clear statement 
of affairs here, but fortunately it did not apply to countries abroad, as 
there the experts are selected by the state. He said that it was un or- 
tunate that in this country people sometimes testi y as experts who 
are not qualified to do so, and in this connection he related an 
instance of a man making a pathological examination who was not 
a toxicologist at all, and said that his testimony might be taken as 
equal to that of the most eminent toxicologist. On the other hand, 
he said that in this day it was impossible to know all the sciences, 
and in a toxicological examination a chemist might be sneered at 
because it was his first case, and yet be able to make a correct analysis. 

Mr. Beringer said that attorneys often interfere with experts by 
not allowing them to explain their answers, insisting instead that 
they answer simply categorically yes and no. 

Dr. Marshall referred to the danger of publishing as positive 
deductions the results of incomplete and unconfirmed investigation, 
and cited that several years ago a young student in one of the 
Universities had published a paper, in which he stated that it " was 
impossible to recover administered strychnine in the intestines, claim- 
ing that it was destroyed in the alimentary canal." This damaging 
and erroneous statement had been given wide circulation. The 
tault was that the student had not adopted a method that would 
isolate the alkaloid, and on subsequently repeating the work by 
another method suggested to him by Dr. Marshall he had success- 
fully separated the strychnine and had been compelled to publish a 
correction of his first paper. 

In this connection Mr. Beringer exhibited a specimen of alkaloid 
strychnine, recovered from a portion of the intestines in the Wood- 
ward case, recorded by Dr. Marshall in American Medicine, June 
i 8, 1904. 

On motion of William Mclntyre a special vote of thanks was 
tendered Dr. Cohen, for his able and interesting address. 

Florence Yaple, Secretary pro tern. 

It having been the desire of some of the members to hold a few 
of the Pharmaceutical Meetings in the evening, the third of the 



50 



Pharmaceutical Meeting . 



< Am. Jour. Phariaa. 
\ January, 1905. 



present series was held on Tuesday evening, December 13th. The 
president of the College, Howard B. French, presided. 

The principal speaker of the evening was Dr. John F. Hancock, 
of Baltimore, who gave an address on " William Procter, Jr., the 
Father of American Pharmacy." (See page 13.) Dr. Hancock 
was president of the American Pharmaceutical Association, at the 
Richmond meeting in 1873, and is one of its. most esteemed mem- 
bers. He was a personal friend of Professor Procter and has for 
some years past been actively identified with the movement to 
memorialize the life and work of Professor Procter. Largely through 
his efforts the Association, at its last meeting, in Kansas City, 
adopted a resolution favoring the erection of a monument in the 
Smithsonian grounds in Washington City in honor of Professor 
Procter. President James H. Beal, of the Association, has appointed 
the following committee to carry on the work, of which Dr. Han- 
cock is chairman : Benjamin T. Fairchild, New York City ; Frank 
C. Henry, Washington, D. C. ; C. S. N. Hallberg, Chicago; Henry 
Kraemer, Philadelphia. 

Dr. Hancock's address was enthusiastically indorsed by the mem- 
bers present, and among those who spoke (see page 35) were 
President French, Professor Remington, James T. Shinn, Dr. A. W. 
Miller, EvanT. Ellis, E. M. Boring, William Mclntyre, M. I. Wilbert, 
and George M. Beringer. Letters regretting their inability to be 
present were received from the following: Benjamin T. Fairchild, 
Frank C. Henry, J. H. Redsecker, Joseph Crawford, Wm. J. Miller, 
Henry A. Borell, H. Cramer, and Mahlon N. Kline. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., read an interesting paper on " Dr. Chris- 
topher Witt— An early American Botanist and a man of many and 
varied attainments," which was illustrated by a number of lantern 
slides. This paper will be published in a later issue of this Journal. 

At the next meeting, which will be held Tuesday evening, January 
I Oth, the following papers will be presented: 

"A brief consideration of a few facts determining the Relation- 
ship between the Science and Art of Pharmacy and the Science and 
Art of Medicine." By Dr. Henry Beates, Jr. 

"The Pharmacist and the Physician." By M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M. 

There will also be communications from Prof. William Osier, Bal- 
timore; Prof. John H. Musser, Philadelphia ; and others. 

" The Size of the Dropper as applied to Alkaloids in Eye Drops." 
By Dr. P. N. K. Schwenk. Henry Kraemer, Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, 1905. 




A BRIEF CONSIDERATION OF A FEW FACTS DETER- 
MINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SCIENCE 
AND ART OF PHARMACY AND THE SCIENCE AND 
ART OF MEDICINE. 



Misce et fiatit capsulas numeros quatuor et viginti. 

Sign a. — One every two hours for four or five doses, then one every four 
hours, constitutes an "instrument" which is exponent of many facts asso- 
ciated with life and the profoundest interests of human existence. 

The prescription is designated "an instrument" because of its 
legal significance, for it is a " writing acknowledging or certifying 
to a claim, or recording the terms of a contract, deed or grant," 
and by common consent presupposes a right, by reason of the pos- 
session of qualification, to formulate and to have compounded and 
administered, without harm, according to obtaining conditions. 

It is evidence, and should be proof, of the possession of a reason- 
able degree of mastery of those sciences and their art, common in 
large measure to the professions of pharmacy and medicine, and is 
the common ground upon which we meet, under conditions of a 
naturally founded relationship. 

Our respective professions are effects of antecedent causes, and in 
a wider signification the evolution of humanity. They are facts of 
being, and in importance occupy the highest place. 

For the discharge of the responsible functions attaching the pro- 
fessions of pharmacy and medicine, a degree of scholarly skill and 
attainment is requisite, which is, unfortunately, too commonly found 



By Hknry Bkatks, Jr., M.D. 



R Aconitise Cryst. Merck . . . 
Resinae Phosphori , 4 per cent 
Calcii Phosphatis 



Gr. 1-20. 
Gr. v. 
Gr. xlviii. 



(5i) 



52 



Pharmacy and Medicine. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I February, 1905 



to be wanting, and, happily, in this period of human progress, be- 
ginning to engage the serious attention and partial supervision of 
Government. 

Control, therefore, of the conferred right to formulate a prescrip- 
tion, to compound the same, and to superintend its use, discovers 
two professions, related by many similar conditions, which for their 
observance and requirements demand co-operation, if their normal 
growth and development and consequent usefulness is to be vouch- 
safed, and mankind to profit from their inherent utilitarianism. 

A fellow-being is stricken with some illness, or is the victim of 
an accident or deformity that impairs his usefulness, which, in addi- 
tion to inflicting discomfort and suffering, seriously interferes with 
the exercise of those functions which secure the necessities not 
only of his own but dependent lives. 

The sciences and art of pharmacy and medicine are his principal 
means of relief — his almost only hope for restoration. Can any- 
thing be of greater value under such sore affliction ? Can anything 
demand so important a degree of qualification to cope with the 
involved complex and profound problems as the professions we 
represent ? 

A word as to the science feature of our professions : 

Medicines are derived from the vegetable and mineral world, and 
the specific use of the forces is also to be included in the term. 
This fact renders it necessary that a knowledge of those principles 
which affect the functions of the human economy, be possessed by 
some characteristic group of mankind. 

Of the vegetal origin of remedial agents, for illustration, it must 
be known at what period of the growth of an herb, tree or what 
not, its medicinal active principles are most advantageously ob- 
tained ; also what these are, and whether to be extracted from the 
root, rhizome, bulb, stem, bark, leaves or fruit, and how. 

Separation of the various active principles, so commonly existing 
in a given vegetal organism, is essential, especially as one or more 
possess properties which, when administered to the human being, 
frequently exert diverse and even antagonistic influences. 

Again, the season or time of year at which the various plants, 
etc., possess these principles, in their fulness, must be known — a 
science of no mean value, and essential for the best achievements 
of pharmacy and medicine. 



A Febr°uary!^ m -} Pharmacy and Medicine. 53 

How to extract these principles demands a mastery of the science 
of chemistry, so self-evident that it is needless to more than give 
it mention. The magnitude thereof speaks for itself; its require- 
ments are self-evident ; but that the mastery of chemistry, as ap- 
plied to pharmacy, in contradistinction to the mastery of chemistry 
as applied to medicine, constitutes practically an especial study and 
pursuit, cannot be too strongly emphasized, and the one cannot be 
substituted for the other. 

That these two phases of chemistry do, however, possess some 
features in common, as is illustrated in incompatibility in unscien- 
tifically formulated prescriptions, goes without saying. Yet this 
constitutes an entirely different question, and should not prevail, 
except for lack of proper qualification. 

To be brief, a knowledge of the inherent properties possessed by 
remedial agents includes their physical, chemical and physiologic 
potentials. The two former belong to the pharmacist, and the lat- 
ter, in an especial sense, to the physician. 

This fact cannot be too clearly appreciated and comprehended, 
and may be emphasized by stating that "the science of pharmacy 
requires a mastery of botany, including the anatomy and physiol- 
ogy of plant life, as well as of-chemistry in a specific sense. 

The technical phases include the ability to recognize both the 
macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the medicinal plant 
world, the proper methods of obtaining active principles, and pre- 
paring the various tinctures, infusions, extracts, alkaloids, gluco- 
sides, etc., and to be able to know that these products are of an 
approximately standard strength and value. In a more special 
sense, a pharmacist must be skilled in the art of properly com- 
pounding a correctly formulated prescription, which latter, it is stated 
with regret, is not as uniformly written as the qualification right- 
fully expected from the medical profession should supply. 

The preparation, and, what is equally important, the means of 
preserving, unaltered, the inherent potentialities of remedies, also 
belongs to the domain of pharmacy. The same general principles 
or facts are applicable to the remedial agents obtained from the 
mineral world. 

Science and art, therefore, in their highest significance, charac- 
terize pharmacy, and demand of its followers a high standard of 
scholarly attainment and an equally exalted degree of skill. 



54 



Pharmacy and Medicine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1905. 



The science and art of medicine demands a mastery of the sciences 
of biology, anatomy, physiology, chemistry and pathology, The 
natural course of disease, injury, and the consequences of deformity, 
comprise a phase of medicine not here necessary to be elaborated, 
but, qualification, in the broad sense, to as successfully as possible 
restore to a common equilibrium, these manifold afflictions, is pre- 
eminently the high function and weighty responsibility of medicine. 

In a word, pharmacognosy constitutes the truly science side of 
the profession of pharmacy. Its profundity and scope, and the pos- 
session of its practical qualifications , its art, can only belong to those 
learned followers who devote their entire talents to its demands. 
It is impossible for a physician to possess himself of the specific 
ability belonging to the science and art of pharmacy, just as it is 
alike impossible for a pharmacist to acquire the specific ability of 
the physician. Thus is distinctly seen the individuality , so to speak, 
of the respective professions, also their mutual interdependence. 

To repeat, in the prescription are embodied the points of contact 
and parallel action establishing that common relationship which 
constitutes a bond of union between the sciences of pharmacy and 
medicine and their art, without which neither can achieve the com- 
mon good for mankind which should be a certainty. 

The prescription is evidence and proof of professional qualification. 
Its formulation attests the ability of the physician ; its compound- 
ing that of the pharmacist. 'Tis the crystalline product of the two 
professions, and is proof of the existence of that relationship which 
is the inevitable resultant of these two great callings of life. 

What, therefore, if these expressed generalizations be true, can be 
achieved, if there is not throughly established, upon a practical 
basis, that inherently essential relationship between pharmacy and 
medicine, which natural law determines ? 

There must be qualification on the part of each. This implies a 
higher standard of education than has hitherto obtained ! Pharmacy 
and medicine demand a higher degree of scholarship, for without it 
the possibilities of each cannot be hoped for. 

This fact is perhaps best demonstrated by the prescription as it is 
usually discovered. That the prescription is distressingly empirical 
does not need demonstration. This criticism does not include what, 
for self-evident reasons at the present, is to be regarded as normally 
so, but what is, from the point of view of qualification, inexcusably 
prevalent. 



A Feb J ruarV P ?9 a ()^ a '} Pharmacy and Medicine. 55 

Too frequently are physical, chemical and physiological incom- 
patibilities contained in even one prescription, and this means the 
defeat of the very purposes intended. It emasculates medicine of 
its intrinsic value, and supplies to suffering humanity a false trust ; 
it robs pharmacy of its science and art ! 

The sum total of results of such deplorable incompetence are the 
growth and development of a like valueless group of " pathies," the 
prescribing of all sorts of worse tha?i useless compounds and mixtures 
— the annihilation of the art of therapeutics, seriously endangering 
both, and the belittlement of pharmacy and the growth and thriving 
©f a debased commercialism^ which bids fair to prolong the inade- 
quateness of pharmacy and medicine to benefit mankind, as their 
created and inherent powers enable them to do, where qualification 
is a sine qua non for its followers. 

To correct this malignant defect demands intelligent co-operation 
on the part of each by each. The students entering the respective 
callings, from the present on, must be individuals of a broader 
training and higher education ; their study and teaching and train, 
ing must be of a standard yet to be established ! A rational curric 
ulum for each is to be founded and administered to the full, with an 
eye single to the magnitude of the interests involved, for the enor- 
mity of the attaching responsibilities, and for the greatest good of 
fellowman. 

When such will have been achieved, the proper relation between 
the sciences and art of pharmacy and medicine will be established, 
and mankind profit, and be made secure against his greatest enemy 
— disease, deformity and injur)/. 

Sociologic evolution finds pharmacy and medicine regulated by 
Boards of Examiners. Their establishment here encountered bitter 
opposition, and their operation much adverse criticism, and while 
glaring defects characterize these, efforts to perfect and not to be- 
little should prevail. 

The existence of statutory control of the practice of pharmacy 
and medicine is proof of a commercial degeneracy from the highest 
standard of proficiency to low and dangerous practices by ignorant 
and incompetent practitioners of both. 

The welfare of the people demands protection against the evil 
consequences of incompetent pharmacy and medicine, and a too 
firmly entrenched and unprincipled commercialism still commands 



56 



Pharmacy and Medicine. 



( Am. Jonr. Pharm. 

I February, 1905. 



too much sympathy and advocacy on the part of the public, when 
efforts at correction are aggressively active. 

There is, however, one grand principle ever potent in encouraging 
and supporting the inevitable progress crowning the efforts for 
standardization — it is law, and that the respective professions may 
be better acquainted with their rights and privileges to apply this 
power to their duties of higher citizenship, the following quotation 
will be presented : 

(From U. S. Supreme Court Reports for 1888, Opinion of Chief Jus- 
tice Field,) (a ffirmed by the unanimous opinion of the Court !) 

" It is undoubtedly the right of every citizen of the United States 
to follow any lawful calling, business or profession he may choose, 
subject only to such restrictions as are imposed upon all persons of 
like age, sex and condition. 

" This right may in many respects be considered a distinguishing 
feature of our republican institutions. Here all vocations are open 
to every one on like conditions. All may be pursued as sources of 
livelihood, some requiring years of study and great learning for 
their successful prosecution. 

"The interest, or as it is sometimes termed, the estate acquired 
in them, that is, the right to continue their prosecution, is often of 
great value to the possessors, and cannot be arbitrarily taken away 
from them any more than their real or personal property can thus 
be taken. 

" But there is no arbitrary deprivation of such right where its 
exercise is not permitted because of a failure to comply with condi- 
tions imposed by the State for the protection of society. 

"The power of the State to provide for the general welfare of its 
people authorizes it to prescribe all such regulations as, in its judg- 
ment, will secure or tend to secure them against the consequences 
of ignorance and incapacity, as well as of deception and fraud. 

" As one means to this end, it has been the practice of different 
States from time immemorial to exact in many pursuits a certain 
degree of skill or learning upon which the community may confi- 
dently rely, their possession being generally ascertained upon an 
examination of the parties by competent persons, or inferred from a 
certificate to them in the form of a diploma or license from an insti- 
tution established for instruction on the subjects, scientific and 
otherwise, with which such pursuits have to deal. 



A r4bruary! 1905?' \ Pharmacy and Medicine. 57 

" The nature and extent 'of the qualifications required must de- 
pend primarily upon the judgment of the State as to their necessity. 
If they are appropriate to the calling or profession, and attainable 
by reasonable study or application, no objection to their validity 
can be raised because of their stringency or difficulty. It is only 
when they have' no relation to such calling or profession, or are un- 
attainable by such reasonable study or application, that they can 
operate to deprive one of his right to pursue a lawful vocation. 

" Few professions require more careful preparation by one who 
seeks to enter it than that of medicine. It has to deal with all 
those subtle influences upon which health and life depend, and 
requires not only a knowledge of the properties o" vegetable and 
mineral substances, but of the human body in all its complicated 
parts, and their relations to each other, as well as their influence 
upon the mind. 

" The physician must be able to detect readily the presence of 
disease, and prescribe appropriate remedies for its removal. Every 
one may have occasion to consult him, but comparatively few can 
judge of his qualifications of learning and skill. 

" Reliance must be placed upon the assurance given by his 
license, issued by an authority competent to judge in that respect, 
that he possesses the requisite qualification. Due consideration, 
therefore, for the protection of society may well induce the State to 
exclude from practice those who have not such a license, or are 
found upon examination to not be fully qualified." 

The same principle is as forceful and just in its application to 
pharmacy as it is to medicine. 

Another feature, and your time will not be further occupied. As 
man's interests are so closely related to our respective professions, 
we find ourselves responsible for what Marshall O. Leighton, in the 
Popular Science Monthly for June, 1902, treats under the title, " The 
Commercial Value of Human Life." 

Four of his conclusions are presented : 

(1) The pecuniary value of life is subject to the same economic 
laws as are applied to the more vulgar commodities. 

(2) In the courts of law the measure of an individual's produc- 
tiveness, which is the measure of his value, receives the most 
careful scrutiny ; therefore, the decisions of such courts, where ex- 
isting statutes permit, are trustworthy in determining an individ- 
ual's value to his family. 



5? 



A Tendency in Medicine. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ February, 1905. 



(3) The pecuniary value of a life to its relatives represents its 
pecuniary value to society. 

(4) Damages given for wrongful death are such that they can be 
represented by an average in different groups oi age, with only nar- 
row limits of probable error. 

These features of man's general relationship are indissolubly asso- 
ciated with the proficiency of the professions we represent, and it 
is our province to see to it that Ph.G. and M.D. constitute a reality 
when man's greatest interests, because of affliction, are intrusted to 
our qualification to serve him conscientiously and well, and thus to 
be beyond the possibility of a liability due to incompetency or 
neglect. 

'Tis only the unprincipled and commercially degenerate, misrepre- 
senting our two grand and noble professions, who, in addition to pre- 
scribing quack nostrums, and all sorts of mixtures, compounds, etc., 
offer objection and opposition to higher standardization. All such, 
whether individual or institutional, should be well known and 
accorded the full measure of their merits. 

AN IRREMOVABLE STIGMA. 

Our duty is plain — let us each, fearlessly and actively, co-operate 
in establishing those conditions which, other things being equal, 
will achieve the desirable end, and find the follower of pharmacy 
and medicine meriting that confidence and respect on the part of 
fellow-men, which his conscientious discharge of duties, character 
and honor command ! 



A TENDENCY IN MEDICINE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON 

PHARMACY. 

By John H. Musskr. 

In speaking of the relation of the science and art of medicine to 
the science and art of pharmacy, one must reflect upon the status 
of medicine in coming years. From the indications of to-day, just 
as the present compares with twenty years ago, one can see less and 
less of the use of drugs and more and more of measures. Twenty 
years hence, one can conceive of almost a minimum of drugs. Just 
recently a paper by Northrup, of New York, forcibly put the value 



A Feb J r O ua"yT?9 a 05 m '} A Tendency in Medicine. 59 

of fresh air and the proper use of water in the treatment of broncho- 
pneumonia. 

In a very severe case of this grave disease in a child, fresh air, 
proper feeding and bathing and good nursing constituted the whole 
scheme of treatment. So in many infectious diseases, and their 
number will increase, the antitoxins and other scientifically precise 
measures will be employed. Is not the dictum for the treatment of 
tuberculosis, rest, fresh air, food, a war cry against drugs? So in 
local diseases, as those of the abdomen, we do not treat the belly 
pain, but we find the cause, and in a large percentage of cases the 
surgeon does the rest. In stomach disorders, in pulmonary, brain 
and other diseases, surgery plays a large part. In short, we have 
learned not to be afraid of air, not to be afraid of water, not to be 
afraid of food wisely directed. 

Then see what is coming out of physics, in light-treatment, the 
X-rays and wonders yet to be disclosed. From organic extracts we 
are getting a most brilliant therapeutic future. 

Moreover, the multiplicity of hospitals, the advent of water cures, 
etc., will change the status of pharmacy. 

We must recall the exact meaning of profession, and whether it is 
possible that the science of pharmacy can be a profession, or even if 
desirable to place it in such class. A member of a profession is one 
who has something to give to those whether rich or poor which can- 
not be estmated in pounds and ounces or pints and quarts. More- 
over, self is not presumed to be considered in the dispensation of his 
gifts, and to whomsoever that cometh the utmost shall be given. Is it 
practical that the science of pharmacy should build on such lines ? 

Indeed, as the medical profession, and it is true of law in part, 
and I take it of the ministerial profession, in these modern days, in 
the process of our evolution, the old view does not so well obtain, 
and I hold it is better for medicine that it does not. The various 
quicksands and pitfalls that attend the prosecution of our art are 
better guarded against by the close prosecution of our duties as a 
science. 

I have urged that the pursuit of medicine is conducted from this 
standpoint and for these brief reasons. Science is truth, and the 
pursuit of science is the pursuit of truth. Association with truth, 
an acceptance alone of truth, the search for truth begets character. 
It is character that stands for men, and, therefore, whatsoever pur- 



60 The Pharmacist and the Physician. { A F4br°uary!i^5 m " 

suit has in it men of character, little need be said among themselves 
of ethics. There is no surer way of men learning the force of the 
Golden Rule than in the drill which obtains in the pursuit of science. 
The man of science learns and acts on Emerson's creed — " whatso- 
ever a man does to his neighbor, whether for good or evil, he does 
unto himself." 

I plead, therefore, that you make the calling of pharmacy not a 
profession, but a science, and that you insist its conduct must be on 
the highest scientific planes to the end that those who are its 
devotees may be counted upon, in season and out of season, as men 
having no code and no regulations, breathing only the spirit of 
" doing unto others as you would be done by." 



THE PHARMACIST AND THE PHYSICIAN : A NEW 
ASPECT OF THE CASE. 

By M. I. AVilbeirt, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Some of the articles that have recently appeared in medical, as 
well as in pharmaceutical, journals would appear to indicate that 
the relations existing between pharmacists and physicians are in an 
unsatisfactory and altogether unsettled condition. While it is true 
that the subject-matter under discussion is not new, and that many 
of the questions that are now involved have arisen over and over 
again for upwards of a century, some recent developments in con- 
nection with the trade in nostrums, or patent medicines, have added 
a tone of bitterness to the controversy that will not tend to bring 
about more amicable relations in the near future. 

Unfortunately, too, there is, in nearly all of the printed articles, 
an evident tendency to hold up the shortcomings and frailties of a 
few as an evidence of the tendency and ideals of all. That there are 
members in both professions who do not live up to the prescribed 
principles or codes of ethics, and whose technical training or skill 
does not compare favorably with the best that is attainable, all must 
admit. But to say, on the other hand, that all of the members of 
these respective callings are guility of any or all of the accusations 
that have recently been made would be overstepping the bounds of 
truth very materially. Over and above the evident falsity of any 
series of general accusations, we should always remember that 



^FebrXy!?™"} The Pharmacist and the Physician. 6 1 

crimination or recrimination will not, and cannot, of itself bring 
other than discredit to all concerned. 

It will be much more in keeping with a genuine desire for prog- 
ress, therefore, if we as pharmacists, recognizing the shortcomings 
of physicians, also recognize our own, and honestly strive to correct 
existing abuses by the gradual elimination of objectionable practices. 

In the following pages I have tried to outline what I consider the 
underlying causes of many of the present differences of opinion, and 
also to indicate the position that I believe pharmacy will hold in 
the future. In addition to this I have attempted to indicate how 
we as individuals can, now and in the near future, contribute very 
materially to bring about a better understanding between pharma- 
cists and physicians, and incidentally contribute no little to a better 
knowledge of drugs and medicines on the part of future graduates 
in medicine. 

The retail pharmacist of to-day occupies rather an anomalous 
position, being, or attempting to be, a conglomerate of small trades- 
man, artisan and member of a liberal profession. In this varied 
calling he has acquired interests which are at least partially, if not 
wholly, antagonistic to each other, and which have certainly tended 
to keep him within distinctly narrow bounds. As a professional 
man he has not developed as rapidly as was confidently asserted he 
would half a century or more ago. Among the reasons for this 
lack of development may be mentioned, that as a whole he has 
become too numerous, and that the system of education which has 
been provided for him has proven itself inadequate to develop the 
principles necessary for the evolution and growth of a professional 
spirit. 

It should be mentioned, however, that despite the meagre train- 
ing of the earlier apothecaries, or "pharmaceutists " as they were 
sometimes called, American pharmacy has contributed no little to 
the sum total of our knowledge of drugs and medicines. Such men 
as Procter, Parrish and Bedford, although restricted almost entirely 
to the limited educational facilities of the pharmaceutical schools of 
their day, have accomplished work that we and future generations 
of pharmacists may point to with pride. 

It has been frequently predicted, and for apparent good reasons, 
that in the future economic arrangement there will be no need and 
no place for the retail druggist of to-day or of yesterday. Be that 



62 The Pharmacist and the Physician. {^fe&iy.mt' 

as it may, so far as the purely commercial interests of the retail 
druggists are concerned, there can be no question regarding the 
necessity and consequent continuance of the professional pharmacist, 
With the constant increase of specialization in the practice of medi- 
cine, and the accompanying realization that the human body is not 
a machine and that its ills cannot well be treated on general prin- 
ciples, there must be an accompanying increase in appreciation of 
the competent pharmacist, who is willing and able to act as an assist- 
ant or adjunct to the medical practitioner. While it is true that the 
future pharmacist will not be as numerous as he is at the present 
time, he will occupy a relatively higher position in the social scale, 
and will in addition be in a position to accomplish much that will 
make him honored and respected at home and abroad. 

For us as pharmacists it would appear imperative, then, that we 
bear this possible development along professional lines in mind, and 
see that the proper material is available when the expected change 
is brought about. The proper foundation for this rational develop- 
ment of professional pharmacy can be laid at the present time, and, 
in addition to this, we may aid in the pharmaceutical education of 
future physicians if we can, by any means at our command, improve 
the present status of hospital pharmacy in the United States. In 
the education of future generations of physicians, hospital training 
will necessarily play a most important part. Even at the present 
time a medical education that does not include at least some hos- 
pital experience is considered inadequate. This being true, it be- 
comes evident at once that the impressions a recent graduate 
receives during his hospital experience — impressions of drugs and 
druggists — must be lasting ones, and ones that will largely control 
his future ideas and practices. 

How wofully deficient and unsatisfactory the drug service in many 
of our hospitals must be, becomes evident when we realize that in 
this great country, with hundreds of institutions to supply them, we 
have had but one solitary instance of a hospital pharmacist who has 
become widely known through his professional and scientific work. 
I refer to the late Charles Rice, of Bellevue Hospital, New York, 
who, I am sorry to add, was himself a foreigner by birth and early 
training. Compared to what has been accomplished by the pharm- 
acists of European hospitals, particularly by those of France, this is 
indeed a poor showing. Much of this deficiency of the past, how- 



A Feb J r°uarVTi905 m '} The Pharmacist and the Physician. 63 

ever, could be corrected in the future if members of this Association, 
who are influential in their communities, will direct the attention of 
hospital authorities to their shortcomings in this respect. 

One of the most widespread abuses in hospital and dispensary 
practice is due to the fact that, apart from a rather limited number 
of routine stock mixtures, the medicines dispensed consist largely 
of proprietary preparations that have been donated by charitable 
manufacturers with a view to having them brought to the attention 
of the medical men connected with the institution, and, if possible, 
securing from them suitable endorsements for publication. It need 
not surprise us, therefore, that physicians who have had hospital 
experience are frequently more hopelessly dependent on the use of 
proprietary remedies than graduates who have not had the so-called 
advantages of a hospital training. Much of this could and would be 
changed, if hospitals, particularly the larger and more influential 
institutions, were to employ competent pharmacists who could 
secure and hold the confidence of the visiting as well as of the res- 
ident staff of physicians, and who could and would be consulted on 
the probable standing of new remedies. 

This brings us to a consideration of the intellectual needs and 
wants of men. capable of holding such positions. If the hospital 
pharmacist of to-day, or the professional pharmacist of to-morrow, 
is to have and to hold the confidence of medical practitioners, he 
must be at least the equal of the medical man in education, in ideas 
and in ideals — so much so that with the increase in the requirements 
made of medical students there must be a corresponding increase in 
the demands that are made on the general information possessed by 
the future pharmacist. He must be a well-educated, thoroughly 
scientific and altogether capable man, well versed in all the branches 
of knowledge connected with his own profession, and gifted with a 
breadth of view that will readily place him above the average of his 
fellow-men. In return for his knowledge and acquirements he must 
not expect to be eminently successful from a monetary point of 
view, but he will be assured of a comfortable existence and the op- 
portunity of doing considerable original work that may in turn 
revert to the material advantage of himself and his fellow- workers 
in the same field. 

Those of us, however, who have not had the educational advan- 
tages that must be provided for the men of the future, and who 



64 Need of a Profession of Pharmacy, 

probably feel that we cannot aspire to fit in exactly with the de- 
mands that will be made of the coming professional pharmacist, 
can, in the meantime, conduct ourselves and our business in such a # 
way that we will gain the trust and confidence of physicians of to- 
day, and in this way establish a precedent that will be of incalcu- 
lable value to our more professional and scientifically more able 
successors of to-morrow. [Proc. A. Ph. A., 1904.) 



ON THE EVIDENT NEED OF A PROFESSION OF 
PHARMACY. 

By M. I. WlLBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The notes embodied in this paper are composed almost entirely 
of references to papers published in medical journals, or of extracts 
from personal letters received from medical men, who are more or 
less interested in the subject matter under discussion. Altogether, 
the paper may be considered a sequel to, or, perhaps better, a con- 
tinuation of, the paper entitled, " The Pharmacist and the Physician," 
presented by me at the Kansas City meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association (see page 60). 

The views expressed in that paper have led to an extensive and 
somewhat varied exchange of opinion on the need of having or 
developing a profession of pharmacy, the members of which would 
serve not alone as purveyors of medicines and medicinal prepara- 
tions, but would also assume, in a way, the position of mentors or 
advisors on the origin, value and probable uses of the several 
medicinal preparations offered to the medical profession. 

Among pharmacists themselves there appears to be a considera- 
ble difference of opinion as to the need or desirability of conduct- 
ing themselves, or their business, along professional lines. Many 
appear to hold, with a recent writer in the American Druggist} 
that pharmacy is neither a profession nor the semblance of a pro- 
fession. 

On the other hand we have those who appear to believe that 
pharmacy has, even now, achieved a desirable degree of perfection, 
from a professional point of view, and that, therefore, they and 
other members of their calling should undoubtedly be considered 
professional men. Again there are others who assert that the pres- 



A FebrXv P i905 ra '} Need of a Profession of Pharmacy. 65 

ent state of the art, science or business of pharmacy does not 
come up to their ideal of a profession, but who also believe that 
there is a need of such a profession, which, if not supplied by the 
pharmacists now existing, will ultimately be developed as a distinct 
specialty of the science of medicine, under the direct supervision of 
medical practitioners themselves. 

Among physicians, particularly such as appreciate the necessity 
of an ethical development of their own profession, there is abso- 
lutely no difference of opinion as to the desirability and the need 
of a profession of pharmacy, providing the members of that pro- 
fession be imbued with high ideals and would be willing to sub- 
ject themselves to restrictions similar to those that restrain and 
guide the present-day medical men of the better class. 

That the present conditions in the business or art of pharmacy 
are not, in any way, compatible with professional ideas is evident 
from even a cursory perusal of the reading pages of medical jour- 
nals. Any pharmacist who will read the editorial on '« The Degra- 
dation of the Drug Store " in American Medicine} or the more re- 
cently published article on " Ethical Pharmacy," by Dr. A. L. 
Benedict, in the same journal, 3 must admit that the conditions as 
depicted in these articles actually do exist, and that they can in no 
way be brought in harmony with the necessary ideals of a profession. 

The assertion made by one writer that even good druggists make 
careless and unnecessary mistakes, and the nature of these mistakes, 
as enumerated by the same writer, 4 are in every way to be deplored. 
Accidents of this kind are, perhaps, to be condoned, however, on 
the plea that the prescriptions were not sufficiently legible or ex- 
plicit. This same excuse cannot be brought to bear on the fre- 
quently made and ofttimes repeated accusation of deliberate and 
malicious substitution. 

This accusation has been and is being made so frequently that 
it has attracted the attention of all classes of medical as well as 
lay journals. The New York Times, in an editorial recently 
quoted by American Medicine? suggests that radical measures are 
needed to redeem the drug business from the low estate into which 
it has fallen, and adds that unless druggists themselves awaken to 
the necessity of exposing unprincipled and dishonest members of 
their calling, they will be attacked from the outside in sledgeham- 
mer fashion. 



66 Need of a Profession of Pharmacy. ^febrlZ'^iw™' 

There is one, recently published, article on this particular subject 
that should receive more than passing notice. This is the paper on 
" The Relation of the Physician to Proprietary Remedies — How 
may substitution be avoided and the desired remedy obtained 
without unduly advertising the manufacturer ? " by Dr. William 
J. Robinson, of New York, read at the meeting of The American 
Medical Association, at Atlantic City. 6 

In this paper Dr. Robinson unequivocally asserts that substitu- 
tion is extensively practised, and, as a possible remedy, unhesitat- 
ingly recommends that physicians choose what he considers the 
lesser evil, by prescribing for original packages of galenical prepa- 
rations ; despite the fact that they are running the risk of having 
these preparations used indefinitely, as household remedies, by the 
patient and his friends. 

While pharmacists will, no doubt, feel that there is much in this 
paper by Dr. Robinson from which they might reasonably differ, 
there is also much, more than appears on the surface, that must 
necessarily reflect discredit on the present-day practice of phar- 
macy. Is it, for instance, not true that the dozens, scores and even 
hundreds of questionable proprietary preparations on the market at 
the present time are made and sold by so-called reputable pharma- 
cists, or people who pose as pharmacists ? And even further, is it 
not true that the composition of many of these preparations is kept 
secret, and that, in connection with many of these secret, or semi- 
secret, preparations claims and statements are made that are mis- 
leading, if not positively untrue ? And still further, it may be 
asked, how much of this direct or implied deception have pharma- 
cists honestly striven to correct, knowing all the while, as they 
should know, that the preservation of the health, happiness, and 
even the lives of human beings, was at stake. 

If we consider carefully the several lines of thought suggested 
here, we will probably come to the conclusion that, after all, phar- 
macists are, as a whole, less sinned against than sinning, in this 
matter of proprietary preparations. The question itself is a vital 
one, however, and must be disposed of at an early date in a satis- 
factory manner, for, as a writer in a medical journal asserts, 7 
"Secrecy in medicinal preparations is dangerous to patients, de- 
structive of science and promotive o c fraud and avarice." For the 
correction of this really heinous abuse there is but one rational 
remedy : the development of a truly ethical profession of pharmacy. 



A Feb J r uary P ^™'l Need- of a Profession of Pharmacy. 67 

That physicians, and by physicians I mean medical men having 
ethical ideals, are willing and even anxious to assist pharmacists to 
improve themselves and their calling, is amply evidenced by the 
numerous kindly words of advice and encouragement to be found 
in the same medical journals that appear to be the most bitter in 
their denunciation of supposed abuses. One writer in American 
Medicine says: "The physician is dependent for his results in drug 
therapy upon the honor and skill of the pharmacist. It is therefore 
in the interest of science and of mankind that a sharp line be drawn 
between the honorable and the dishonorable, the careful and the 
indifferent, the skilled and the blundering among pharmacists. It 
is likewise important that the pharmacist be more than a salesman 
of manufactured articles. No one needs a liberal preliminary edu- 
cation and four years of laboratory training to hand out ready-made 
preparations." 7 

Dr. A. L. Benedict, in his paper on " Ethical Pharmacy," quoted 
above, 3 gives several practical suggestions as to how the existing 
evils might be remedied, and in a personal letter on the same sub- 
ject says : " With regard to the question, Is a profession of phar- 
macy necessary or desirable ? it seems to me there is no possible 
successful argument on the negative side. Indeed, I am by no 
means entirely opposed to the present make-up of the drug-store 
with its extra professional branches, but do not believe that the 
pharmacist should pose as a physician. My objections to such 
practices (nostrum vending and counter prescribing) are, (1) that it 
undermines health, and kills human beings; (2) that it is ultimately 
contrary to statute law ; (3) that these are facts because the pharma- 
cist is not competent to practise pharmacy. I believe that any phar- 
macist who would drop his stock of patent medicines and put up a 
sign that he was not a physician and would not handle products 
which were to be taken indiscriminately, and who would demon- 
strate by consistent, honorable methods, that he meant what he 
said, would, after a year or two, receive the cordial support of the 
medical profession and of the intelligent laity." 

Commenting on the probable status of " The Pharmacist of the 
Future," the New York Medical Journal, in an editorial, 8 says : " The 
physician frequently finds himself disposed, almost constrained, to 
seek for information from the pharmacist," and further expresses 
the opinion that the necessary training that must be accorded the 



68 



Need of a Profession of Pharmacy \ 



f Am. Jour. Pnarm 
i February, 1905 



pharmacist of the future will enable him to render conspicuous 
service, which will go far to lessen the time spent in clinically test- 
ing comparatively worthless medicinal preparations. 

The need of reliable advisors on matters pharmaceutic, particu- 
larly in connection with the so-called newer remedies, is further 
emphasized by a paper on " The Trend of Modern Prescription 
Writing," by Dr. M. Clayton Thrush, recently read before the Phila- 
delphia County Medical Society. 9 In this paper the writer points 
out some of the more evident shortcomings in the present-day 
methods of teaching pharmacy in medical schools, and concludes 
that " the trend of modern prescription writing is in favor of pro- 
prietary preparations " largely because the young practitioner does 
not possess the requisite knowledge to combine drugs or prepara- 
tions without forming unsightly or dangerous compounds. 

This paper also emphasizes the inefficiency, from a practical point 
of view, of attempting to teach the practice of medicine by theory 
alone, and offers the best possible arguments on the necessity and 
importance of hospital experience to young practitioners. Such a 
post-graduate course of hospital training was strongly advised by 
Dr. John H. Musser in his address as President of the American 
Medical Association. 10 The practical utility from a pharmacologic 
point of view is made somewhat doubtful, however, by the assertion 
of Dr. O. T. Osborne, who says: 11 " When our graduate goes to a 
hospital he begins to use the hospital formulae, and forgets entirely 
how to write prescriptions." This assertion, made by a teacher of 
considerable experience, is unfortunately too true, and is, in a meas- 
ure at least, largely due to the subordinate position occupied by the 
hospital pharmacist. 

How far or how much individual hospital pharmacists are to be 
blamed for the lack of confidence they are able to inspire, I am not 
in a position to say. Certain it is that as a class, who should have 
every facility for original observation and study, they have con- 
tributed little, very little, to the sum total of pharmaceutic 
knowledge. 

That there is a wide and interesting field of work for the hospital 
pharmacist; that he is, in fact, the logical beginning of a profession 
of pharmacy, and that some of our ablest and busiest medical men 
have devoted considerable thought to the problem, is evidenced by 
the following extracts from letters recently received, rom Dr. Wil. 



A Febr O uary P ?9 a 05 m '} Need of a Profession of Pharmacy. 69 

liam Osier, of Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, who says : " What 
you say about the hospital pharmacist is very true. I have long 
felt that we have not done our duty here, as, perhaps, we might, in 
stimulating this important branch of our Work. 

" I feel that the department of pharmacy in our large hospitals 
should be made co-ordinate with the other important divisions that 
the teaching of medical students practical pharmacy should be part 
of the work, and that all possible opportunity should be given the 
men in charge to keep themselves abreast with the most advanced 
work in their specialty. 

"Would it not be a good thing for the hospital apothecaries to 
organize a special society in which their work could be codified and 
brought before the profession ? 

" It might be well to get a list of the pharmacists at the different 
large hospitals throughout the country, and then send them a 
circular urging the formation of such a society or club." 

Without going into a detailed discussion as to my own ideas on 
the feasibility of these suggestions I would say that other medical 
men have heartily endorsed the sentiments here voiced by Dr. Osier, 
and practically agree that able and properly trained hospital phar- 
macists should, and would, be important and valuable factors in the 
development of the science of medicine. Further than this, a really 
able body of hospital pharmacists should and would have a benefi- 
cent influence on the evolution and development of a profession of 
pharmacy the members of which would be imbued with high ideals 
and would in turn be duly appreciated for their worth and attain- 
ments. In summing up, then, I would say that the suggestions as 
here outlined would necessarily include : 

(1) A somewhat radical change in our present standards of phar- 
maceutical education. 

(2) The introduction of hospital pharmacists with professional 
ideals and scientific attainments. 

(3) The ultimate complete separation of the trade in drugs, nos- 
trums, soft drinks and tobacco from pharmacy and the ultimate 
establishment of pharmacy on a high professional plane. 

In conclusion, I would say that while these ideals may appear to 
you impracticable, I believe their achievement is not impossible, 
and, further than this, is absolutely necessary to rescue the practice 
of pharmacy, and with it every department of medicine, from the 



JO Relation of Pharmacists ana Physicians. { A reb™ar y a9 a o5 m " 

slough of commercialism in which they are slowly but surely 
sinking. 

TITLES OF PAPERS REFERRED TO. 

1 " Is Pharmacy a Profession ? " American Druggist, Dec. 19, 1904, p. 419. 

2 " The Degradation of the Drug Store." American Medicine, July 2, 1904, 
p. 1. 

3 "Ethical Pharmacy." American Medicine, Nov. 26, 1904, p. 935. 

4 "Careless Mistakes of Good Druggists." American Medicine, July 9, 
1904, p. 87. 

5 "Our Pharmacy Laws." American Medicine, Dec. 31, 1904, p. 1122. 

6 "The Relation of the Physician to Proprietary Medicines." The Journal 
of the American Medical Association, Dec. 3, 1904, p. 1675. 

7 " Proprietary or Secret." American Medicine, No. 12, 1904, p. 863. 

8 "The Pharmacist of the Future." New York Medical Journal, Nov. 12,. 
1904, p. 937. 

9 "The Trend of Modern Prescription Writing." Journal oj the American 
Medical Association, Jan. 7, 1905, p. 35. 

10 << President's Address." Journal of the American Medical Association, 
June 11, 1904, p. 1533. 

11 " Discussion." Journal oj the American Medical Association, Dec. 3, 
1904. 



THE ETHICAL RELATION OF PHARMACISTS AND 
PHYSICIANS. 

There was an interesting discussion following the reading of three 
of the preceding papers which were presented at the Pharmaceutical 
meeting on Tuesday evening, January 10th. Some of the remarks 
are published at this time. 

DR. HENRY BEATES, JR., 

said : I regret that Dr. Musser has gone, because while with much 
that he said I agree, there is also much with which it is impossible 
to entertain a like opinion. If his remarks were correctly under- 
stood, the inference was given that, in the near future, there would 
be little or no use for drugs or medicines, and, consequently, little 
or no use for pharmacy. 

That such an ultimate condition could be possible cannot for one 
moment be even conjectured. It is difficult to understand how such 
a question could so much as arise. Let us see why. Dr. Musser 
referred to the fact that physicians are learning the proper use of 
fresh air, sunlight and food in the treatment ot disease. May they 
not also begin to learn how to properly employ medicines in the 
treatment of human ills ? 



A Februar' y P igoT* } Relation of Pharmacists and Physicians. 71 

As far as these go it is a distinct advance in treatment; but, at 
best, only a departure, not an advance, from a dangerous and igno- 
rant administration and use of powerful remedies that are frequently, 
because of an incompetent profession, combined in all sorts of ways, 
certain to work injury rather than benefit, and administered with 
little or no understanding. As the profession is, there are those 
who are unable to recognize whether or not their prescriptions are 
being taken ! 

'Tis a serious and difficult work for a human system to recover 
when stricken with disease, even when unassisted by the skilled 
administration of drugs known to exert favorable influences, but 
when such an afflicted being is obliged to contend against both dis- 
ease and unskilfully administered and, because of incompetence, 
injuriously given drugs, a return to health is almost impossible ; and 
most direful consequences are certain to frequently result and un- 
questionably do ! 

Therefore, the commendable and comparatively only safe resort 
to only fresh air, sunlight and proper food, while an advance in treat, 
ment in one respect, and safe, is at the most and best but a departure 
from a dangerous practice, based upon and resulting from ignorance 
and incompetency. 

In addition to these there frequently, not always, must be skilled 
and competent medication. There are certain facts of existence, 
affirm, deny, and theorize about them as you will, which, neverthe- 
less, exist in their inherent and originally created potentiality, no 
matter what may be done for or against them. They are and dare 
not be denied. 

With these facts, it is reverently said, that an Omnipotent and 
Omniscient Being has created, are associated unalterable and never- 
varying laws ! With these laws the qualified practitioners of our 
profession must comply ! 

The cells composing the various tissues and organs of our bodies 
are affected in their life actions and functions by those influences 
which are the consequences of these immutable laws, and in the 
vast vegetal and mineral world, thus created, are principles (medi- 
cines and drugs) which, like the principles of disease-causing fac- 
tors, so affect the cells of the human body, that, if rightly used by 
an educated, competent, and skilled profession, will restore diseased 
conditions to health. This truism cannot be denied. 



72 Relation of Pharmacists and Physicians. { ^pebruaryf 1905? 

A little information will be given to you from behind the scenes, 
as it were, of medicine, as it will enable you to understand why a 
spirit of therapeutic nihilism occasionally manifests itself. 

At the last session of the State Board of Medical Examiners a 
question was asked that inquired for the evidence of the possession 
of the knowledge of a fundamental principle, without which many 
diseases cannot possibly be understood, although their symptoms 
can be memorized. 

Memorized and repeated, but not understood ! please observe, and, 
consequently, not properly and intelligently treated even if only with 
pure air, sunlight, food and rest. 

The question was : discuss symbiosis with special reference to 
pathogenesis. It is perhaps permissible for me to explain that some 
disease-producing organisms require oxygen for their activity, and 
the exercise of their morbid powers, and that if such organisms 
enter the body, they will be inert if oxygen is not available. 

There are other organisms, also disease-producing, which thrive 
and exert their disease-producing powers in the absence of oxygen, 
and, as these so-called germs in nature are frequently associated, it 
is easy to understand that if the non-oxygen microbes grow, and in 
their vital activity evolve from the tissues oxygen, how the viru- 
lent oxygen-demanding germ will thereby be supplied with the 
necessary environment for its activity and result in disease. 

Thus symbiosis renders comprehensible how, respectively, oxygen- 
and non-oxygen-requiring germs may or may not afflict the human 
economy with diseases like tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, etc. 

It cannot be denied by any one, except those who are inade- 
quately educated, that medicines and drugs, those means supplied 
by an all-wise Creator, which also similarly affect the cells of the 
human body, will be, when intelligently administered, proven to be 
a vital necessity for the proper treatment, relief and cure of disease. 

Pharmacy, therefore, instead of becoming obsolete and useless, I 
affirm, with all the emphasis at command, will be still more strongly 
demanded than ever before, and just as soon as pharmacy and 
medicine will only admit to their ranks those who are adequately 
educated, this one great and undeniable fact of existence will be an 
unquestioned reality. The time has come not to dispense with our 
respective professions, but with those who are not competent and 
fit to be identified with them. 



A Februa^i905 m "} Relation of Pharmacists and Physicians. 73 

A word as to pharmacy as a specialty of medicine. A superficial 
thought suggests such a possibility, but serious contemplation nega- 
tives the idea, because comprehension of the vast field embodied 
discovers what necessarily must be a separate, distinct and important 
science and art. 

It can only be possessed by those who devote their entire life and 
talents toward securing a pure materia medic a t and possessing the 
ability to properly prepare and compound the same for accurate 
administration. This qualification can in no sense constitute a 
specialty of medicine. It is essentially, naturally and inherently an 
indispensable auxiliary to medicine — a substantial means to an end, 
as needful to the success of the art of treating disease as is the 
rudder to the proper and certain navigation of the ship. One can- 
not exist without the other. Alone either is comparatively useless, 
and the ultimate and practical outcome of both renders each equally 
important and an indisputable necessity. 

MR. M. I. WILBERT 

said : In reference to the relations between physicians and pharma- 
cists, there are but two points on which I should like to add some- 
thing further. 

The assertion made by me that the pharmacy of the future might 
be developed as a specialty of medicine, etc., no doubt constitutes a 
misuse of the word specialty, as we naturally think of it in connec- 
tion with the practice of medicine at the present time. If, however, 
we consider pharmacy, as we should and must, as a part, or a de- 
partment, of the science of medicine, we may with propriety refer to 
it as a specialty of that science, dealing particularly with the collection, 
preparation and preservation of the materials used in the study, pre- 
vention and cure of disease. 

The manufacture and sale of nostrums is undoubtedly the most 
general, but nevertheless the most deplorable, practice of the 
present-day pharmacy in America. It is also the one feature which ? 
more than any other, will serve to bring about a radical change in 
the practices, position and condition of the pharmacist of the near 
future. In this connection it may be said that many of us have 
failed to keep in touch with the medical discoveries and the result- 
ing change in ideas and medical practices of later years, and there- 
ore have failed to realize that ideas and practices which were con- 



74 Relation of Pharmacists and Physicians. { A Feb J r ua r r' y P i9 a o5 m ' 

sidered permissible, if not absolutely correct, fifty years ago may be, 
and many of them rightly are, considered obsolete, if not positively 
dangerous, at the present time. 

Broadly speaking, nostrums may be classed in one of two general 
groups, (i) Those popularly termed patent medicines, and properly 
consisting of all medicinal preparations advertised or sold directly 
to the lay public, and (2) those preparations, generally known as 
proprietary remedies, that are exploited to, or through, medical 
practitioners. Preparations belonging to either of these two divis- 
ions are secret preparations, so far as any definite knowledge, by 
others than the manufacturer, of their composition or contents is 
concerned. In addition to this, the claims that are made for the 
efficiency and usefulness of these various preparations are neces- 
sarily more or less misleading to a large number of people. 

To appreciate this latter statement more fully, it must be remem- 
bered that there is what may be termed a psychological element 
necessarily connected with all matters medical. For instance, an 
individual suffering with some real or supposed complication of dis- 
eases will invariably take a different view of a verbose, but really 
meaningless, statement of supposed facts than one who is positive 
that he is neither ill nor likely to be ill in the near future. 

The same is true of physicians. The man who has had a wide 
and varied experience, and who is well versed in the rudiments of 
drug therapy, will take an entirely different view of the problemati- 
cal claims that are made in connection with a secret remedy than 
the one who has had little or no experience in this particular line. 
Moreover, the results obtained by a man of the latter type from the 
use of a nostrum, are usually misleading to him, and through him to 
others, from the fact that he has been able to observe only the fact 
whether or not his patient improved, or seemed to improve, under 
the influence of a certain drug or compound, forgetting entirely that 
there may be, and really are, dozens, if not hundreds, of additional 
factors that may and do contribute towards the ultimate result in any 
given case. After all, then, it is simply a question of point of view, or of 
seeing truth as we are able to recognize it. If our education or infor- 
mation is such that we can get above the facts in the case, and review 
them collectively as a whole, we can readily form a satisfactory and 
correct opinion, based on the ultimate result. If, however, we are not 
in a position to command this necessary broad survey of the sum 



Am, Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1905. J 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



7b 



total of all the facts and factors in any given case, our ideas and 
opinions, and all our statements based on them, will necessarily be 
the product of our estimation of such facts and factors as are evi- 
denced to us from our point of view. 

This line of reasoning explains why so many really honest men 
in the drug business to-day continue in their (supposed) time-hon- 
ored prerogative of dispensing mixtures for this, that or the other 
disease regardless of the fact that, by imparting a false feeling of 
security to a patient or his friends, they, not infrequently and un- 
wittingly, are the direct cause of unnecessary life-long suffering, or 
assist the grim reaper, death, to fill an untimely and premature 
grave. 

It must be remembered, also, that in the minds of many physicians 
counter prescribing is not confined to those isolated cases where a 
druggist, without license, looks at the tongue, feels the pulse and 
takes the temperature of a patient, with a view of doling him out a 
mixture especially designed for his particular case, but that, on the 
other hand, it includes also the making and sale of panaceas or nos- 
trums designed for the cure of diseases that are still, though errone- 
ously, considered to be well known and definite entities. 

Of proprietary medicines, little need be said, in conclusion ; they 
are best described as a futile attempt of the blind leading the blind 
along unknown and comparatively dangerous paths, and cannot be 
tolerated in the practices of professional or scientific men. 



PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

By Cari, G, Hinrichs, Ph.C, 
Professor of Chemistry, Marion-Sims Dental College. 
{Concluded Jrom Vol. 76, p. 57J. ) 

VII. PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION. 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition was of great educational value 
in some directions ; in others, and especially along the lines of phar- 
maceutical teaching, it was lamentably lacking ; for we found only 
two pharmacy schools represented in the Palace of Education ; one 
from New York City, the second from far-away Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
The small exhibits of these two schools cannot be said to represent 
pharmaceutical education. We are glad to say that the profession 
of pharmacy was not entirely without representation, for nearly all 



7 6 



Pharmacy and Chemistry, 



f Am.'Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1905. 



national exhibits in this building had some publications on the gen- 
eral educational work of the respective country — Germany excepted. 
It is but natural that those countries where the practice of pharmacy 
has no marked characters of the purely business feature (such as 
patent medicines, soda, cigars, laundry, and the like) the pharmacist 
is expected to comply with very rigid educational standards. In 
this connection I may state that the gentleman in charge of 
little Sweden's exhibit stated to me that a certain large pharma- 
ceutical house of our country extensively advertised a certain nos- 
trum of wonderful medicinal virtues ; the government authorities 
promptly took up the matter, which ended Yankee enterprise in 
that chilly clime. Nor must the reader believe that lands where 
one pharmacy to every 20,000 inhabitants or more is necessarily a 
veritable bonanza for the pharmacist ; for not all people are such 
voracious patent medicine consumers as the Americans and the 
English. The people are also more addicted to the use of the 
homely herb of their garden, consequently the taking of a little 
bitter wormwood tea takes the place of patents among the hardy 
Hungarians, Swedes and mountain dwellers of Europe generally. 
If we desire to learn from any country, it is from the land of the 
mother tongue and similar racial peculiarities — Great Britain. 

The educational side of the Britisher is distinctly British, in that 
all tests depend upon examinations by certain authorized bodies or 
boards. Any one may be examined for a degree before their 
universities, if he feels able to do it, whether he studied in England 
or not. So is the Pharmaceutical Society authorized by Parliament 
to conduct examinations to determine the fitness of a druggist to 
practice his vocation. Great Britain is always derided in some 
quarters, on account of its excessive examinations. It is generally 
admitted by the more advanced men in pharmacy and science that 
a single examination, or a number of them, cannot determine the 
fitness of a student. Professor Remington emphasizes this in a 
recent paper published in this Journal. The examination is very 
good for many mediocre memorizers, though not exceptionally 
brilliant in the class-room ; a certain race is always good at the so- 
called final, as I have noticed. 

Professor Searby, himself a graduate of old England's most noted 
school, that of the Pharmaceutical Society, has recently championed 
higher requirements for entry to the American College. We may, 



A rebr u U a r ^ P 59 a o5 m '} Pharmacy and Chemistry. yj 

therefore, be pardoned for faking up what will undoubtedly prove a 
very dry subject : how other people must study to become pharma- 
cists. The Britishers have probably realized the fact that the future 
chemist begins in the drug-store ; naturally, they worry not at all 
about how fit the student that enters the college may be ; in fact, 
he need not attend any school, to become a licensed chemist ; in 
this, then, they are like our State requirements. We Americans 
are always too fast; the Britisher is proverbially slow. How 
excessively slow is their way to the young man's goal ! He must 
first become a student apprentice at the age when he will still suck 
" mints ; " should he be permitted to attend to these delightful 
duties without a preliminary education ? Certainly not. The young 
Britisher must know his Euclid and Latin thoroughly, in addition 
to a comprehensive knowledge of the mother tongue, before he 
may enter upon the above mentioned pleasant occupation. Why 
should our colleges worry about the educational abilities of their 
students, when the State does not ? Why pester the legislators to 
recognize their diploma as a mark of peculiar fitness ? the law- 
makers always scent graft a mile off. Why cannot these self-same 
schools go before their state association and work up a little steam 
in the right direction, make the trade see the advisability of having 
apprentices, or, as we call the ever moving young men, " clerks," 
attain at least a good, sound, old-fashioned English education, 
before they enter the store ? This would probably raise a howl 
among many druggists ; they may urge that the boys will be too 
dainty, stuck up, look down upon many of the new registered drug- 
gists as ignoramuses, and similar unwarranted notions may be flung 
about ; also that most popular reason, the boys will want more than 
they are worth. It is just these men who are now complaining 
that they cannot get help which is worth what they pay ; this class 
of druggists will always complain, but will not think ahead. If 
such a demand were enforced by law, the result would tend to 
cause older boys to enter the drug-store ; young men who would 
have a higher consideration of their employer than the thoughtless 
youngsters the druggist now delights to hire because they are 
cheap. If any one who has access to the published class pictures of 
the English schools, such as Muter's, Brixton, or of the Metropoli- 
tan, will compare them with class pictures of our Western schools, 
he will not fail to notice the more mature appearance of the English 



78 



Pharmacy and Chemistry. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
I February, 1905. 



students. Some American students are no more than kids — all the 
way from sixteen years down. 

The young man who wishes to enter a British chemist's shop (cor- 
responding to our drug store) as an apprentice, must pass before the 
recognized board in the following topics : English grammar and 
composition, Latin, a modern language, algebra, arithmetic and 
Euclid. This bill of fare would correspond to at least the fourth 
year in one of our American high-schools. The boys will be about 
seventeen to eighteen years old when they pass this examination ; 
nor is the examination gratuitous, for it has a two-guinea fee at- 
tached, i.e., $10.00. 

After the young man has fulfilled his academic requirements, 
which fact is officially recorded by the examining board, he may 
enter the " chemist's " shop as a student or apprentice. This Eng- 
lish method seems decidedly more logical than that of our States, 
which do insist on some educational requirements before they 
admit to the examination for assistant. There are cases on 
record where young men have graduated from reputable Colleges 
of Pharmacy and have failed to pass this preliminary examination. 
It seems rather cruel and decidedly unreasonable to require such 
young men, who have shown ability by their success in obtaining 
the degree Ph.G.,to make up such elementary deficiencies. Medical 
Boards in many States demand that the medical student shall have 
the requisite common schooling before he may enter a medical col- 
lege. Naturally, such boards believe in the quid pro quo\ and no 
young doctor will ever be held up by the board later on, as is the 
case with the druggists mentioned. 

After three legal years as apprentice, the British applicant may 
take the so-called minor, for which he pays a fee of $50. He must 
also have attained his majority. This English examination covers 
more ground than that of the first year in the American College. 
It also embraces such important features as a good knowledge of 
the Poison Act, and a prompt and accurate dispensing of a prescrip- 
tion. The examiner grades him on the time it takes, and his pro- 
ficiency in the art, as evidenced by an actual filling of the prescrip- 
tion. So we see such a young man must be a capable professional 
aid to his employer. 

Later the major examination, a most thorough and searching 
probing of the future " chemist's " knowledge, chemical, pharma- 



A FebruarV P1 wo5 m "} Pharmacy and Chemistry. 79 

ceutical, botanical, posological, etc. For this the examinee must 
pay a fee of $150, and the successful candidate will then be registered 
as a " chemist." The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 
strictly enforces the law against all who attempt to circumvent or 
evade these requirements of the English Pharmacy Act. 

It will have been noticed that the English law takes no cogni- 
zance of the College of Pharmacy, or in fact of any school. Con- 
tinental nations, on the contrary, do demand of the applicants for 
license to practice an attendance at some pharmacy school ; search- 
ing examinations are not, however, overlooked. France may be 
taken as the type case of the dignified profession of pharmacy of 
Germany, Sweden,- Russia, Portugal and the other European 
countries. 

The French law demands of the prospective pharmacien de pre- 
miere classe (the grade of pharmacien de seconde classe is no longer) 
that he shall first spend three years in a pharmacie. He must 
work practically in the laboratory, also shall the eleve, at regular 
intervals of time, have his name inscribed on the records as being 
actually in harness. To be permitted the honor of making these 
" inscriptions," he must first of all be a bachelor of arts. His three 
years completed, as attested by his inscriptions, he must submit to 
an examination called the " validation de stage." This examination 
costs 25 fr. 25, that is, $5.05 ; this is reasonable, but how many of 
our young registered druggists would like to face this first mild 
examination ? 

" Validation de stage " comprises four topics: (1) the preparation 
of a chemical or galenical preparation, as found in the Codex (four 
hours are allowed for this ordeal) ; (2) he must prepare a magistral 
preparation; (3) recognize thirty plants or parts of plants pertain- 
ing to the materia medica; (4) he must answer divers pharmaceuti- 
cal questions. Each of these last three topics requires no more 
than thirty minutes to answer. Having successfully passed this 
" validation de stage," the young man must enter one of the ecoles 
de pharmacie ; ajl have the same identical courses by legai decret, 
but the ecole superieur de Paris is the most noted. 

Three years pass at the College of Pharmacy. Every three 
months must the student be inscribed on the* record, showing that 
he is attending to his duties. At the end of each year the student 
submits to an examination, which is both oral and practical. 



So 



Pharmacy and Chemistry . 



(Am, Jour, Pharm. 
I February, 1905. 



We can do no better than to copy the subjects in which he is 
examined. 

First year deals with the physico-chemical studies and their ap- 
plication to the subject of pharmacy, 

Practical examination in chemical analysis. 

Oral examination in physics, chemistry and toxicology. 

Second year dealing with the natural sciences and their applica- 
tion to pharmacy. 

Practical examination in micrography , 

An oral in botany, zoology, mineralogy and hydrology. If the 
student fails in his practical examination in either of the first two 
years, he fails, and must take the entire work of that year over 
again. 

The third year studies are the truly pharmaceutical. The exami- 
nation embraces two parts. The first part embraces a practical 
examination ; the quantitative determination of the strength of a 
medicament ; also the recognition of simple and complex medica- 
ments or preparations ; this corresponds to our so-called recogni- 
nition of specimens. 

The oral embraces the subjects : chemical and galenical, pharmacy 
and materia medica. 

The second part of the final examination takes up four days. 
Eight chemical or galenical preparations must be made ; the stu- 
dent is also subjected to a thorough oral examination on these prep- 
arations. 

Having successfully passed all examinations and been in regular 
attendance during these past six years, the bachelor of arts becomes 
the pharmacien de premiere classe. 

In conclusion, we may say that the British custom seems more 
applicable to American conditions at the present time. This would 
gradually raise the dignity of pharmacy as a profession. Then in 
the future the French or Continental system might gradually be 
introduced. 



A Feb r rry!?9 a o r 5 m -} Expert Testimony. 81 

THE PROPER SCOPE OF SCIENTIFIC (SO-CALLED EX- 
PERT) TESTIMONY IN TRIALS INVOLVING PHAR- 
MACOLOGIC QUESTIONS. 1 

By Solomon Sows Cohen, M.D., of Philadelphia, 
Professor of Clinical Medicine in Jefferson Medical College. 

{Continued from p. ij.) 

(6) That one must be expected to answer frankly all questions by 
opposing counsel, without reservation or evasion, regardless of the 
effect of such answers upon the theory of either side. 

(7) That one is not to be asked irrelevant questions, for the pur- 
pose of consuming time or raising clouds of dust; or to be asked to 
make captious criticisms of the testimony or methods of others ; or 
in any way to be made a party to methods of presentation of facts 
and opinions, which, however admirable from the viewpoint of an 
attorney's efforts to serve his client, are opposed to the spirit ot 
truth-seeking science. 

It is not to be expected that one can alter the badgering, hector- 
ing, and efforts at confusion which present juridical standards per- 
mit and even applaud in cross-examination. But one can at least 
refuse to supply ammunition for such practices, to support them, or 
to countenance them. 

A more difficult ethical question than we have yet considered is 
that presented to a chemist who has been called upon to make an 
analysis of suspected substances, when his analysis reveals the pres- 
ence of that which the attorney consulting him wishes absent, or 
vice versa. Is he to insist upon being called as a witness ? It is no 
longer a question of testifying—for the attorney will not wish him 
to do so — but of not testifying. An analogous question is some- 
times presented to pathologists. How shall it be decided ? Sup- 
pose a chemist or a pathologist has been asked to examine the tis- 
sues of a person suspected to have been poisoned, for evidence of 
the poison or its effects ? He fails to find such evidence. This is 
not a mere matter of opinion, but of fact. Or, take a somewhat 
simpler case : suppose a chemist is asked to examine suspected 
powders or liquids or foodstuffs for the presence of poison and fails 
to find it ? It is possible that his negative testimony might help 



1 An address delivered before the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Novem- 
ber 15, 1904. 



32 



Expert Testimony. 



( Am. Jour. Pharos 
I February, 1905. 



the accused person. If the public prosecutor nevertheless proceeds 
to trial, being satisfied upon other grounds that such is his duty, 
and fails to call the chemist or pathologist who has made the nega- 
tive finding, is it the latter's duty to volunteer his evidence ? The 
answer to that question is beyond the scope of this paper, but, 
nevertheless, the question needs to be stated. 

SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS. 

(1) The difficulties attending expert evidence upon pharmaco- 
logic questions could be in large part obviated (a) by adopting the 
principle of controlled examinations with preservation of portions of 
materials examined and exhibition of material results ; (f) by sub- 
mitting scientific questions to the judgment of a jury or commis- 
sion of experts who should hear the relevant testimony in the pres- 
ence of both parties and their counsel, and report to the court, and 
whose unanimous report or discrepant reports should be submitted 
to the trial jury as part of the evidence in the case. Before such a 
commission scientific experts might be allowed to appear frankly as 
advocates arguing upon evidence submitted, but no mere opinions 
should be given as evidence ; it being the function of the commis- 
sion to formulate opinions for the guidance of the court having 
final decision of the case. 

(2) As the plan suggested in the foregoing paragraph is not 
likely to be adopted for many years, if ever, the duty devolves upon 
physicians and pharmacists called as expert witnesses under the 
present system to guard their own actions and evidence so that the 
reproach of partisanship and venal interest which now, justly or 
unjustly, attaches to the testimony of experts upon pharmacologic 
questions may be removed from the honest and competent majority 
and a sharp line of distinction be manifest between them and 
others. 

(3) The chief difficulties that honest, sincere and competent ex- 
pert witnesses have to meet are of four orders : 

(a) The necessity to state technical matters in untechnical terms. 
There is no way of avoiding this and the expert can only meet it 
as best he may, deliberately using technical terms when necessary 
to make the record complete, and afterward explaining them as welL 
as possible in untechnical language. 

(b) The combination of witness and advocate in the same person. 



A f^r y P mt\ Expert Testimony. 83 

This tends to the presentation of partial and therefore partisan testi- 
mony, which, in the attempt to draw conclusions from insufficient 
evidence, may lead to undue magnification or minimization of certain 
facts, to the slurring or suppression of material data, to the intro- 
duction of irrelevant matters and especially to captious criticism of 
the investigations or opinions of others. This can be remedied only 
by the expert himself. 

(c) The confusion of judgments of fact, the result of scientific research 
and analysis, with opinions ; and like confusion concerning statements 
of facts of general scientific knowledge. This can be remedied only 
by calling the attention of courts and lawyers to the principles 
involved and thus educating them to a better method. 

(d) Ihe request for formulation of an opinion addressed to one whose 
studies have not qualified him to speak authoritatively upon the special 
question involved. The remedy for this lies exclusively with the 
expert himself. 

(4) It is not fair to condemn lawyers for the abuse and misuse of 
expert evidence, seeing that lawyers can use an expert witness for 
no purpose which the witness refuses to be used for. Courts may, 
however — from the viewpoint of scientific investigation — err both 
in the admission and in the exclusion of expert testimony. 

(5) Newspapers and the public in general usually do grave injus- 
tice to the members of our professions, inasmuch as they do not 
know how often physicians, chemists, and pharmacists, after exami- 
nation of the facts in special cases, refuse to testify on behalf of the 
interests that have consulted them. 

(6) Physicians and pharmacists asked to give expert testimony 
should stipulate that they are to tell the whole truth and to answer 
frankly and fully the questions of counsel on the other side ; that 
they are not to be asked to lend themselves to pettifogging or 
obscuration of any kind ; that their opinions are to be held subject 
to modification by any additional facts that may be disclosed ; and 
that they are not to become advocates on or off the witness stand. 

(7) The expert or scientific advocate has an honorable and useful 
field of work as assistant and adviser to counsel ; but his place in 
court is by the side of counsel, not on the witness stand. 

1525 Walnut Street. 



84 Two Toxicological Investigations. 

A RECORD OF TWO TOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 1 
By Geo. M. Beringer. 

The intent of this paper is to record for scientific reference the 
toxicologic investigations made in two celebrated trials in Burlington 
County, N. J., in both of which women were defendants, and indicted 
for murder in the first degree. These have heretofore been re- 
ported only in the newspapers, which reports are not permanently 
available records or sufficiently accurate for scientific reference. 

The case of the State of New Jersey vs. May L. F. Haines. On 
March 31, 1 901, Gwendoline Haines, a frail child, aged two years 
and nine months, stepdaughter of the defendant, died without having 
had sufficient medical attendance, and under circumstances that were 
considered suspicious. The only other occupants of the house at 
the time were Mrs. Haines and her infant son, about one year old* 

About eight o'clock in the evening of that day the mother called 
at the office of a physician nearby, explaining that Gwendoline was 
suffering from a slight cold, and he prescribed a few homeopathic 
pellets of aconite. About one hour afterward she again called and 
requested his immediate attendance on the child, who, she said, had 
a convulsion. The physician responded promptly, as he lived but a 
few hundred yards away; but on arrival at the house found the 
child dead. He discovered no evidence of convulsions, but numer- 
ous bruises on the body, and as the neighbors told him of harsh 
treatment and punishment having been administered by the step- 
mother, notably a severe beating the day prior, he declined to issue 
a death certificate and referred the case to the coroner. 

The undertaker, however, was promptly summoned, arriving at 
midnight ; he immediately embalmed the body, injecting into the 
abdominal cavity near the navel about 1 pint of fluid. The follow- 
ing day the coroner issued a burial permit, and within a few days 
the body was interred in Harleigh Cemetery, at Camden, N. J. 

Relatives on the child's maternal side, noticing the scars and 
bruises on the child's corpse, demanded an official investigation, and 
on Saturday, April 6, 1 901, the body was disinterred, and a post- 
mortem examination made by Dr. R. H. Parsons and Dr. A. H. Small, 
the authorities anticipating the finding only of evidence of severe 



^ead at the Pharmaceutical Meeting held at the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, November 15, 1904. 



A Feb J rua r r y ri9 a o r 5™'} Two Toxicological Investigations. 85 

beating. These doctors reported that they found the nose broken, 
eyes black and blue, the upper lip deeply cut, and the left ear partly 
torn from the scalp, and numerous other bruises on the body and 
head. The direct cause of death they then considered as due to 
meningitis, the meninges being greatly congested and angry red 
immediately underneath a decided contusion of the scalp. 

There was very little to suggest even the possibility of criminal 
poisoning, merely some abrasions and scars on the chin and lower 
lip attracted the attention of a relative as possibly indicating burns 
from carbolic acid. Desiring to satisfy the imaginations of the rela- 
tives, portions of the viscera were removed, and after placing these 
in jars, were handed to Mr. J. E. Doughty, a grand-uncle of the 
child, to deliver to a chemist. With no definite idea as to what to 
do, or as to what was expected of him, he carried them to Philadel- 
phia to consult with his brother, and he returned again that evening 
to his home at Haddonfield, N. J., and retained the package con- 
taing these jars in his possession until Monday morning, April 
8th, when finally, acting under positive instructions from the prose- 
cutor, he delivered them to the writer, at 1 1 a.m. 

The viscera were contained in two 1 -quart Mason's fruit jars, 
wrapped in newspaper and enclosed in a paste-board box, and then 
placed in a wicker-ware hamper, which was securely tied with twine, 
and showed no evidence of having been tampered with. On open- 
ing the hamper and package I found the two jars, the one had a 
piece of paper tied to it, on which was inscribed, " This jar contains 
stomach, liver and kidneys." It contained, however, the stomach, 
part of liver, one kidney and the heart, and all in a well-preserved 
condition, and in addition, a small amount of liquid exudation. The 
other jar contained the brain, and was so marked by a piece of 
paper attached by a string. 

The lack of proper precautions exhibited in the placing of a 
number of organs in the same jar, leaving the jars unsealed, and 
for nearly two full days in the custody of an unofficial citizen, to be 
delivered to the chemist, even after having been carried out of the 
jurisdiction of the State, were certainly inconsiderate acts, and, in 
the light of subsequent developments, it was feared at one time 
might have proved a serious detriment to the case. Consequently, 
the prosecutor, after receiving my report, decided to have a second 
autopsy, which was made by the same physicians on April 20th> 



86 Two Toxicological Investigations. { A Feb J r°uarVfi9 a o5 m ' 

when the following materials were removed : the remaining kidney, 
8 inches of the intestines, a section o ' the liver, a section of the 
lung, the spleen, and portions of the muscular tissue from the calves 
of both legs. These were placed in separate, new, clean jars and 
sealed, and delivered in person to Prof. Frank X. Moerk for 
analysis. 

The Stomach and Contents. — The stomach was first taken for ex- 
amination. It was in good condition and tied at both ends with a 
white string in surgeon's knots. It was cut open and the contents 
poured into a clean dish. The mucous surface was carefully exam- 
ined, and was almost of a uniform pale pinkish color, and showed 
no evidence of undue inflammation or reddening. In a few places 
some mucus-like substance still persisted, and an examination by 
the unaided eye, and also with a pocket lens, failed to disclose any 
particles of grit or crystals. There were only a few fine particles, 
resembling charcoal, adhering to the wall at different points. The 
contents consisted of 50 c.c. of partly digested food, resembling and 
having the odor of sour milk. The surface was washed with the 
distilled water, and the washing added to the contents, and the 
entire bulk made up to 100 c.c. 

One-quarter of this amount (25 c.c.) was taken and rendered dis- 
tinctly acid, and distilled for volatile poisons, such as hydrocyanic 
acid or carbolic acid, which had been suggested ; the results, how- 
ever, were negative. Another 25 c.c. was tested for alkaloids or 
other organic poisons, but I failed to get any results, and a small 
portion was then acidified and tested with hydrogen sulphide. It 
yielded a decided yellow precipitate. This precipitate was found to 
be insoluble in hydrochloric acid, but soluble in ammonia, ammo- 
ilium carbonate and potassium bisulphite, indicating that it was 
arsenious sulphide. This conclusion was readily confirmed on the 
application of Reinsch's test with a portion of the sulphide. Crystals 
of arsenic trioxide were readily obtained by sublimation from the 
copper, and on dissolving these from the tube with a small quantity 
of boiling w r ater, the solution readily responded with characteristic 
arsenic precipitates with ammonia-cupric sulphate and silver nitrate. 
A small portion of the sulphide mixed with a dry sodic carbonate, 
and potassium cyanide was readily reduced, giving a garlic-like 
odor, and forming a metallic ring on the tube. With sodium oxa- 
late as a reducing agent, similar results were obtained, and these 



A Feb J rXrya9 a o r o m '} Two Toxico logical Investigations. 87 

metallic rings or mirrors were readily oxidized to arsenic trioxide. 
The remaining one-half of the stomach contents was taken for the 
quantitative determination of the arsenic. This was mixed with 
5 c.c. hydrochloric acid and 50 c.c. distilled water and warmed and 
strained, and the residue again washed with water acidified with 
hydrochloric acid, the strained liquids mixed, filtered and precipi- 
tated with hydrogen sulphide. The sulphide was purified by solution 
in ammonium hydroxide, and reprecipitated with hydrochloric acid 
in the presence of a few drops of hydrogen sulphide solution, the 
solution and reprecipitation being repeated until it was free from 
organic matter. The purified sulphide was then dried and washed 
with carbon disulphide, then with petroleum ether, dried, finally 
dissolved off the filter with ammonium hydroxide and evaporated 
on a tared watch crystal. The yield of arsenic sulphide was 1 
gram, equivalent to 2 48 grains of arsenious acid, for the entire 
stomach contents. 

In order to apply Marsh's test, a portion of the sulphide was 
oxidized in a porcelain crucible with nitric acid, and then fused with 
sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate. The fused mass dissolved in 
water, acidified with sulphuric acid, and evaporated until fumes were 
given off, and then cooled, and diluted with water. This solution 
containing arsenic as sodium arseniate, was used in the Marsh's 
test, and a few drops were sufficient to give beautiful tube and plate 
mirrors of arsenic. 

Stomach Wall. — The membrane of the stomach, or stomach 
wall, was cut up into small pieces and digested in a water bath, by 
the method proposed by Fresenius and Babo, using 100 c.c. water 
and 40 c.c. pure hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate grad- 
ually added, until a clear solution resulted. This was filtered and 
warmed until the odor of chlorine was dissipated, and the arsenic 
then precipitated as sulphide, and the sulphide purified from sul- 
phur and organic impurities in the same manner as that obtained 
from the stomach contents. The results calculated as arsenic 
trioxide, gave 3-348 grains obtained from the stomach wall. 

Ike Liver. — Simultaneously with the examination of the stomach 
contents, a portion of the liver was tested for organic poisons, with 
negative results. One-half of the part of the liver was utilized for 
the determination of arsenic, and the method of Fresenius and 
Babo was found satisfactory. The sulphide, however, contained a 



88 



Two Toxicological Investigations. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
I February, 1905. 



quantity of coloring matter associated with other organic matter, 
so that the method of purifying by solution in ammonia was found 
to be inapplicable. It was necessary to oxidize it with fuming nitric 
acid, convert it into a sodium salt, and reprecipitate the sulphide, 
which was dried, washed with carbon disulphide, petroleum ether, 
and finally dissolved in ammonium hydroxide and evaporated on a 
tared watch crystal. The results indicated 3*93 grains arsenic tri- 
oxide present in the section of liver I examined. 

The Kidney. — The kidney was treated in the same way as the 
liver, and yielded 1-589 grains arsenic trioxide. 

The Heart —This was also treated in the same way as the liver, 
and yielded 0-49 grains arsenic trioxide. 

The Liquid in the Jar. — The exudation from these organs remain- 
ing in the jar was also extracted, and yielded 0-617 grains. 

The Brain. — The brain matter weighed 750 grammes, and was in 
a pulpy and badly decomposed condition when received. It was sub- 
jected to the method of Fresenius and Babo, and the filtered clear 
solution, on treating with hydrogen sulphide, yielded a decided pre- 
cipitate, which separated very slowly, and which consisted almost 
entirely of organic matter. The quantity of arsenic present was so 
small as to yield only the very faintest reaction with Reinsch's and 
with Marsh's tests, and this trace was not ponderable. 

My determinations were based upon the older method of sepa- 
rating the arsenic as sulphide, and yielded a total of 12-454 grains 
of arsenic trioxide from the materials I examined. 

RESULTS OBTAINED BY PROFESSOR MOERK. 

Prof. Frank X. Moerk adopted a similar method for the separa- 
tion of the arsenic from the materials he analyzed. He reported 
that he purified the sulphide by oxidation with nitric acid, then dis- 
solved in ammonia, and converted it into magnesium-ammonium 
arsenate, from which the quantity of arsenic trioxide was calculated. 

The results were as follows : 

The kidney weighed 557*86 grains, and yielded 1-471 grains 
As 2 3 - 

The piece of intestine weighed 422-83 grains, and yielded 1-147 
grains As 2 3 . 

The spleen weighed 339-5 grains, and yielded -656 grains As 2 O s . 



A peb J r uaryTi9 a o r o m '} Two To xicological Investigations. 89 

The section of the lung weighed 653-85 grains, and yielded -433 
grains As 2 O s . 

The section of the liver weighed 969-43 grains, and yielded 1-354 
grains As 2 3 . 

The muscles of the legs gave a very faint trace, not sufficient to 
weigh. From his examinations he isolated 5-061 grains of arsenic 
trioxide, a total of 17-5 grains having been recovered from the 
organs examined by both. Typical specimens and tests were pre- 
pared from each organ, and exhibited in the trial along with the 
recovered arsenic. 

Ihe Embalming Fluid. — Suspecting that the embalming fluid was 
an arsenical solution, a sample was immediately procured from the 
undertaker, who stated positively that it was from the very same 
case and lot as used in embalming this body. Analysis showed it 
to contain as the valuable ingredients, formaldehyde and potassium 
nitrate, but to be entirely free from arsenic. Another sample was 
purchased in Philadelphia, and analyzed, with the same results. 

The indictment against Mrs. May L. F. Haines was moved at 
Mount Holly on March 25, 1902, before Judge Charles G. Garrison, 
Prosecutor Samuel A. Atkinson, Esq., and J. C. Hendrickson, Esq., 
for the State, and Eckard P. Budd, Esq., for the defense. The trial 
lasted for more than a week, and every point was strongly contested. 
The State contended that death was due to meningitis, produced by 
either the wounds from cruel beating, or from arsenical poisoning, 
or from a combination of both. The defense claimed that the 
arsenic found was introduced after death by the embalming pro- 
cess. Their contention was strengthened by recalling the under- 
taker, who, although he had testified both at the coroner's inquest 
and as a witness for the prosecution, at the trial, that he had used 
only this arsenic-free embalming fluid for a long time prior to this 
case ; nevertheless, as a witness for the defense, he appeared to be in 
doubt, and stated that he occasionally used two other embalming 
fluids, both of which were stated to contain arsenic, and had used 
them at times with the same syringe as used in this case. 

The jury acquitted the defendant. 

THE CASE OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY VS. ANNIE R. PHARES. 

The defendant in this case was charged with having killed her 
husband, Albert A. Phares, of Springfield Township, Burlington 



go Two To xico logical Investigations. {^ebruaryTf™' 

County, by the administration of strychnine, on March 9, 1903. 
The evidence showed that her husband was strong, hearty and 
generally healthy, and of a cheerful disposition, who, to the day of 
his death, was planning and working for his re-election as constable. 
At this time, he had some slight ailment, diarrhoea and vomiting. 
On the morning of this particular day the wife drove to Columbus, 
a near-by town, and visited the office of Dr. J. E. Dubell, who pre. 
scribed for her husband some diarrhoea tablets, containing calo- 
mel, morphine sulphate, capsicum, ipecac and camphor, and also a 
liquid containing fluid extract of gentian and syrup. At the doc- 
tor's office she inquired if it would be necessary for her to obtain a 
prescription in order to purchase strychnine. She then proceeded 
to a druggist in the same town and purchased 30 grains of strych- 
nine, which was properly labeled, and the sale entered in his poison 
record, along with the name of the witness to the sale, and the use 
for which the strychnine was said to be needed, namely, " to kill 
rats." She inquired here as to the amount of strychnine it would 
take to kill a man, and was cautioned to be very careful, as the 
amount was sufficient to kill many persons. 

Shortly after reaching home she administered to her husband, in 
the presence of a friend, who had called, one-third of a teaspoonful 
of brown powder. Mr. Phares complained of the intense bitterness 
of the medicine. They all sat down in the kitchen to dinner, but 
the husband ate only a few spoonfuls of a proprietary food known as 
" Corn Crisp," and then, complaining of not feeling well, retired to 
a lounge in the sitting-room adjoining, the rest of the company 
remaining in the kitchen until the meal was completed. After a 
short time the defendant administered a second dose of the same 
powder, and about the same amount as in the first dose. The hus- 
band again complained of the exceedingly bitter taste, and very 
soon after this he became restless and uneasy. His muscles began 
to twitch and jerk, he clenched his hands, straightened out his legs, 
threw the head back, and had convulsions in rapid succession. In 
one of these paroxysms he fell off the lounge. He retained con- 
sciousness, the mind remained clear, and he continually complained 
of the bitter taste of the medicine, and called for water and milk. 
The convulsions grew worse, and he died at 7.15 p.m., before the 
arrival of the physician. 

Immediately alter the death of her husband, the defendant made 



A Feb J ruaiVri905 m '} Two Toxico logical Investigations. 91 

conflicting statements regarding the disposition of the strychnine 
she had purchased, stating that she had burned it in the presence 
of three witnesses, who testified that they did not see her burn any 
in their presence, and knew nothing at all of the purchase of the 
poison until it became public, through the investigation of the 
authorities. 

The autopsy was conducted the next day by Dr. Richard H. 
Parsons and Dr. J. E. Dubell The body then exhibited marked 
rigidity, the arms and wrists were bent, and the hands clinched, 
the legs extended, the feet arched and turned inward, and the head 
thrown back. The membrane covering the brain and upper part 
of the cord was somewhat engorged with blood. The heart was 
full of dark blood, and the brain, heart, lungs and kidneys were all 
in a healthy condition. The post-mortem examination failed to 
reveal the cause of death. 

The various organs removed from the body were each placed by 
Dr. Parsons in perfectly clean, new fruit jars, labelled, tied and 
sealed, and delivered to the writer in person on Tuesday, March 10th. 

The Stomach and Contents. — The stomach and contents weighed 
410 grammes. The external appearance of this stomach showed 
numerous congested blood-vessels, giving it a distinct bright red 
coloration throughout. 1 

The stomach was cut open and the contents poured into a clean 
dish. This consisted of a fluid mass of yellowish green color, which 
weighed 145 grammes, and mixed with this partly digested food 
were some fat globules, but no particles of meat. A microscopic 
examination showed that the solid part of the contents consisted 
largely of starch, many of the grains still retaining sufficient of the 
characteristic shape and markings by which corn and pea starch 
were identified. The internal surface of the stomach showed the 
mucous membrane of a yellowish color, marked here and there by 
materials of a yellowish-green color, and close inspection showed 
only a few small blood clots to ife inch in diameter, but no 
marked signs of inflammation or corrosion. 

^he writer is not a pathologist, and does not know if the appearance of the 
external surface of this stomach had any significance whatever, but he was im- 
pressed with the fact, because a short time before he had made the examina- 
tion of the organs of a dog poisoned by strychnine, and the stomach of the 
animal showed very similar coloration and arterial congestion. 



92 Two Toxicological Investigations. { A rebruarV P iw5 m ' 

Preliminary tests for volatile poisons and for non-organic poisons 
gave negative results, but a few drops of the filtered liquid contents 
gave distinct creamy precipitate, with Meyer's reagent, and a de- 
cided brown precipitate with iodo-potassic iodide. The following 
method which had on previous occasions given good results was 
adopted. The stomach wall was cut up into small pieces with a 
clean scissors, and then beaten to a pulp, and this and the stomach 
contents warmed on a water bath for one hour, with 100 c.c. of dis- 
tilled water and sufficient sulphuric acid added to render it distinctly 
acid. This was now strained through a double piece of clean 
washed gauze and the dregs warmed up again with 100 c.c. of acid- 
ulated water, and again strained with pressure. The strained liquid 
acid solutions were combined, filtrated and evaporated on the water 
bath to a syrupy consistence. This was extracted with alcohol by 
repeated application and decantation. The alcoholic solution fil- 
tered and evaporated, and the residue extracted by treating with 
portions of distilled water, acidulated with sulphuric acid, as long 
as the washing gave a precipitate with Meyer's reagent. This acid 
aqueous liquid concentrated on the water bath to about 40 c.c. was 
filtered into a separatory funnel, and then treated successively with 
petroleum ether, chloroform and amyl alcohol. These solvents 
removed a large amount of the extraneous coloring matter and 
organic substances from the acid solution. To remove traces of the 
amyl alcohol, it was again washed with petroleum ether, then sepa- 
rated and warmed for a few minutes to dispel any traces of the lat- 
ter solvent, then cooled and returned to the funnel and rendered 
alkaline by ammonium hydroxide and extracted with several suc- 
cessive portions of chloroform. The chloroform solution on evapo- 
ration gave a residue, having a very bitter taste, giving alkaloidal 
reactions, and imperfectly the well-known strychnine color reaction 
with potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. 

This residue, not being colorless or free from foreign organic sub- 
stances, needed further purification, which was satisfactorily accom- 
plished by the following process : The chloroform residue of impure 
alkaloid was dissolved in a few cubic centimeters of distilled water 
and just sufficient sulphuric acid to render the solution faintly acid. 
This was now filtered through a minute filter into a small sepa- 
ratory funnel, and washed with small portions of chloroform as long 
as the chloroform extracted coloring. The solution was now 



A Feb J r u U aryTi9a^ u "} Two Toxico logical Investigations. 93 

rendered alkaline with ammonium hydroxide and then sufficient 
acetic acid added to render just acid and again extracted with por- 
tions of chloroform as long as coloring was removed. It was then 
again rendered alkaline with ammonium hydroxide and extracted 
with chloroform as alkaloid. This process of purification was 
repeated until the resulting alkaloidal residue was pure white and 
crystalline. A considerable portion of the alkaloid was undoubt- 
edly lost in this process of purification, but the resulting alkaloid in 
each case was finally pure, and gave clearly and sharply the charac- 
teristic color reaction with sulphuric acid, and oxidizing agents. 

The pure strychnine thus isolated from the stomach and contents 
weighed 5 milligrammes, equivalent to ^ of a grain. 

A minute quantity of the recovered alkaloid was dissolved in 
water acidulated with a trace of acetic acid, and injected under the 
skin of a frog. His breathing became quick and hasty, and in a few 
seconds he attempted to jump, and his hind legs, after one or two 
jumps, became quite stiff, and in four minutes after the injection he 
attempted to jump but fell over on his back, and could not get up 
again, and he continued in this attitude, having tetanic convulsions, 
with straightening of the limbs, arching of back, etc. At the least 
touch there would be produced the characteristic strychnine tetanic 
spasms, and death finally resulted. 

The portion of the liver weighed 320 grammes and was subjected 
to the same method of examination as the stomach. The coloring 
matters here present clung very tenaciously to the alkaloidal residue 
and a pure white product was obtained only after several purifica- 
tions. The isolated pure white strychnine weighed 1*7 milligrammes, 
equivalent to -JL grain. 

The two kidneys weighed 394 grammes, and the entire amount 
was used in the examination. The recovered purified alkaloid 
weighed 2-2 milligrammes, equivalent to ^ grain of strychnine. 

The total amount of strychnine recovered from these organs 
amounted to 8-9 milligrammes, equivalent to l of a grain or a little 
more than l grain of strychnine sulphate. The total weight of the 
organs examined was approximately 2^ pounds. The recovered 
alkaloid in each of the three determinations was pure, colorless and 
gave the characteristic color reactions and the physiological test for 
strychnine. 

The indictment against Mrs. Phares was moved at Mount Holly 



94 



Editorial. 



I Am. Jour. Pnarm. 
1 February, 1905. 



on June 29, 1903, before Judge Charles G. Garrison. Samuel Atkin- 
son, Esq., Prosecutor of the County, for the State, and Eckard P. 
Budd, Esq., for the defense. 

The State alleged as motives for the crime the collection of a life 
insurance policy of $1, 000, carried by the husband, and the desire 
of the defendant to marry a young farmhand, with whom she had 
maintained improper relations for a long time. The latter was ad- 
mitted by the defense, and also that death was undoubtedly the 
result of strychnine poisoning, but the defendant testified in her 
own behalf, that the strychnine had been placed on a desk in the 
sitting-room, and that her husband must have taken same while 
alone in the room during the time that the rest of the party were at 
dinner. The powdered condition of the medicine she explained by 
the fact that the envelope in which the doctor had dispensed the 
tablets had fallen on the carriage floor, and had accidentally been 
trodden on by her heel on the way home. 

The jury considered this plea as establishing a reasonable doubt, 
and sufficient to justify them in rendering a verdict of acquittal. 



EDITORIAL. 

EXPERT TESTIMONY. 

With this issue is completed the paper on expert testimony by 
Dr. Cohen, which was begun in our January issue. Dr. Cohen has 
given no little thought to this subject, having more than a year ago 
read a paper on "The Judicial Determination of the Cause of Death " 
before the Philadelphia Medical Jurisprudence Society. 

Dr. Cohen's presentation of the subject leaves no doubt as to the 
proper course to be pursued when either the analyst or physician is 
called upon to testify in cases involving pharmacological questions, 
or indeed as to what should be the attitude oi scientific experts in 
general. In addition Dr. Cohen suggests a method in the employ- 
ment of experts, which, if followed, would raise expert testimony 
from a plane where it is too often the subject of ridicule at the hands 
of both lawyers and courts, to a plane where it would have the 
stamp of truth and authority. Not only this, such a method would 
largely do away with the waste of time and the great expense 
involved in trials where expert testimony is employed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1905. J 



Editorial. 



95 



That the method suggested by Dr. Cohen is opportune and even 
likely to be carried out in a measure at an early day is shown by the 
fact that an attempt is now being made by the Massachusetts legisla- 
ture " to pass a bill to regulate the employment of expert witnesses, to 
reduce the cost of expert testimony and to introduce official expert 
evidence by giving the courts authority in homicide cases to appoint 
one or more suitable and disinterested persons to investigate the 
issues and testify at the trial. This provision, however, does not pre- 
vent either the prosecution or the defense from producing other 
expert witnesses. The proposed measure provides that no expert 
witness shall be paid compensation for his services in excess of the 
ordinary witness fees provided by law, unless the court awards him 
a larger sum. 

"The bill provides that no more than three experts shall be allowed 
to testify on either side, except in prosecutions for murder. The 
proposed legislation is not to apply to witnesses testifying to the 
1 established facts or deductions of science, nor to any other specific 
facts, but only to witnesses testifying to matters of opinion.' The 
bill seems to be aimed particularly at the hand-writing expert, whose 
testimony is necessarily an expression of opinion." 

The question is a far-reaching one, not only concerning the public 
welfare and the legal profession, but also the status of the scientific 
expert and even of science itself ; for if supposedly scientific men 
can be found who render opinions diametrically opposed when 
there should be but one opinion or judgment on the same set of 
facts, what shall we say of the testimony of such men and of the 
sciences which they represent, or even of truth itself? It is high 
time that an effort be made to rescue the calling of the scientific 
expert from the grip of the sordid influences which surround it and 
to place it where it belongs, not only that the calling may not fall 
wholly into disrepute, but that the best interests of those it is 
intended to benefit may not suffer. 

We are fortunate in having this subject presented at this time in 
the clear and convincing manner it is in Dr. Cohen's paper. 



96 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { A reb J r°ua r ryTi9 a o5 m ' 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Pharmacal Jurisprudence. By Harley R. Wiley, A.B., LL.B. 
Hicks-Judd Company, San Francisco. 

The author in his preface states that he was impelled to this col- 
lation of legal principles and cases relating to the legal status of 
pharmacy through an actual need for a treatise or collection of au- 
thorities as an aid to his work as a lecturer on the subject in the 
University of California. 

The same need has been felt by all pharmacists actively engaged 
in attending to the interests of the profession in legislative matters 
as well as by lawyers having cases in which a clear understanding 
of the accepted relations of the profession of pharmacy to statute, 
case and constitutional law was necessary. 

The opening chapter is a short but clear historical resume of the 
evolution of the fundamental legal principles involved that is so 
lacking in the usual technical phraseology of legal text-books that 
the average pharmacist can read it with understanding, and, it might 
be added, will be benefited by doing so. 

The author clearly affirms and vigorously sustains by logical 
argument the constitutionality of properly framed laws regulating 
the practice of pharmacy, and in addition cites judicial opinions 
from authorities of the highest standing in support of this view of 
the question. 

There is a clear exposition of the border line between the practice 
of pharmacy and medicine that is drawn by the statutes relating to 
the two professions. 

The chapter on contracts explains clearly the difference between 
the common law doctrine of " Caveat emptor," in which the pur- 
chaser relies upon his own judgment, and " Caveat venditor," in 
which the seller is warned to beware on the ground that he is the 
responsible party to the transaction on account of his special knowl- 
edge — thus explaining the principle that a pharmacist should and 
does guarantee to all who seek his services that he has the requisite 
scientific skill and knowledge. 

The law ot liability of the pharmacist in his relations with his 
patrons is clearly set forth in a special chapter, and in view of the 
increasing activity of Pure Food Commissions and State Boards of 
Pharmacy, it is a matter that will be profitably studied by any phar- 
macist. 



A Febr° u Yry!?9 a o5 m '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 97 

The work is bound with an alphabetical table of cases that will 
prove useful to all lawyers having pharmaceutical clients. 

Taken in its entirety as an example of industry in an untilled 
field, there is small reason for the modest plea of the author in 
the preface, " that those who examine its contents will do so with 
such indulgence as may seem due to the work as a pioneer in its 
peculiar field." W. L. Cliffe. 



Text-book of Organic Chemistry. By Henry Leffmann, A.M., 
M.D., and Charles H. LaWall, Ph.G. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. 1904. Pp. 231. 

This little book is stated in the preface to be offered as an aid to 
the study of organic chemistry in connection with general and pro- 
fessional courses. 

The subject of organic chemistry, whether considered from the 
purely scientific side or from the points of view of its technical appli- 
cation and its bearing on medicine and pharmacy, has grown to 
such dimensions that it is a matter of difficulty to know what to 
select for discussion. Whether a book of such limited size shall 
endeavor merely to serve as an introduction to the understanding 
of the field, or whether it shall endeavor to give descriptions and 
details as to any considerable number of compounds, is the question 
for decision. Remsen's well-known little book on Organic Chem- 
istry is specifically an introduction to the subject, and mentions a 
limited number of compounds, with little descriptive matter ; this 
book devotes 48 pages to the principles of organic chemistry and 
166 pages to descriptive chemistry. 

The section on the principles is in general well stated, but, being 
put compactly together, before any illustrative account of special 
compounds appears, is liable to lead to an attempt at memorizing 
work so well known and deplored by the teacher of chemistry. 
Pages 47 and 48 are specially noted as likely to encourage this kind 
of study. 

The descriptive section, beginning on page 49, is, however, very 
clearly and interestingly written and conveys much information of 
value to the medical or pharmaceutical student. The numbered 
experiments following each section are well chosen and very help- 
ful to the student who will carry them through. Attention is called, 
for example, to the experiments on pages no and n 1 following 



98 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^ki™lij.mt' 

the section on the carbohydrates as showing how helpful such prac- 
tical tests can be made. 

Some inaccuracies should be noted, which will, of course, be cor- 
rected in a future edition. On page 73, the formula of calcium 
carbonate, in the last line, wants the final figure 3 ; on page 99 the 
formula of dextrose should be C 6 H 12 6 ; on page 101 the graphic 
formula for the ketonic glycerose is incorrectly given ; on page 130, 
in the third line from the bottom, " oxidation " should read " nitra- 
tion ; " on page 198 the formula of hypoxanthin has 1 oxygen atom 
too much. 

We would also criticise the authors' choice of terms in several 
places. On pages 59 and 60 they speak of ethyl aldehyde, propyl 
aldehyde, butyl aldehyde and amyl aldehyde. The almost universal 
usage of organic chemists is to name the aldehyde by the name of 
the oxidized radical, making these acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, 
butyraldehyde and valeraldehyde. On page 126 the authors use 
the rather unusual spelling " kreasote." The German word is 
" kreosot," and the English word used by Allen, the British Phar- 
macopoeia and others is " creosote." And on page 146 the use of 
the term " methyl anilines " as a synonym for " toluidines " is an 
error which has inadvertently crept in. In methyl aniline the methyl 
has been introduced in the side chain, and not in the nucleus, as in 
toluidine. 

The sections on the proteids and on ptomaines and leucomaines 
are both very interesting presentations of these important subjects. 
The book is neatly gotten up and attractive in appearance. 

S. P. Sadtler. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held 
December 27, 1904, at 4 o'clock p.m., in the Library. The inclement weather 
and the Christmas holidy prevented the usual attendance, but ten members 
being present. 

The President, Howard B. French, presided. The minutes of the semi-an- 
nual meeting, held September 26, and of the special meeting (called to take 
action on the death of First Vice-President William J. Jenks) were read and 
approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for September, October and November 
were read by the Registrar, and approved. 

The resignations of Lyman F. Kebler and H. H. Cone, previously offered, 
were accepted. 



A Febr°uYrV!?905 m *} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 99 

A letter was read from Miss Lydia D. Jenks, daughter of the late William J. 
Jenks, on behalf of herself and brothers, expressing their deep sense of appre- 
ciation of the sentiments embodied in the engrossed resolutions recently 
received by them from the College. 

ABSTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES — 

SEPTEMBER. 

The Committee on Property reported having had the rewiring 
for the electric lighting done in accordance with the inspector's 
plans. 

Also that additional cases had been built in the pharmaceutical 
laboratory, and that all the woodwork had been repainted and put 
in first-class condition. 

The Committee on Library reported quite a number of accessions, 
both by gift and by purchase. 

Jesse Conner Chisholm, P.D., Joshua Evans Eckman and Charles 
Dunning French, having complied with all the requirements, were 
granted certificates of Proficiency in Chemistry. 

The Committee on Commencement reported having secured the 
Academy of Music for the evening of May 18, 1905, for the Com- 
mencement. 

The statement was made that the late William Weightman had 
purchased the property at 112 North Eighteenth Street, and that 
satisfactory arrangements had been made to lease it to the Board 
of Governors of the College House Association. 

A letter was read from A. B. Hammond, Secretary of the Board 
of Education of Philadelphia, thanking the Board of Trustees for 
the Scholarship offered to the pupils of the public schools. 



OCTOBER. 

Section 7, Article VIII, of the By-Laws was amended to read : 
" The fee for examination and conferring of any degree and diploma 
of the College shall be $15, payable but once. The fee for exami- 
nation and conferring of the Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry 
shall be $15, and the fee for granting a certificate for any special 
course not otherwise provided for shall be $5." 

The Committee on Property reported everthing in good condition. 

Mr. W. A. Rumsey reported for the Board of Governors of the 
College House that all the necessary alterations had been completed. 



IOO 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
1 February, 1905. 



Fifty students were now in the House, and it was expected it would 
soon be full. 

The Committee on Membership was announced, viz. : Henry 
Kraemer, W. A. Rumsey, H. L. Stiles, James T. Shinn and C. A. 
Weidemann. 

Mr. W. L. Cliffe, on behalf of the State Board of Pharmacy, 
expressed their appreciation of courtesies extended by the Board 
of Trustees. 

Mr. Irwin L Peiffer was elected to active membership. 

Professor Remington announced that through the liberality of 
Mrs. John R. Drexel, a granddaughter of Henry Troth, one of the 
founders of the College, there would be established another scholar- 
ship, to be called the Troth Scholarship. 

NOVEMBER. 

The Committee on Library reported a number of additions by 
purchase, and by donations from Henry N. Rittenhouse and C. D. 
Ritchie. 

The President announced that Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler had now 
completed twenty-five years' service in the College. 

The Committee on Scholarships reported having awarded nine 
scholarships, two being to pupils from the public schools. 

Aubrey H. Weightman, Pierce A. Dietrich and Charles W. Par- 
sons were elected to active membership. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Secretary. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The Pharmaceutical Meeting in February will be held on Tuesday afternoon, 
the 14th, at 3 o'clock, in the Museum of the College. 

Dr. H. W. Wiley, Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, will give an address on "The Danger in the Use 
of Methyl Alcohol for Domestic Purposes.' ; 

Mahlon N. Kline, Chairman of the Committee on Legislation of the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association, will read a paper on "Some Reasons why 
the Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol should be Reduced, and why our Gov- 
ernment should provide Free Denaturized Alcohol for Use in the Arts." 

Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler will read a paper on " The Detection of Methyl Alco- 
hol in Ethyl Alcohol." 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, 1905. 

METHYL ALCOHOL— WHAT IS IT AND WHAT IS IT 

GOOD FOR? 

By Dr. H. W. Wiley, 
Chief of Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture. 

When wood, especially hard wood, such as oak, hickory and 
beech, is heated in closed retorts to which oxygen does not have 
access, many products result. The volatile products are distilled 
and consist of wood tar, creosote, carbolic acid, acetic acid, acetone 
and methyl alcohol, all of which are solid or liquid bodies at ordi- 
nary temperature. 

There are various gaseous products of distillation also produced, 
many of which are combustible. The mixed watery distillate which 
comes over is known as pyroligneous acid. It consists of water, 
acetic acid, methyl alcohol, acetone, etc. The first fraction obtained 
by distilling the crude pyroligneous acid is sometimes known as wood 
spirit, and with more or less purification is used largely as a denatur- 
ing agent for ordinary ethyl alcohol. The taste and odor of this 
product are so disagreeable as to prevent the utilization of the ethyl 
alcohol with which it is mixed for potable purposes. Methyl alcohol 
in a greater or less degree of purity can be secured from this mix. 
ture by diluting with water, which throws out some of the other 
liquid products which are then separated, and the residual alcohol 
is then redistilled over lime in a chambered or rectifying still. The 
spirit thus removed is filtered through charcoal to complete the rec- 
tification. Where a very concentrated methyl alcohol is to be se- 
cured, several redistillations are necessary. Acetone, although it 
has a lower boiling point than methyl alcohol, cannot be completely 
separated from the latter even by repeated distillation over lime. 

fioi) 



102 



Methyl Alcohol. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1905. 



In order to separate the acetone completely the mixture is treated 
with chloride of lime, whereby the acetone is converted into chloro- 
form. 

The chief gaseous products of distillation are hydrogen, methane, 
ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Methyl 
alcohol has been said to occur in traces in the juice of some plants, 
and methyl salicylate is a well-known natural product commonly 
called oil of wintergreen. Pure methyl alcohol has a specific gravity 
at zero of 0.810 and boils at 66° C. 

Owing to its having almost the same density as ethyl alcohol it is 
useless to try to distinguish between these two bodies or one of 
them in a mixture with the other by specific gravity alone. Al- 
though ethyl alcohol boils at 12 higher than methyl, it is very dif- 
ficult to completely separate them by fractional distillation. Many 
of the methods of detecting methyl alcohol in mixtures, qualita- 
tively, and of estimating it quantitatively, are very unsatisfactory and 
to a certain extent unreliable. There are one or two methods, how- 
ever, which are reasonably satisfactory and which are as follows : 

A simple color reaction for methyl alcohol is described in the 
American Chemical Journal, Vol. xxi, 1899, p. 266. This test de- 
pends upon the oxidation of methyl alcohol to formaldehyde, and 
the detection of the presence o the latter compound by the reaction 
with resorcin and sulphuric acid. This is a test which can be easily 
applied, and therefore I will give it in sufficient detail for ordinary 
purposes. 

It is best that the solution to be examined should be previously 
distilled, but this is not always necessary. A spiral copper wire is 
heated to a bright red heat and plunged into a small quantity of the 
mixed alcohols to be examined. It is well, if the solution is dilute, 
to repeat this process several times. If the alcohol is concentrated 
it should be diluted before the application of the test. One drop of 
1 per cent, aqueous solution of resorcin is added and the mixture 
carefully poured into a test tube containing a few cubic centimeters 
of concentrated sulphuric acid. The presence of methyl alcohol is 
indicated by the production of a rose-red zone at the conjunction of 
the two liquids. Above this zone- a scanty white or pinkish coagu- 
lum appears which finally separates and rises in purplish-red flecks. 

The only compounds which give any reactions similar to the 
above described are the tertiary butyl alcohols, dimethyl-ethyl car- 



Aa M J a°rch',f905. rm '} Methyl Alcohol 103 

binol, and formic acid. The succession of colors and the deport- 
ment of the flaky coloring matter finally produced are quite 
different, however, with these bodies as compared with those given 
by methyl alcohol 

The test with phloroglucin is made as follows : The oxidation of 
the methyl alcohol is carried on as described above. Acetaldehyde 
is removed by adding to the liquid remaining in the test tube 6 c.c. 
of a 3 per cent, solution of hydrogen peroxide, or an equivalent 
amount of hydrogen peroxide if in a different strength of solution. 
Mix the contents of the tube and filter into a porcelain dish. After 
three minutes add 2 c.c. of a 10 per cent, solution of sodium thio- 
sulphate. Next add 3 c.c. of a phloroglucin solution obtained by 
dissolving 1 gramme of phloroglucin and 20 grammes of sodium 
hydroxide in water and making the volume to 100 c.c. A bright 
red coloration indicates the presence of methyl alcohol in the origi- 
nal sample. The intensity of the red color is in some degree pro- 
portionate to the quantity of methyl alcohol originally present. 
When carefully conducted, 1 part of methyl alcohol in 20 parts of 
ethyl alcohol can be detected by this reaction. 

The purest forms of wood spirits are known by trade names as 
Columbian or Manhattan spirits. When perfectly pure, methyl 
alcohol is not unpleasant either to the taste or the smell, and it is 
much less toxic than the crude product which is so Often used in 
denaturing spirits. It is more than probable that many of the toxic 
effects which have been reported as due to the use of wood alcohol 
have been produced by the impure or unrectified article. In fact, 
the pure article is so greatly increased in cost that it is not likely 
that its use will become very common. At the same time it must 
not be forgotten that wood alcohol is not subject to any internal 
revenue tax nor any restrictions, in so so far as I know, in manufacture 
or sale. For this reason its general distribution for almost any pur- 
pose would be facilitated. In view of the terrible indictment of 
methyl alcohol which has been summed up by Buller and Wood in 
the Journal of the American Medical Association, it seems only just 
to say that it is a substance which should be absolutely eliminated 
from any body or bodies which are taken internally or even applied 
externally as a remedy or otherwise. 

Wood spirit undoubtedly has a large and legitimate use in the 
arts as a fuel and a solvent, and its manufacture and sale for such 



104 



Methyl Alcohol. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March. 1905. 



purposes cannot be open to objection. It is true that any danger- 
ous substance, even when manufactured solely for the arts, may be 
used in other ways to the great detriment or even death of the user. 
As a rule, however, in the case of wood alcohol the user himself is 
the culpable person, since he takes it either from an uncontrollable 
desire to drink or by accident which could be avoided by the exer- 
cise, on his part, of common discretion. 

The addition of methyl alcohol, either pure or refined, to bever- 
ages or to medicine cannot be too severely condemned. I have 
spoken of the desirability of eliminating it from liquids applied exter- 
nally, such as bay rum and others of the same class, and I think it 
is probable that the results of accident and experience are such as 
to warrant such exclusion. 

All the alcohols are more or less poisonous, but the toxicity does 
not seem to be regularly connected with the place of the alcohol in 
the series. The two alcohols which are most common and occur in 
the greatest abundance are ethyl and methyl. Methyl is given the 
first place in the series, and ethyl the second. It is generally ac- 
knowledged that methyl alcohol is more toxic than ethyl, and yet 
the toxicity of ethyl alcohol is familiar to every one. Both methyl 
and ethyl alcohol appear to undergo, to a considerable extent > oxi- 
dation in the tissues of the body, but each of them before undergo- 
ing oxidation may pass into the circulation and produce toxic 
effects before nature has an opportunity to oxidize and remove it. 
Some of the higher alcohols are supposed to be more toxic than 
ethyl, just as methyl is supposed to be more toxic, but there is some 
doubt about the degree of toxicity of some of the higher alcohols, 
especially amyl alcohol. When quite pure it does not appear to 
have by any means the toxic properties which are exhibited by the 
crude article. All this leads to the belief that very often the tox- 
icity of alcohols may be due to some aldehydic or other body formed 
with them, and from which it is difficult to separate them. In fact 
it is believed that the aldehydes which so generally accompany the 
alcohols and have such an intimate relation thereto are more toxic 
than their corresponding alcohols. This appears to be pre-emi- 
nently true in the case ot methyl alcohol, for it is generally believed 
that formaldehyde is more toxic than the alcohol itself. The 
same is doubtless true of acetaldehyde, which is more toxic than 
ethyl alcohol. 



Am M J a °rc r h,^. rm -} Methyl Alcohol. 105 

For this reason the alcohols in the crude state, that is, as they are 
first formed and distilled, are more toxic than when they have been 
subjected to a process of purification. This point has already been 
brought out in the case of ethyl alcohol. 

That well - known beverage, namely, whiskey, which consists 
largely of ethyl alcohol, is believed and in fact has been demon- 
strated to have far more toxicity when first distilled and when it 
probably has considerable quantities of aldehyde and furfurals and 
other bodies than it has after it has been stored in wood for several 
years and these compounds have had an opportunity to become oxi- 
dized into harmless and even beneficial ethereal compounds. The 
physician and pharmacist should not forget, however, that the alco- 
hols as a rule are toxic, and doubtless some of them, like methyl 
alcohol, much more so than others, like ethyl alcohol. Their use, 
therefore, should be under careful supervision. 

Whatever our opinion of the internal revenue laws may be, we 
must at least admit that in the careful supervision which they exer- 
cise over the manufacture of distilled spirits, they are highly bene- 
ficial from a hygienic point of view, since they give to the consumer 
accurate information relating to the materials used and the age of 
the product. 

While it is not probable that the amount of money which could 
be raised by tax on the manufacture of wood alcohol would be a 
very considerable sum, it seems to me it would be the part of wis- 
dom to lay a small tax on wood alcohol, both in its manufacture 
and subsequent sale, for the purpose of establishing over it the same 
legislative supervision which now attaches to the manufacture and 
sale of ethyl alcohol, and which supervision should extend, as it 
ought to extend in the case of ethyl alcohol, to all remedies and 
beverages made therefrom. It seems to me there can be no excuse 
for removing the restrictions in the trade from alcohol when any- 
body wants to use it and call it by a medical name. All medicines 
and remedies containing alcohol, which are not official, should be 
subjected to the same regulations in manufacture and sale as the 
corresponding quantity of alcohol sold as such. 

The flooding of our country with various medicines in which alco- 
hol constitutes the chief valuable constituent without control, with- 
out notification and without the knowledge of the consumer, is a 
practice that merits condemnation whether that alcohol be ethyl or 



106 The Detection of Methyl Alcohol { Am ]vd?e£&05 rm ' 

methyl. If it be methyl alcohol, the practice should receive an ad- 
ditional condemnation because of the greater toxicity of this com- 
pound. 

THE ATTITUDE OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT TOWARDS METHYL 

ALCOHOL. 

Article V, paragraph I of the law of the 16th of December, 1897, 
provides that there shall be considered from the fiscal point of 
view as assimilated to ethyl alcohol, methyl and other alcohols 
susceptible of being consumed as beverages either unmixed or mixed. 

" The Consulting Committee of Arts and Manufacture shall de- 
termine which of these products by their degree of impurity or 
their specific characters should be considered as unfit for consump- 
tion, and to be exempt from excise or from denaturing. 

In view of this authority the Consulting Committee of Arts and 
Manufactures, on the 14th of March, 1900, decided that, in order 
to be considered as unfit for consumption by the mouth, and free 
from the expense of excise and denaturing, methyl alcohols should 
contain at least 5 per cent, of acetone and 3 per cent, of pyrogenic 
impurities, which give to them a disagreeable empyreumatic odor. 
Under date of the 4th of January, 1905, the President of the Repub- 
lic, through the Minister of Finance, Monsieur Rouvier, promul- 
gated the following official decree: 

Article I. The decision of the Consulting Committe of Arts 
and Manufactures of the day of the 14th of March, 1900, shall re- 
ceive its full and entire execution. 

Article II. The Minister of Finance is charged with the execu- 
tion of the present decree, which will be inserted in the Journal 
Officiel and in the Bulletin des Lois. 



THE DETECTION OF METHYL ALCOHOL IN LIQUIDS 
CONTAINING ETHYL ALCOHOL. 
By Samuel P. Sadt^kr, Ph.D. 
The increasing tendency to substitute methyl alcohol under some 
one of the trade names by which it is now known, for ethyl or grain 
alcohol, in the manufacture of tinctures, essences and other alcoholic 
preparations, makes the detection of such substitution or adultera- 



Am MS•J9 h ot. rm •} The Detection of Methyl Alcohol. 107 

tion a matter of importance both for the pharmaceutical chemist 
and the food analyst. 

If we turn to standard books like " Allen's Commercial Organic 
Analysis " for the tests for methyl alcohol in the presence of ethyl 
alcohol we will find that the methods there found are far from being 
satisfactory in results or capable of entire dependence as to accuracy. 

We find first several methods, such as those of Reynolds and of 
Cazeneuve, based upon the common presence of acetone as an im- 
purity in methyl alcohol, so that its detection by inference leads the 
observer to draw conclusions as to the presence of methyl alcohol. 
This is a very unreliable and unsafe way of detecting the presence 
of methyl alcohol. Some of the deodorized and purified methyl 
alcohols on the market at present, like " Columbian Spirits," at 
times are nearly free from acetone, so that such methods can be dis- 
missed from further consideration. 

The method of Riche and Bardy, dependent on the formation of 
methyl iodide and from this methyl-aniline violet, is fairly reliable, 
but much too elaborate and involved to serve as a ready test. In 
this case the mixture of alcohols is distilled with iodine and red 
phosphorus when methyl and ethyl iodides are formed. These col- 
lect under the aqueous layer and are separated and transferred to a 
flask containing aniline with which they react readily. After an 
hour's time, the product is boiled with water and soda solution 
added when the bases rise to the top as an oily layer. This is drawn 
off and oxidized by the aid of cupric nitrate. The product of this 
oxidation, which takes some hours, is exhausted with warm alcohol 
and filtered when, if pure ethyl alcohol had been taken as the 
original sample, a red liquid is obtained, while if methyl alcohol had 
been present a violet shade is obtained. Still more conclusive results 
are obtained if the colored solution so obtained is used to dye a 
piece of white merino wool which takes up the violet color, but is 
not dyed in the absence of the methyl-aniline compound. This test 
is obviously too difficult of execution and too detailed to be avail- 
able for ordinary pharmacopceial testing. 

Still another test is given in Allen, viz., that of Miller. This is 
based on the fact that when oxidized with potassium dichromate 
and sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol produces formic acid, capable of 
reducing silver nitrate solution. However, pure ethyl alcohol when 
oxidized yields a trace of formic acid, or other reducing substance, 



io8 



The Detection of Methyl Alcohol. 



(Am. Jour. Ffaarm. 
X March, 1905. 



and so we cannot depend absolutely upon the result of the reducing 
test. 

In 1899, Mulliken and Scudder published a method (Am. Client. 
Jour., 21, page 266), whereby a mixture of methyl and ethyl alcohol 
is oxidized in solution by the action of heated metallic copper, pro- 
ducing the corresponding aldehydes. Any formaldehyde so obtained 
is then recognized by characteristic color tests. 

This method, in a somewhat modified and improved form, -was 
brought out later by Dr. A. B. Prescott and by Leonard D. Haigh. 
(Pharmaceutical Review of October, 1903.) 

In the form in which Dr. Prescott communicated it to the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia Revision Committee, it was as follows : 

Test for Methyl Alcohol. — In a test-tube of the capacity of about 
40 cm., take of the alcohol or spirit to be tested, if it be undiluted, 
1 c.c. and add distilled water to make 10 c.c. in all. If the 
alcohol be judged to be already dilute take a correspondingly larger 
measure of it and dilute this to 10 c.c, so that the proportion of 
the alcohol shall not be more than 10 per cent, by volume in the 
liquid. A copper wire spiral (test reagent) is to be heated to red- 
ness in a flame free from soot, then plunged steadily quite to the 
bottom of the liquid in the test-tube and held there for a second or 
two, then withdrawn and dipped in water to cool. This treatment 
with red hot copper is to be repeated five or six times, immersing 
the test-tube in cold water to keep down the temperature of the 
liquid. The contents of the test-tube are now filtered into a wide 
test-tube and boiled very gently over the flame. If there be odor 
of acetaldehyde perceptible the boiling is to be continued until 
this odor nearly or quite ceases to be clearly distinguished. The 
liquid is now cooled, poured into a white porcelain dish with con- 
cave bottom, and lastly treated with the addition of five drops (or 
1 c.c.) of phloroglucinol alkali solution (test reagent). 

The color, if any, caused by the reagent should not be deeper 
than pale yellowish red, and should fade rapidly away. 

(A deep red color persisting two or three minutes and longer, the 
reaction of formaldehyde, indicates methyl alcohol taken for the 
test. A pale or slight yellowish red color fading rapidly, the reac- 
tion of acetaldehyde, results when only ethyl alcohol is taken, the 
acetaldehyde produced by the treatment not being wholly driven 
off by the gentle boiling.) 



Am M J a rch■,Sf. rm •} The Detection of Methyl Alcohol. 109 

Copper Wire Spiral. — Copper wire of size 18 is taken of the 
length of 1 meter. It is wound in a close spiral around a smooth 
rod 7 mm. thick to make a coil about 3 cm. long. A handle is 
made by twisting together the two free ends of the wire in the 
spiral, one of the ends having been overlapped in winding, begin- 
ning to wind at about 30 cm. from the end of the covered strand. 
The handle is left of sufficient length and is bent at right angles 6 
cm. from the extremity, the horizontal part being wound with 
twine. 

Phloroglacinol Test Solution.-— -Take of phloroglucinol 5 deci- 
grammes; soda (white), 10 grammes; distilled water to make 50 
c.c. Dissolve the phloroglucinol in about 40 c.c. of the distilled 
water with a little of the soda, then add the remainder of the soda, 
and enough distilled water to make the solution measure 50 c.c. A 
slight color in the fresh solution usually disappears on brief stand- 
ing and may be disregarded. On long standing the solution dark- 
ens in color and should be rejected. 

In Haigh's article the suggestion is also made that — 

" The Rimini test may be used instead of the phloroglucinol test 
for the detection of formaldehyde after the oxidation of the alco- 
hols. After the removal of the acetaldehyde by boiling, I c.c. of a 
dilute solution of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride is added, then a 
few drops of a fresh solution of sodium nitroprusside, and finally 
I c.c. of a 50 per cent, solution of sodium hydroxide. If formalde- 
hyde is present a light blue or green color will result, depending 
upon the amount of methyl alcohol in the original spirit, and to 
some extent also on the care with which the boiling operation is 
conducted. The boiling of the liquid should not be carried too far 
and should be conducted as slowly as possible. In case the original 
spirit contained no methyl alcohol the resulting color of the solu- 
tion will be a greenish yellow. Satisfactory results are obtained 
with both of these tests for quantities of methyl alcohol in spirits 
as small as one part to twenty parts of ethyl alcohol. 

The Sub-committee of the U. S. Revision Committee then under- 
took a careful testing of this modified Mulliken and Scudder method 
and tested the several color reactions suggested to distinguish the 
formaldehyde. They found that the resorcinol test seemed more 
delicate than the phloroglucinol test and could be made to distin- 
guish a smaller admixture of methyl alcohol than the other. In 



no The Detection of Methyl Alcohol. { A VaXf9 h ol rm * 

addition the alkaline phloroglucinol test reagent does not keep as 
satisfactorily as the resorcinol solution, so that for the official test to 
be used in the forthcoming Pharmacopoeia they have recommended 
the following. They believe that this can be carried out with uniform 
results by any careful experimenter, and it is relatively simple in its 
experimental details, as compared, for instance, with either the 
Riche and Bardy or even the Rimini test. 

U. S. Pharmacopoeia Methyl Alcohol Test. — Into a test-tube of 
about 40 c.c, I c.c. of the alcohol or spirit to be tested should be 
poured, and, if it be undiluted, enough distilled water added to make 
the liquid measure 10 c.c. If the alcohol be already diluted, a cor- 
respondingly larger volume of it should be taken and diluted to 
10 c.c, so that the proportion of alcohol in the liquid shall not be 
more than about 10 per cent, by volume. A copper wire spiral 
(made by winding 1 meter of No. 18 clean copper wire closely 
around a glass rod 7 mm. thick, making a coil about 3 cm. long, 
the end of the wire being formed into a handle) should be heated 
to redness in a flame free from soot, and plunged steadily quite to 
the bottom of the liquid in the test-tube and held there for a second 
or two, then withdrawn and dipped into water to cool. This treat- 
ment with red-hot copper should be repeated five or six times, im- 
mersing the test-tube in cold water to keep down the temperature 
of the liquid. The contents of the test-tube should now be filtered 
into a wide test-tube and boiled very gently. If the odor of acetal- 
dehyde be perceptible, the boiling is to be continued until the odor 
ceases to be distinguished clearly. The liquid is now cooled, and 
to it should be added 1 drop of a solution containing 1 part of 
resorcinol in 200 parts of water. A portion of this liquid is then 
poured cautiously into a second tube containing pure sulphuric acid, 
in such a way that the two liquids shall not mix, the tube being 
held in an inclined position; this tube is allowed to stand for three 
minutes, and then slowly rotated. No rose-red ring should show 
at the line of contact of the two layers (absence of more than 2 per 
cent, of methyl alcohol). 



Am M J a°ch,f905. rm '} Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol. ill 

SOME REASONS WHY THE INTERNAL REVENUE TAX 
ON ALCOHOL SHOULD BE REDUCED, AND WHY OUR 
GOVERNMENT SHOULD PROVIDE FREE DENATUR- 
IZED ALCOHOL FOR USE IN THE ARTS. 

By Mahlon N. KXine. 

No legislation pending in Congress is more important or promises 
to be more far-reaching in its results than the proposed legislation 
affecting the duty on alcohol. The commercial world (and espe- 
cially that part of it in which manufacturing chemists or pharmaceu- 
tical manulacturers, large and small, are embraced) has scarcely 
grasped the magnitude of the results that would follow the enact, 
ment into laws of the legislation proposed in the bills introduced by 
Hon. H. S. Boutell, of Illinois — H. R. 9302, providing for the use, 
free of tax, of alcohol which has been rendered unfit for drinking 
purposes by the admixture of some noxious substance, and H. R. 
9303, reducing the internal revenue tax on distilled spirits, and 
H. R. 9051, introduced by the Hon. Wm, C. Lovering, of Massa- 
chusetts, providing for the refund of the tax paid on domestic 
alcohol used in the manufacture of exported articles. No other legis- 
lation now suggested in the public interest can be compared with 
these propositions in their effect in creating new industries, develop- 
ing those already in existence and greatly increasing our domestic 
and foreign trade. 

The necessity for the legislation proposed in the first of these 
bills is found in the fact that our internal revenue laws, under which 
a tax of $1.10 per proof gallon is levied on all distilled spirit, make 
no distinction between the distilled spirits used as a beverage and 
that used for industrial purposes. In the latter form distilled spirits, 
generally called alcohol, are a necessary material in thousands of 
important industries. The use of alcohol for manufacturing pur- 
poses is much more extensive than is commonly supposed, since, in 
addition to the industries producing articles in which alcohol re- 
mains in the finished product, there are many articles in the manu- 
facture of which alcohol is used, though they contain no trace of 
that material. 

As commercial alcohol is usually of 188 or 190 proof (that is 
94 or 95 per cent, pure alcohol) the tax of $1.10 per proof gallon 
is equivalent to a tax of about $2.07 per gallon of industrial alcohol, 



112 Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol. { K ™iiSX^ xm ' 

or nearly 1 ,000 per cent, of the original cost of the alcohol as dis- 
tilled. The effect of a tax of this kind on a material used in manu- 
facturing many important articles of general consumption is so 
evidently oppressive on productive industry that practically every 
commercial and manufacturing country in the world, except the 
United States, makes a distinction between alcohol used for indus- 
trial purposes and that used as a beverage. In Germany, France, 
Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
Switzerland and Italy, and several smaller countries, no tax is im- 
posed on alcohol which has been rendered unfit for drinking pur- 
poses, or, as it is commonly called, " denaturized alcohol." 

This policy of exempting industrial alcohol from taxation has 
been in force in these countries for varying periods, in some cases 
for more than twenty years, and in every case the advantages 
resulting from it have been found so great that the tendency every- 
where has been to broaden the scope of the laws relating to this 
subject. In no instance has a country which has once adopted such 
a policy gone back to the old system of taxing alike beverage and 
industrial alcohol. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the most important of these Euro- 
pean countries have very costly military and naval establishments 
to sustain, which are a very heavy strain on their revenue resources, 
and which necessitate many special forms of taxation to which the 
American people would not submit, no suggestion is ever made of 
levying internal revenue taxes on alcohol used for industrial pur- 
poses. 

The most notable example of the benefits conferred by freeing 
from taxation alcohol used in the arts and manufactures, is found in 
the experience of Germany. That country in 1887 enacted a law 
greatly extending the system of untaxed denaturized alcohol which 
had previously been in force, and encouraging the production and 
general use of alcohol for industrial purposes. The results of this 
more liberal policy have been of great benefit, both to the farming 
and manufacturing interests. 

The German farmer has been benefited by cheap untaxed alcohol 
in two ways: (1) Through a great additional market for his pota- 
toes, of which enormous crops are annually grown for making 
alcohol ; and (2) through the use of alcohol for light, heating pur- 
poses and as a fuel for motor engines running all kinds of farm 



^MSch,im m *} Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol. 113 

machinery. The farmers'have also benefited by this policy making 
possible the development of new industries employing many thou- 
sands of workmen, who consume large quantities of German farm 
products. 

Germany's manufacturing industries in the many lines in which 
alcohol is used have been enormously stimulated by the very low 
price (the present cost, according to Consul-General Mason's report, 
being from 15 to 18 cents per gallon) at which it can be procured. 
With the advantage of a cheap and abundant supply of this import- 
ant material the German manufacturers in these lines have devel- 
oped their industries so that they are now the foremost in the world, 
and have secured almost the entire export trade to neutral markets. 

Among these articles are the products of the great chemical in- 
dustries, the coal-tar colors, lacquers, dyes, varnishes, perfumery, 
etc., etc. Not only does Germany practically control the trade of 
neutral markets in all the various chemical products, but she also 
sells large quantities of these articles in this country, the advantage 
resulting from cheap alcohol being sufficient to enable them to be 
sold here in spite of our protective tariff. The effect of our exorbi- 
tant internal revenue tax on alcohol has, therefore, been to encour- 
age the sale in this country of foreign production, instead of domes- 
tic origin. 

The effect of the German law of 1887 in stimulating the consump- 
tion of untaxed alcohol is shown by the following table : 



'Year Ending Amount Proof 
Oct. rst Gallons. 

1888 20,476,768 

1889 22,786,987 

1890 28,074,667 

J89I 27,426,341 

1892 29,127,384 

1893 32,052,803 

18 94 35,102,593 

1895 37,977,396 

1896 . 42,694,947 

1897 45,818,132 

1898 .... 46,979,841 

1899 52,290,000 

1900 . 55,098,285 

1901 61,053,000 

1902 58,632,840 



In addition to this enormous amount of untaxed alcohol, Germany 



U4 



Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol. 



( Am. Jour. Pharrru 
I March, 1905. 



consumes for industrial purposes an almost equally large amount of 
tax-paid alcohol. Owing to the low tax-rate in force in that coun- 
try (about 40 cents per proof gallon) the industries requiring pure 
ethyl alcohol have been so extensively developed that the estimated 
annual consumption of tax-paid alcohol is about 55,000,000 proof 
gallons annually. While no statistics giving the actual consumption 
of the tax-paid product for these purposes are obtainable, this esti- 
mate is reached by deducting from the total average amount on 
which taxes are paid an average annual consumption for beverage 
purposes equal to the proportionate consumption for this purpose 
in the United States. As it is well known the Germans are a beer- 
and wine drinking people, it is highly improbable that they also 
drink as much distilled spirits as the people of this country, so that 
the estimate of the consumption in Germany for beverage purposes 
is probably too large. In any event there is shown to be a con- 
sumption of tax-paid alcohol in the arts of over 50,000,000 gallons 
per year, making, with the consumption of untaxed denaturized 
alcohol, an annual total of more than 100,000,000 gallons of alcohol. 

In sharp contrast with this immense quantity is the consumption 
of alcohol in the United States. There is, of course, no consumption 
of untaxed denaturized alcohol, owing to the failure of our laws to 
make provision for such use. Of tax-paid alcohol it is estimated 
that less than 5,000,000 gallons are annually used in the arts, the 
excessive tax of $2.07 making its use prohibitive, except where it is 
absolutely necessary in the manufacture of articles such as flavoring 
extracts, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, medicines, etc. Even in these 
industries the consumption is very much smaller than in Germany, 
as the high cost of the alcohol greatly increases the selling price of 
the goods into which it enters, and therefore decreases their sale. 

Another reason for the small consumption of tax-paid alcohol is 
found in the general use of inferior untaxed substitutes, chiefly re- 
fined wood alcohol, which, notwithstanding its injurious qualities 
that render it dangerous to health, is being largely substituted for 
pure grain alcohol. The extent to which this substitution is carried 
on is notorious, and the health officials throughout the country are 
taking active measures to punish the manufacturers of preparations 
in which wood alcohol is unlawfully used. 

In a paper on "Poisoning by Wood Alcohol," by Drs. Frank 
Buller and Casey A. Wood, recently published in the Jownal of the 



Am M J a°rch,T9of. rm "} Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol 115 

American Medical Association, attention is called to the increasing 
use of wood alcohol, particularly of the highly refined varieties, in 
the manufacture of Jamaica ginger, flavoring extracts, bay rum, 
essences, witch hazel, etc., in all of which its presence is highly in- 
jurious, and in those preparations intended for internal use, positively 
dangerous to life. A number of instances in which death resulted 
from the improper use of wood alcohol are given, and many cases 
of blindness and other diseases are cited as having been due to this 
dangerous substitution. 

For these various reasons the annual consumption of ethyl alco- 
hol in this country is some 95,000,000 proof gallons less than in 
Germany. As the population of the latter country is only about 
two-thirds of that of the United States, this showing is even worse 
than these figures would indicate. With a per capita consumption 
in this country equal to that of Germany, we should be using 
150,000,000 gallons per year, instead of 5,000,000 gallons as at 
present. 

Some of the purposes for which this immense quantity of alcohol 
would be used are shown in the statement given above of the con- 
sumption of untaxed alcohol in Germany. But in addition to these 
various uses there are thousands of important industries in this 
country which would greatly prefer to use it instead of the inferior 
substitutes, and which would consume many millions of gallons an- 
nually. Cheap alcohol would also make possible the establishment 
of many new industries lor the production of articles not now made 
in this country, and thus give employment to American workmen 
in making articles now bought from foreign countries. It would 
also enable our manufacturers to develop an export trade in many 
lines from which they are now entirely shut out through their in- 
ability to sell their goods in competition with those of countries 
where alcohol is obtained free of tax. The total consumption for 
these purposes would be very large. 

As an illustration I may refer to the manufacture of artificial silk, 
a material which is found to be an entirely satisfactory substitute 
for the product of the silk worm for many purposes, and which is 
extensively manufactured and used in European countries. This 
silk is manufactured from nitro-ceilulose by a process which involves 
the use of 2 pounds of alcohol converted into ether for each pound 
of silk produced. Under our present laws the high price of alcohol 



n6 Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol. 

effectually prevents its use for this purpose, and in consequence 
none of this material is manufactured here. I am informed that a 
French company, operating under the Chardonnet process for mak- 
ing artificial silk, is ready to establish a factory in this country in 
which at least 1,000 workers would be employed, provided they 
can secure untaxed alcohol. This company alone would consume 
more than 1,000,000 gallons of alcohol annually, as well as large 
quantities of raw cotton, from which the nitro-cellulose is made. 
Another purpose for which alcohol would be largely used would be 
as an extractive agent for the separation of stearic acid. This sub- 
stance, commonly known as oleo-stearine, is extensively used in 
the manufacture of lard compounds, and for various other purposes. 
At present it is extracted in this country by hydraulic presses, but 
its production by the alcohol process gives larger results. This pro. 
cess cannot, however, be utilized with alcohol at its present price, 
but with untaxed alcohol it would be generally used for this pur- 
pose. 

It is, however, in the use of alcohol as a motor fuel, and for light- 
ing, heating, cleansing and similar purposes that the greatest con- 
sumption of alcohol would take place. The possibilities for its use 
for all these purposes are very great, and it is certain that with the 
tax removed the low price at which denaturized alcohol would be 
sold would ensure its general consumption on an enormous scale. 

Alcohol is not only a decidedly satisfactory substitute for gaso- 
line as a motor fuel, but it is superior in many important particu- 
lars. It is clean, odorless and free from danger of accidental 
explosion. There is absolutely no reason why it could not be 
successfully used in this country as a fuel for automobiles, power- 
boats and launches, and stationary motors for running farm- and 
other kinds of machinery. The removal of the tax would therefore 
furnish an unlimited supply of a safe and economical power fuel, and 
would permit the consumption for this purpose alone of immense 
quantities. 

Alcohol is also an excellent illuminating material, and when 
burned in lamps using incandescent burners, furnishes a soft, steady 
white light at a cost per candle-power less than that of kerosene 
oil. This has been demonstrated in Germany, millions of gallons 
being annually used in that country for lighting purposes. In addi- 
tion to its low cost other advantages of alcohol for lighting purposes 



Am Mlrch,im rm '} Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol, 117 

are its cleanliness, freedom, from danger of explosion and lack of 
disagreeable odor. It would undoubtedly be extensively used in 
this country as an illuminant if the tax were removed. 

For heating and cooking, alcohol is unquestionably safer, cleaner 
and more agreeable to use than gasoline, and would preferably be 
used in millions of households for these purposes if it were furnished 
at the same price as that material. Small portable alcohol stoves 
giving out sufficient heat to thoroughly warm a large room are in 
general use in Germany, and it is estimated that the alcohol used 
tor heating is as economical as anthracite coal at $6 per ton. The 
adoption of a system of untaxed denaturized alcohol would make 
the use of alcohol as a fuel for heating purposes entirely practicable, 
and would be of especial advantage to those large sections of the 
country where coal and wood are scarce. 

It is in the manufacture of the organic chemicals that the greatest 
field for new industries would be created by legislation giving cheap 
alcohol. This is practically the only line in which the United States 
falls far behind foreign nations, and our failure to develop this im- 
portant group of industries is almost entirely due to the high price 
of commercial alcohol. We import annually about $10,000,000 
worth of fine chemicals, drugs, coal-tar colors, dyes, etc., chiefly 
from Germany, almost all of which could be, and would be, manu- 
factured here under alcohol laws as liberal as those of the countries 
from which these articles are imported. 

The greatest advantage which cheap alcohol gives foreign manu- 
facturers of these products can, perhaps, be better shown by a com- 
parison of the exports of fine chemicals from one country, Germany, 
with the total production of the United States. While the value of 
the artificial dyes annually made in this country is only about 
$2,500,000, Germany exports each year more than $30,000,000 
worth of these products. The annual production of fine chemicals, 
drugs, etc., manufactured in this country is valued at less than 
$5,000,000. The value of these articles annually exported by Ger- 
many exceeds $50,000,000. Thus on these two lines of products, 
in which the advantage ot the German manufacturers over those of 
this country is almost entirely due to cheapness of alcohol in Ger- 
many, the value of our total production is exceeded by more than 
$70,000,000 by the German export trade alone. In view of these 
remarkable facts it is fair to assume that with our abundant capital, 



n8 Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol. { Am Mi?c£X. rm ° 

skilled workmen, and great consuming power, the production of all 
kinds of articles in the manufacture of which alcohol is a necessary 
material, would, under conditions as favorable as those of foreign 
countries, be increased ten-fold. 

While an untaxed denaturized alcohol law would thus greatly 
benefit our manufacturers, farmers, and workers generally, there is 
a most important class of industries which would receive no advan- 
tage from it. These are the industries requiring pure ethyl alcohol 
for manufacturing such products as flavoring extracts, pharmaceuti- 
cals, drugs, perfumery and various other articles. To meet the re- 
quirements of these industries for cheaper alcohol it is proposed to 
reduce the tax on distilled spirits to 70 cents per proof gallon, which 
would effect a reduction of about 75 cents per gallon in the cost of 
commercial alcohol. This would give the manufacturers pure grain 
alcohol at a reasonable price, and would greatly stimulate the con- 
sumption of all kinds of articles in which it is used. 

To compensate for any loss of revenue that might result from the 
reduction in the tax rate it is proposed to levy an additional tax of 
.40 cents per proof gallon on all rectified, compounded or blended 
spirits. This would yield an annual revenue of $3,000,000 or 
$35,000,000, which would all be paid by the users of distilled spirits 
~as a beverage. 

A precedent for the imposition of this additional tax is found in 
our revenue laws for the Philippines, which provide for a special 
tax on all rectified or blended distilled liquors. It is also instructive 
to note that provision has been made by these laws for a very low 
tax rate on denaturized alcohol for industrial purposes. . 

H. R. 9051, the third measure to which I have referred, is one of 
particular interest to our export trade. While alcohol in the origi- 
nal tax-paid packages may be exported free of tax, no provision is 
made for refunding the internal revenue tax on alcohol exported as 
a component part of manufactured articles. Since all other com- 
mercial countries give their manufacturers tax-free alcohol for the 
export trade, the failure of our laws to make a similar provision has 
effectually prevented our manufacturers from competing in these 
lines with their foreign rivals or the world's trade. The enactment 
of the Lovering Bill would open up to our manufacturers of all 
kinds of articles in which alcohol is a material new and valuable 
markets, and enable them to secure their fair share of the world's 
trade. 



Am MSh,T 9 h o5. rm '} The Use of Methyl Alcohol. 119 

With the enactment of the legislation provided for in these bills 
the important group of alcohol-using industries will be placed on an 
equal footing with those of foreign countries; manufacturers will 
find an increased demand for their products, and the consuming 
public will obtain better goods at lower prices. 

I hope that careful consideration will be given to the facts re- 
ferred to in this paper, and that all the branches of the chemical and 
drug trades will give these bills their continued and active support 
in view of the far-reaching results, as outlined in this paper, which 
would follow the passage of these alcohol bills. 



THE USE OF METHYL ALCOHOL AND THE REDUC- 
TION OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE TAX ON ALCO- 
HOL. 

The Pharmaceutical Meeting, held on Tuesday afternoon, Febru- 
ary 14th, was devoted for the most part to the consideration of the 
questions of the use of methyl alcohol and the desirability of the 
Government reducing the internal revenue tax on ethyl alcohol, and 
providing a free denaturized alcohol for use in the arts. The papers 
which were read at this meeting are published elsewhere in this is- 
sue, and some of the letters which were received and read at the 
meeting, as well as some of the remarks made, follow. 

DR. A. R. L. DOHME 

wrote as follows : 

There can be no doubt that it would serve the Government, the 
general public as well as the manufacturer, better if the internal 
revenue tax upon grain alcohol were reduced to 70 cents a proof 
gallon as proposed, for in that event the government revenue from 
alcohol would undoubtedly be increased and the incentive for the 
substitution of the dangerous wood alcohol in the arts and in bever- 
ages especially would be eliminated. There exists no longer any 
doubt that methyl alcohol, pure or impure, is a poison when taken 
internally, due to the excellent investigations of my friend Dr. Reid 
Hunt, formerly of our staff at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, 
and now of the Government service at Washington. It was my 
opinion, before Dr. Hunt's paper was read at a meeting of the Mary- 



120 



The Use of Methyl Alcohol. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1905. 



land Pharmaceutical Association, that the poisonous nature of wood 
alcohol was not due to the methyl alcohol it contained, but to its 
impurities, especially the amines. While these amines may still add 
to the poisonous nature of the wood alcohol, the fact that the methyl 
alcohol it contains is itself poisonous makes its use for internal ad- 
ministration impossible, in fact criminal. There are, of course, uses 
that it can and will be put to in the arts, such as varnishes, inks, 
chromo-lithographic work, hat manufacturing, etc., etc., because of 
its cheapness and the fact that it never can be taken internally* 
The main question before us now is whether it can safely be used 
for the extraction of drugs or the preparation of liniments or tinc- 
tures intended for external use only. My opinion is that it should 
not be used for tinctures or liniments because they may be at times 
used for internal use, and the wood alcohol may also be absorbed 
through the skin when used externally. As to its use r or extracting 
drugs, I would say that while its use is not advisable, I really see no 
absolute danger connected with it, provided this extraction is made 
only in those instances in which all the menstruum is evaporated off 
at temperatures that preclude the possibility of any of it being re- 
tained in the extract remaining. Thus, in case of the preparation of 
extract of stramonium, the drug could be exhausted with it, and the 
resulting fluid extract evaporated to a pilular consistency on a water 
bath with careful stirring without any trace of the methyl alcohol or 
any of its impurities being retained in the resulting extract. How- 
ever, despite this possibly safe method of extracting drugs for mak- 
ing their solid extracts, I personally am not in favor of its use and 
would not advise its use in this way to any one, because of the pos- 
sible danger of all of the methyl alcohol not being eliminated, due 
to the lack of care on the part of the operator. If a substance is a 
poison, as is methyl alcohol, it is always safest and advisable to elimi- 
nate it from the armamentarium of the pharmacist, be he retailer, 
wholesaler or manufacturer. The temptation to save some money 
will, however, most probably always tempt some people to use it 
when they know they cannot be held criminally liable for doing so, 
and because this is true I sincerely trust that Congress will grant the 
reduction in the tax on ethyl alcohol, and thus largely eliminate 
this excuse for the use of wood alcohol for any purpose connected 
in any way with medicine or pharmacy. In Europe wood alcohol 
is used largely in the exhaustion of drugs for the manufacture of 



Am MKSff m "} The Use of Methyl Alcohol. 121 

alkaloids, but in this case there can be no danger, since the result- 
ing product is crystalline and is always purified by recrystallization 
sufficiently to make it impossible for any to be carried over to the 
final product. Besides this the alkaloids are so much more toxic 
than the wood alcohol, even if any were carried over, that in the 
doses in which the alkaloids are administered, no undesirable effects 
could possibly be produced. 

UR. HENRY W. CATTELL 

said: 

From my own experience I would state definitely that it is now 
a rare thing for the chemist to find methyl alcohol in medicines, 
flavoring extracts, tincture of iodin, and the better-known makes 
of witch hazel. The reason for this is twofold: (1) the honest 
manufacturer, ignorant, as we all were until a few years ago, of the 
dangerous qualities lurking in methyl alcohol, immediately discon- 
tinued its use in his preparations upon learning of the toxic effects 
of wood alcohol; (2) dishonest manufacturers — and I am glad to 
say that these form but a small minority— -have found to their cost 
that methyl alcohol can be so easily detected by the present deli- 
cate tests at our command that they cannot hide the fact that they are 
using this preparation. As an example, I would cite the statement 
of the Dairy and Food Commissioner of Michigan in Report 112 , 
issued a few weeks ago, that no flavoring extracts in Michigan are 
now found after an extended search to contain methyl alcohol, 
owing to the conviction of a certain party who had used 95 per 
cent, wood alcohol in his preparations, and to the subsequent de- 
struction of some $8,000 worth of his stock. 

In discussing this question one must remember that a person who 
has once experienced the effects of methyl alcohol may enjoy this 
form of intoxication more than that from ethyl alcohol. There 
seems to be the greatest variation in the disposition of the indi- 
vidual towards methyl alcohol, some being able to take large quan- 
tities of it over a long period of time without any serious effects 
even upon the eyes. In several cases which have come under my 
notice among sailors and others, the methyl alcohol was specifi- 
cally asked for in order to make the punch stronger. It will thus 
be seen that if the person desires to secure methyl alcohol for this 
purpose, he will undoubtedly do so — just as boys steal gasolene 



/ 



122 



The Use of Methyl Alcohol. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1905. 



from the street-lamps and suck cologne from the penny-in-the-slot 
machine — but I cannot substantiate the statement recently made 
by the Dairy and Food Commissioner of Pennsylvania that methyl 
alcohol is a common adulterant of the cheaper grades of whiskies. 

I learn with regret that the test for methyl alcohol to be em- 
ployed in the new pharmacopoeia will distinguish but 2 per cent, 
of methyl alcohol in ethyl alcohol, resorcinol being more delicate 
for the final test than phloroglucinol. If the quantity of sub- 
stance at hand is large, fractional distillation will reduce the deli- 
cacy of this test many fold. There is one peculiarity in testing 
formaldehyde that it may be well to call attention to, namely, that 
the iron test seems to be much more delicate when performed in 
milk than under other conditions. In a U. S. Bulletin, just issued, 
the Association of Agricultural Chemists recommends that the fol- 
lowing methods for discovering the presence of formaldehyde be 
given trial. These tests are easy of application, and are specially 
suited to the detection of this widely-used preservative in milk. 
To familiarize oneself with Rimini's method take 15 c.c. of a very 
dilute formaldehyde solution, and treat with 1 c.c. of a dilute solution 
of phenylhydrazin hydrochlorid, then with a few drops of freshly- 
prepared sodium nitroprussid solution, and finally with concentrated 
caustic soda solution. A blue color is formed, which, after a long 
time, changes to red. This reaction is capable of indicating formal- 
dehyde in milk, even in a dilution of 1 in 30,000. Ferric chlorid 
may be used instead of the sodium nitroprussid, to be followed by 
a concentrated hydrochloric acid, in place of the caustic soda. By 
so doing a red color, which changes after some time to orange 
yellow, will show itself in the presence of formaldehyde. With 
meats and fats the formaldehyde should first be extracted with 
alcohol and the filtrate tested. Milk may also be shaken with 
an equal volume of absolute alcohol, and the filtrate tested. When 
the reagents are applied to dark beers the coloration may be 
determined by the color of the froth, just as one can do in the 
case of the diazo reaction in urine. In Rideal's test (Analyst, 1895), 
IOO c.c. of milk, suspected to contain formaldehyde, is distilled, and 
Schiffs reagent (a colorless solution of fuchsin and sodium sulphite) 
is added thereto, a violet red color denotes formaldehyde. Selig- 
mann ( Zeitschr. f. Hyg. u. Infectionskrankh., Vol. XIL, No. 2, p. 
325, 1905) detects 1-40,000 parts of formaldehyde in milk, as fol- 



Am Ma?chJ 9 ot. rm- } Size of the Eye Dropper. 123 

lows: Several drops of a weak sulphuric-acid solution are added 
to 5 c.c. of milk and weak Scruff's reagent is added. A reddish 
violet ring shows the presence of formaldehyde. 

My own work with methyl alcohol has been largely upon the 
question as to whether or not methyl alcohol per se is poisonous. 
And granting this to be the case — as the evidence would seem to 
show — whether or not the methyl radical is toxic, and, if so, what 
preparations into which it enters may be harmful medicinally ? It 
would seem that methyl alcohol when introduced into the system is 
but slowly eliminated, and that it is converted into formic acid and for. 
maldehyde. Like arsenic, methyl alcohol and formic acid are excreted 
by the glands of the stomach even when introduced into the body in 
other channels than by the mouth, so that we have a double toxic 
effect of the drug upon the alimentary canal. This might even be 
used as a physiologic test for the detection of the presence of 
methyl alcohol. The theory as to ethyl alcohol being produced by 
the metabolic processes in the human body is again coming into 
prominence, and while methyl alcohol has not been discovered in 
nature, it may be owing to the same difficulty which physiologists 
have encountered in their endeavor to show that ethyl alcohol 
exists normally in the body. 



THE SIZE OF THE DROPPER AS APPLIED TO EYE 
DROPS CONTAINING ALKALOIDS. 

By Dr. P. N. K. Schwenk, 
An Attending Surgeon to Wills Eye Hospital and Eye Department of Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital. 

There are many drugs, 1 mostly in the form of alkaloids or their 
salts, which, when applied to the eye, have the power of producing 
dilatation of the pupil (mydriasis), and hence called mydriatics, while 
others 2 have the effect of diminishing the size of the pupil (i. e. } of 
producing myosis'), and hence called myotics. 

Since most of these medicines are poisonous when given in 
excess, great care must be exercised not to apply them too freely, 
L e. f within the prescribed dictation of the physician or oculist who 
prescribes. 



Atropine, homatropine, daturine, duboisine, hyoscyamine, scopalamine, 
ephedrin, mydrin, gelsemine, cocaine, etc. 
2 Eserine, pilocarpine, etc. 



124 



Size of the Eye Dropper \ 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1905. 



Mydriatics and myotics are usually prescribed in aqueous solu- 
tions and applied into the conjunctival sac of the eye by means of 
an eye-dropper. If the quantity so applied is in excess of what the 
conjunctival surfaces will absorb or imbibe, this excess will find its 
way with the tears through the canaliculi into the nose and thence 
into the mucous membranes of the upper air passages, from whence 
it is absorbed into the circulatory system. In this way you will 
find not a few patients return to your office much depressed and 
having more or less the effects of acute poisoning. If you investi- 
gate how this condition was brought about you will discover that 
the patient received a dropper supplying more of the drug than you 
intended, or in excess of physiological limits. 

It is because of this condition that I have consented to again call 
your attention to the size of the dropper used in administering solu- 
tions containing alkaloids into the eye. Much has already been 
written on this subject, but from personal observation little practical 
attention has been given to this matter by the pharmacist compound- 
ing eye preparations. 

In the American Journal of Pharmacy for August, 1902, you 
will find an able and exhaustive article on " Drops as Dose Meas- 
ure," by Mr. M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., Pharmacist to German Hospital, 
with a long bibliography on the subject. Mr. Wilbert suggests 
that one drop of water should be regarded to be equal to one- 
twentieth part of a gramme. If this system could be made effective 
and droppers made to measure the indicated quantity, it would be a 
ready method of calculation, and also quite practical. But as this 
has not been adopted we still have to contend with the droppers as 
they exist. There is little doubt but that all oculists accept one 
minim as the unit of measure, and that one drop to be its equiva- 
lent, they intend that the pharmacist will give an eye- dropper that 
will drop only that quantity. 

From the variety of eye-droppers which I here present, you will 
observe that every druggist has an idea of his own as to what shall 
constitute one drop. It is because of this irregularity in sizes and 
shapes that the attention of the compounding pharmacist should be 
awakened to the necessity of carrying out the intentions of the 
prescriber, thereby avoiding often much inconvenience to the 
patient. 

From a number of trials I have found that the straight dropper 



^a^iSt™"} Standard Eye Dropper. 125 

whose tip or point having a diameter of 2-oo to 3*50 mm. will most 
nearly drop 60 drops of an aqueous solution to the drachm. This 
allows an inclination of the dropper of 45 to the horizon. A drop 
always bears a direct ratio in size to the surface from which it drops, 
so that in a curved dropper the solution follows the curve to the 
point of rest and gives rise to a larger drop than if dropped from 
the point. The same is true of beaded droppers. 

Curved and beaded droppers should never be given to drop solu- 
tions containing poisonous alkaloids, as they always give a surface 
having a diameter of over 2-50 mm., and therefore drop more than 
one drop or one minim. 

Another point, eye droppers having the dark rubber nipples are 
far superior to those having red or white nipples, because the former 
are less sensitive or delicate to the touch. The rubber nipples 
should always be cleansed to rid them of rubber dust or sulphur 
contained therein. So then the dropper having a straight tip 2-00 
to 3 50 mm. in diameter with a black cr dark rubber nipple is the 
one to prescribe with alkaloid solutions. 



THE DESIRABILITY OF A STANDARD EYE DROPPER. 

After the reading of Dr. Schwenk's paper on " The Size of the 
Dropper as Applied to Alkaloids in Eye Drops " at the Pharmaceu- 
tical Meeting on January ioth,the following remarks were made: 

DR. WENDELL REBER 

said : 

" I quite agree with Dr. Schwenk as to the desirability of having 
a standard dropper, if that were practicable. Unfortunately that does 
not yet seem feasible. What with solutions varying from alcoholic to 
viscid in character and of all grades of specific gravity, it does not 
seem now possible to bring either the public or the pharmacist to 
the point that they will be willing to take the trouble to discrimi- 
nate between droppers for aqueous and those for other liquids. For 
a numbers of years I have felt the need of protecting the public 
against the poisonous effects of the powerful drugs used in eye work 
that may result from the use of droppers with too large an aper- 
ture. So far it has been possible to avoid this by resorting to a 
simple practical measure. It is my invariable rule in hospital or 



126 



Standard Eye Dropper. 



/Am. .Jour. Ph«rm. 
I March, 1905. 



private work to caution the patient to make pressure with a soft 
handkerchief just over the inner corners of both eyes, where are 
located the tops of the tear ducts. In this way any excess solution 
is immediately absorbed by the handkerchief and is prevented from 
running down the tear canal into the nose, there to be absorbed into 
the general circulation. In this connection it is well to remember 
that the mucous membrane of the nose is twice as absorptive as that 
of the stomach, so that the entrance of of a grain of an alkaloid 
there would be equal to the entrance of of a grain by the 
stomach. 

" As to sterilizing solutions, whether in droppers or in bottles, it 
must be borne in mind that many of the alkaloids used in ophthal- 
mic work are very delicate in nature and may be split up into dif- 
ferent compounds by boiling. Cocain, for instance, loses much of 
its anesthetizing power by boiling. I recall a man upon whom I 
operated for cataract. I could not understand why he was so 
unruly during the operation. He seemed to experience very 
much more pain than most such patients. Two weeks later 
while operating on another cataract patient, I used a boiled co- 
cain solution in the way that we commonly use cocain, and at the 
end of fifteen minutes began the operation. His sensitiveness was 
so great that I stopped, and used three instillations of a similar 
strength cocain solution that had not been boiled. Within ten min- 
utes the eye was absolutely insensitive, and the cataract was re- 
moved without the slightest twinge of pain. This observation I 
have repeatedly confirmed, and I am convinced that while the 
special anaesthetic properties of cocain are not entirely destroyed 
by boiling, they are so reduced that the boiled solution becomes 
practically worthless. The best way to prepare the solution to be 
used for such purposes is to boil a saturated boracic acid solution, 
and when it has cooled to about 98 or gg° ¥., to dissolve in it 
such amount of cocain as the surgeon may desire. Even if an abso- 
lutely sterile cocain solution might be obtained, it would not be 
worth while taking the trouble, as there are no eye-lids absolutely 
free from bacteria. Eyre, and also Arnold Lawson, of London, ex- 
amined the inner surface of the lids of fifty normal eyes in healthy 
persons, and found three to five different kinds of bacteria of vary- 
ing virulence in all but two or three. Gifford, Omaha, Neb. (one 
of our foremost bacteriologists in ophthalmic science), scrubbed the 



Am. .Tour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1905. J 



Standard Eye Dropper. 



127 



outer and inner surface of the lids with a boracic acid solution and 
afterward flushed the eyes with a warm boracic acid solution, and, 
in spite of all this care, was not able to secure an eye free from 
micro-organisms. 

And yet this last statement should in no wise deter us from 
approaching as close to absolute cleanliness as possible in all that 
is done about the eye. Droppers should be thoroughly rinsed 
each time before using. The eye or eyes should be thoroughly 
flushed with warm boracic acid solution, and any and all instruments 
boiled (excepting those with sharp cutting edges which should be 
immersed for half an hour in absolute alcohol) before introducing 
them into the eye. If we cannot make the eye sterile we can at 
least make the instruments and eyes as clean as possible. Experi- 
mental bacteriology has proven that when the number of bacteria 
is reduced below a certain quantity and the soil made uncongenial, 
there is little, if any, danger of infection, hence the imperative 
need for simple absolute cleanliness. 

m. 1. WII.BERT 

said : 

" The International Conference for the Unification of the Form- 
ulae of Potent Medicaments, held at Brussels, Belgium, in 1902, 
recommended the adoption of a normal drop counter, having an 
external dropping surface of 3 millimetres, and dropping, at 15 C, 
drops that will weigh 05, or the equivalent of one-twentieth of 
1 c.c. 

This recommendation has been officially adopted by every coun- 
try represented at the conference, with the exception of Germany 
and the United States, and will, no doubt, go far towards correcting 
the various existing ideas regarding drops. For general use, as 
dose measures, even the universal adoption of this standard drop 
and dropper will not overcome the inherent tendency to alter the 
size of the dropping surface, and with it the size of the drop, by 
changing the angle at which the dropping device is held. One 
other serious defect with even the best of our generally used pipette 
droppers is the difficulty of instilling one or two drops into the 
eye, without causing an accidental deluge of drops to inundate the 
eye, and causing the unexpected untoward effects referred to by 
the doctor in his paper. The Germans have overcome this latter 



128 



Camphor Snow. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1905. 



tendency, and have also partially overcome the former by dispensing 
potent eye drops in special containers. These consist of a small 
vial having a perforated stopper, through which is introduced a 
corrugated or twisted glass rod that answers as the dropping de- 
vice. The evident advantages of this device are that the glass rod 
does not hold more than two, or at the most three drops at a time, 
that the drops form and disengage slowly, and are in addition to 
this but slightly effected by any unavoidable jar or tremor. Among 
other advantages that might be claimed for this device are the fact 
that it may be readily sterilized, and that there is less likelihood of 
there being a marked change in the strength of the solution, caused 
by the evaporation of a portion ot the solvent remaining in, or on, 
the pipette or dropper. 



CAMPHOR SNOW AND MILK OF CAMPHOR. 

WITH SEVERAL ADDITIONAL FORMULAS FOR UNCTUOUS, NON-GREASY 
PREPARATIONS FOR CHAPPED HANDS AND LIPS. 

BY M. I. WllvBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Claudius Galenus, who was born in Pergamum, Mysia, about the 
year 1 30, and whose name, even to-day, is the recognized synonym 
for medicinal preparations, is said to have been the first to recom- 
mend a mixture of grease and water as a cooling and soothing 
application to the inflamed or irritated skin. 

The widely used and variously constituted cold creams of the 
drug shops, as well as the more uniform, though frequently less 
elegant, unguentum aqua rosae of the pharmacopoeias, are at best 
but modifications of the original mixture of grease and water recom- 
mended by Galen more than 1,700 years ago. 

From the point of view of the consumer, the present-day succes- 
sors of the ceratum galeni, unguentum leniens or unguentum 
refrigerans of the early apothecaries are still far from being perfect 
toilet preparations. The most elegant preparation of cold cream, 
while it may be a neutral, bland and cooling ointment, is at best 
greasy, and on this account, if no other, is frequently objectionable 
as an application for chapped hands particularly. 

The discovery of glycerin, in the early decades of the nineteenth 
century, added a new, and in many respects a most desirable, cura- 



.No. 533 F. ac - h - sy s M. T. 




STADIA HAND LEVEL 



(TELESCOPIC) 





The Stadia Hand Level has an erecting 10-inch telescope with 1-inch 
objective. The objective is drawn out for focusing and the eyepiece is 
adjustable for defining the stadia hairs, which read 1 : 100. This instru- 
ment will be found very useful for preliminary surveys, cross sectioning, 
railroad construction work, exploration of streams for water power, etc. 
When set on a staff or tripod, a fairly accurate line of levels can be run. 
It is easily carried, as it weighs scant H pounds. In connection with a 
flexible leveling rod it constitutes an ideal outfit for preliminary work, on 
account of its light weight and easy manipulation. 

570G. Stadia Hand Level, telescope 10 in., stadia hairs, objective 
1 in., with ball joint and socket, in sewed leather 



KEUFFEL & ESSEK CO., 
Drawing Materials, Surveying Instruments, 



sling case, 



each $18 00 



Measuring Tapes. 



127 FULTON ST., 




NEW YORK. 





f 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March. 1905. J 



Camphor Snow. 



129 



tive agent for external application. But even glycerin is not a 
specific, and with many individuals is more irritating than soothing, 
particularly when undiluted. 

To obviate the greasy nature of the one or the irritating, even 
caustic, action of the other, innumerable suggestions and recipes 
have been published from time to time. Among the more practi- 
cable of these suggestions we may mention the reduction of the 
relative amount of the grease or oil in the case of cold cream, and 
the addition of non-objectionable diluents to the glycerin. As an 
example of a dilute mixture of an oil with water, the following 
saponaceous mixture, provisionally called " camphor snow," may be 
tried : 

Agar-agar 3 grammes 

Water 150 

Stearic acid 15 

Sodium carbonate 10 

Oil of theobroma 15 

Water 100 

Alcohol 10 

Camphor 5 

The necessary apparatus consists of a so-called farina boiler, or a 
suitable water-bath, and an egg-beater. The process of mixing is 
simple, though the following directions may appear to be somewhat 
complicated. 

Dissolve the agar-agar in 150 c.c. of water and strain. To 100 c.c. 
of water in a farina boiler, or any suitable dish on a water-bath, add 
the stearic acid and the sodium carbonate ; after the carbon dioxide 
has been driven off, add the oil of theobroma and the solution of 
agar-agar; mix thoroughly by means of the egg-beater; then re- 
move the container from the water-bath, or source of heat, and con- 
tinue beating or agitating the mixture until a uniformly smooth 
lather, measuring about three times the volume of the contained 
liquids, results. 

When nearly cold add the camphor, dissolved in the alcohol. A 
preparation of this kind can, of course, be varied by the substitution 
of any desirable perfume or odor for the camphor, or by the sub- 
stitution of any other desirable fatty oil for the oil of theobroma, or 
by the substitution of Irish moss or casein for the agar-agar. 

Another rather interesting possibility, as a toilet article, is a 
cream-like emulsion of fatty oil. This, to prevent its being con- 



130 



Camphor Snow. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1905. 



founded with the well-known saponaceous emulsion of oil of turpen- 
tine, sometimes called " camphor cream," we will provisionally call 
" milk of camphor." 

It consists essentially of a mixture of a fatty oil, oleic acid and 
spirit of ammonia with water, and the base is practically the same 
as petrox, for which a formula was given in this Journal some time 
ago. (American Journal of Pharmacy, 1901, p. 220.) 

A typical formula for a preparation of this kind would be : 

Spirit of ammonia 5 grammes 

Oleic acid 10 

Oil of cotton-seed 20 * " 

Camphor 1 

Water to make 150 

To the cotton-seed oil, in a dry bottle or suitable container, add 
the oleic acid, followed by the spirit of ammonia. In this mixture 
the camphor is readily dissolved. Now add the water in quantities 
of from 5 to 10 c.c. at a time, and shake or stir until a uniformly 
smooth emulsion has been formed. This preparation, like the pre- 
ceding one, can be varied by using a mineral oil or oil of sweet 
almonds, or by substituting any more desirable perfume or odor for 
the camphor. 

Among the more desirable preparations of glycerin, a mixture 
of equal parts of glycerin, rose water and solution of peroxide of 
hydrogen is probably the most satisfactory. The latter ingredient 
in this preparation is a particularly useful one, and contributes very 
materially to its efficiency. 

The following may be taken as a type-formula for " glycerin 



Boil the Irish moss on a water-bath with sufficient water to make 
420 c.c. of jelly and strain ; while still warm add the glycerite of 
boroglycerin. When nearly cold add any desirable perfume or flavor. 
Here again the resulting product may be varied by substituting 
agar-agar, gelatin, tragacanth, starch or quince-seed for the Irish 
moss ; also by replacing the boroglycerin, in whole or in part, by 
glycerin. The perfume may be varied at will, and may include any 
one of the thousand and one available odors. 



jelly : 



Chondrus 

Distilled water to make . 
Glycerite of borogtycerin 



15 grammes 
420 

80 



Am Mlrcb ( T9 h cl rm *} Progress in Pharmacy. 131 

In conclusion, it may be said that preparations that are designed 
for toilet use may, and properly should, have distinctive characters. 
They illustrate, much better than the strictly medicinal preparations, 
the best efforts of the pharmacist for elegance and neatness, and 
they constitute a legitimate and very valuable opportunity for him 
to demonstrate his skill and ability. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE RECENT LITERATURE RELATING 
TO PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

By M. I. WlXBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The past year brought us more than the usual number of foreign 
visitors, who were more or less interested in chemistry, pharmacy 
and the allied sciences. These visitors were attracted to this country 
largely by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and the accompany- 
ing congresses. Many of these visitors, on their return to their 
native countries, expressed themselves rather freely on the unsatis- 
factory conditions existing in the present-day practice of pharmacy 
in America. Ignoring entirely the unfavorable opinions expressed 
by German writers, we may be permitted to quote from a few of our 
other foreign visitors, who appear to have been hardly less unfavorably 
impressed. 

. A recent number of the Chemist and Druggist (London, Decem- 
ber 10, 1904, page 948) quoces from an address by Prof. A. V. Pell, 
before the St. Petersburg Pharmaceutical Society, and says : " Pro- 
fessor Pell described the pharmacies of the United States as occupy- 
ing an exceedingly low level. They are not pharmacies, but shops 
dealing in various drinks, such as soda-water, milk, whisky, etc., 
among which could be found some medicinal substances of an alto- 
gether suspicious nature ; and the medicines, quite unequal to the 
pretensions, are sold at fabulous prices, being two or three times 
as dear as in Russia. The dealers generally have no special knowl- 
edge, which the Government on its part does not exact. The 
American only troubles about business requiring large capital and 
yielding large profits." 

This statement, from the eminent Russian, is possibly too general 
in its tone to be taken very seriously. The following, taken from a 



132 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm, 
X March, 1905. 



recent number of the Pharmaceutical Journal (December 3, 1904, 
page 820), is rather more direct and more specific: 

Mr. Joseph Colman, a member of the Pharmaceutical Society, says : 
" The first thing that struck me about American Pharmacy is that, 
for the most part, if I may use the paradox, it is not pharmacy at 
all, as Europeans understand the word. In America the drug-store 
is a place where hats are cleaned, where cigars, and candy, and cut- 
lery, and the inevitable soda fountain, combine to reduce to a mini- 
mum the attention bestowed on drugs. There are in New York, 
Chicago and other large cities a few pharmacies of the English type, 
but even there the candy and the soda-water are not wanting. 

" I think the difference between American and British pharmacy 
is to be found in this fact : Pharmacy has developed here as an 
outgrowth from the medical profession — the old apothecaries were 
both doctors and druggists. But on the other side the history is 
altogether different. Pharmacy has grown — and, up to now, not 
grown to any lofty height — out of the general store — out of the 
grocery, if you like. There is, however, plenty of hope for the 
future, and that hope lies in the gradual awakening to the truth on 
which British leaders of pharmacy have always insisted — that in 
scientific education, if anywhere, lies the foundation for pharmaceu- 
tical progress." 

A Frenchman, Jules Huret, editor of Figaro, Paris, says: "For 
the European traveling in America nothing is more surprising than 
the shops of the apothecaries. They call themselves druggists, 
chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, or, when of German origin, 
Apotheker. The ordinary apothecary shop is a veritable bazaar. 
Over the door we may find, in modest letters, the word * Drugs,' 
while extending out over the sidewalk is a large sign, with immense 
letters, announcing ' Ice-Cream Soda,' the favorite beverage of the 
native American. In addition to this leading article we find the 
tobacco counter, and, adjoining that, confectionery, paper, brushes, 
combs, sponges, toilet articles and perfumery. We may also find razors, 
artists' materials, playing cards, sporting goods and, everywhere, 
the public telephone at five and ten cents a call. In addition to 
these commodities we can in many cases secure carriages, express 
wagons, moving vans, messengers, servants, stamps, and even money 
orders, by mail or express. 

<f The American drug store frequently contains a circulating 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
March, 1905. J* 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



133 



library, is used as a waiting-room for the street railways and fur- 
nishes news, gossip and general information to all that apply. If 
we observe closely, we will find that, in addition to all of these com- 
modities, there is, in an obscure and out-of-the-way portion of the 
store, a small section containing the drug department, where pre- 
scriptions are said to be compounded." (Phar. Post, 1904, page 714.) 

We in America are, however, not the only ones that are slightly 
backward in our scientific development. This is evidenced by a 
recent article on " Retrospect and Prospect of Pharmacy," by 
Mr. David Murray {Phar. Jour., 1904, page 864), who says: "If 
pharmacy is yet to be recognized as an organized profession, or if 
pharmacists are to revive the respect due to their rights, it will only 
be acceded to when pharmacists, individually and collectively, have 
proved by education and organization that they merit such atten- 
tion." 

Another writer in the same journal {Phar. Jour., 1904, page 848) 
says : " After everything that could be done to protect trade inter- 
ests during recent years has been done, pharmacists are still faced 
with the difficulty of convincing the legislature and the public that 
they have a just claim to be regarded as a distinct professional 
class." 

No doubt the reasons for this comparatively unsatisfactory condi- 
tion of pharmacy in Great Britain, as well as in America, is to be 
found in the low standards of pharmaceutical education. 

A synopsis of the pharmaceutical education required by the 
several European governments, which was republished in a recent 
number of the Pharmaceutical Journal (December 3, 1904), is par- 
ticularly interesting in this connection. From this synopsis it 
appears that, with the single exception of England, the large Conti- 
nental countries require from five to ten years of special study for 
the prospective pharmacist. All of the Continental countries, in 
addition, require the equivalent to matriculating at the universities 
as a preliminary requirement. 

The Metric System of Weights and Measures in Great Britain. — The 
secretary of the " Decimal Association," in a communication to the 
Pharmaceutical Journal (December 24, 1904, page 951), asserts that 
prospects are very favorable that the metric weights and measures 
bill will be acted on favorably by the House of Commons at an early 
date. 



134 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm 
I March, 1905. 



Over 330 votes of members of Parliament have been promised in 
support of the bill in the lower house. The secretary also recounts 
a list of representative bodies who have petitioned Parliament in 
favor of the reform. 

The Metric System in Medicine. — The impending introduction of 
the metric system of weights and measures into Great Britain has 
been the direct cause o considerable discussion on the supposed 
shortcomings of that system from a practical point of view. 

While many of the points are, perhaps, not very well taken, and 
while many of the suggestions that have been made are quite im- 
practicable, there is one, a practical name for the quantity of a fluid 
contained in a cubic centimeter, that has made its appearance in a 
recent number of the Pharmaceutical Journal, and is well worth 
repeating. This quantity, frequently referred to as c.c, it is pro- 
posed to call a mil, from milli liter, the thousandth part of a liter. If 
this name were generally adopted we could have deci-mil, centi-mil 
and milli-mil, for the tenth, hundredth and thousandth part of a c.c. 

Proprietary Medicines in New Zealand. — According to a recently 
published regulation the government of New Zealand will require 
that after June 30, 1905, "All patent medicines imported or sold in 
the colony must have the contents, with their exact proportions, 
legibly printed on the bottle, box or container, and if any poison is 
contained in the medicine, the words ' This contains poison ' must 
be added. (Phar. Jour., 1905, p. 94.) 

The History of Pharmacy has attracted more than usual attention 
during the past three months. In Germany a most comprehensive 
History of Pharmacy, by Hermann Schelenz, has but recently been 
published by Julius Springer, Berlin. This book contains upwards 
of 900 pages and includes a history of pharmacy and the allied sci- 
ences from the earliest times to the present. 

The History of the Paris School of Pharmacy, which has been in 
press for nearly a year, is said to be ready for distribution in the 
near future. A copy of this book, which, as will be remembered, is 
being published as a memorial of the centenary of the Superior 
School of Pharmacy was shown at a recent meeting of the Society 
of Pharmacy of Paris, where it elicited favorable comment. 

The Pharmacopoeia as a Reflection of Contemporary Development 
is the title of a series of articles contributed by Prof. A. Tschirch 
(Schweiz. Woch. Scht. f. Chem. u. Pharm., 1904, p. 602, et seq.) on 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1905. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



135 



the origin and development of the several pharmacopoeias published 
in Europe. From these articles it would appear that the first offi- 
cial pharmacopoeia was published in Niirnberg, Germany, in 1546. 

An interesting sketch of the origin and continuance of the Pharma- 
ceutical Journal, by the veteran writer, Mr. Joseph Ince, has recently 
appeared in the pages of that journal. {Phar. Jour., 1904, p. 804.) From 
this sketch it would appear that the Journal began in 1841 as a 
private enterprise, being owned and controlled by Mr. Jacob Bell. 
It was the first journal of its kind to be published in Great Britain, and 
is to-day the second oldest pharmaceutical journal published in the 
English language. 

Among the early contributors are enumerated such representa- 
tive British pharmacists and scientists as Dr. Andrew Ure, Professor 
Redwood, Prof. George Fownes, Prof. Jonathan Pareira, Thomas 
Morson, Dr. W. F. Daniell, J. B. Groves, who were in turn fol- 
lowed by such men as Daniel Hanbury, John Barnard, Robert Bent- 
ley and the still surviving Joseph Ince. 

From 1 841 to 1870 the Journal was published as a monthly; since 
1870 it has been published in its present form as a weekly. 

The Year Book of Pharmacy, containing a complete account of 
the meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Conference at Sheffield, 
England, has been distributed to the members. In addition to the 
papers read at the Sheffield meeting, this book also contains a well 
arranged and quite exhaustive review of the current literature relat- 
ing to pharmacy. 

In this connection it is also announced that a general index 
covering the volumes from 1886 to 1903 will be ready soon and that 
the price for this index has been fixed at the moderate sum of 
3s. 6d., post free. For those who desire a copy of the previous index, 
1864 to 1885, the two volumes will be supplied at 5s. 6d., post free. 

The first number of the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chemie for 
x 9 5 — tne ninety-sixth year of its publication — appears with the 
name of M. Bourquelot as the principal editor. M. Emile Bourque- 
lot, it will be remembered, is the head pharmacist at the Laennec 
Hospital, Permanent General Secretary of the Society of Pharmacy 
of Paris, Professor of Galenical Pharmacy at the Superior School of 
Pharmacy, Paris, and has but recently been appointed a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. M. Bourquelot comes to his new posi- 
tion well prepared. He has been a frequent contributor to phar- 



136 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1905. 



maceutical literature, and has been on the editorial committee of 
the Journal de Pharmacie for a number of years. 

Adulterated Digitalis. — An examination of the powdered digitalis 
leaves in a number of Austrian pharmacies has disclosed the fact 
that some of the supposed digitalis consisted of powdered ver- 
bascum leaves. (J. Moeller, Phar. Post, 1904, page 677.) 

Dr. Wilhelm Mitlacher, in a more recent number of the same 
journal (Phar. Post, 1905, page 41), reports finding two samples of 
supposed digitalis leaves that consisted entirely of a mixture of 
Verbascum and Inula Conyza D. C. (Conyza Squarrosa L.) 

Adulteration of Oil of Eucalyptus with Castor Oil was recently 
reported by C. J. Bennett (Chem. and Drug., 1905, page 34). 
From the reported characteristics of this particular mixture, it 
would appear to be one that is not readily detected in the ordinary 
way. 

A ready method to distinguish pure sulphate of quinine from the 
commetcial atticle. If o-2 gramme of the quinine salt be dissolved in 
5 c.c. of a mixture of 30 volumes of petroleum ether (spec, grav., 
0-68) and 70 volumes of chloroform, the filtrate when diluted with 
three times its volume of petroleum ether, will remain perfectly 
clear if pure quinine sulphate has been used. Other cinchona 
alkaloids, when present, will give a distinct precipitate. By this 
method, it is asserted, an admixture of 01 per cent, of foreign alka- 
loids to quinine may be detected (Zeitschr. f. Anal. Chem. through 
Zeit. d. Allgemein. Oest. Apothek. I^r, 1904, 1370.) 

Antichoren. — This is said to be a mercuric iodochloride. It occurs 
as a dark-brown amorphous substance that is soluble in water in 
all proportions. When given internally it is readily absorbed, and 
may be advantageously substituted for the usual mercurials in 
syphilis. It is given in doses of o-Ci three or four times a day. 
{Suddeut. Apoth. Zeit., 1904, page 889.) 

Castor Oil in powder form. — A recent German patent provides 
for the mixing of an emulsion of castor oil with an equal weight 
of calcined magnesia, the added water is subsequently evaporated 
and the resulting mass powdered. {Suddeut. Apoth. Zeit., 1905, 
page 36.) 

Formane, a combination of formaldehyde and menthol as an inha- 
lation, is said to be a useful remedy for cold in the head. The 
following is a typical formula : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1905. / 



Progress in Pharmacy . 



137 



Menthol, 10. ; formaldehyde, 5-; oil of geranium, 5 ; mix and 
use in a smelling bottle. (Phar. Jour., 1904, page 967.) 

Jab or audi Leaves of Commerce. — E. M. Holmes [Phar. Jour., 1904, 
page 891) says that for some years there has been great difficulty 
in obtaining the jaborandi leaves official in the British Phar- 
macopoeia. 

During this period a considerable quantity of the Rio and Maran- 
ham jaborandis have been on the market. The latter, P. microphyl- 
lus, usually comes into the market in good condition, and yiel 1 , 
according to Paul and Cownley, as much as 84 per cent, of a 
crystalline nitrate of pilocarpine that, like the alkaloid obtained from 
P. jaborandi, appears to be a mixture of two nitrates — one, isopilo- 
carpine, having a melting point of 1 59°, and the other, pilocarpine, 
melting at 146 . 

Rio jaborandi (P. pennatifolius) varies much in appearance, and 
does not yield more than half the amount of crystalline alkaloid 
usually obtained from the Pernambuco or Maranham varieties. 

Kryptol. — This is a grayish-black, granular substance, having con- 
siderable electrical resistance. It is composed of clay, carborundum 
and graphite, and is said to have a melting point that is upwards of 
3,000° C. It is being used to economically convert electrical energy 
into heat. (Suddeut. Apoth. Zeit., 1904, p. 790.) 

Menthyl Camphorate, — The camphoric acid ester of menthol ; this 
is a white substance, insoluble in water or chloroform, but soluble in 
alcohol, ether and the fatty oils. It melts at 86° C, and is decom- 
posed by boiling water. {Zeitschr. d. Oest. Apoth. Ver., 1904, 
p. 1518.) 

Salibromin. — This has been recommended as an antiseptic remedy 
for rheumatism and as a febrifuge. It is insoluble in water and in 
acids. Given in doses of 0-50 and as much as 5-00 in twenty-four 
hours. [Phar. Jour., 1904, p. 852.) 

Trigemin, a mixture of butyl chloral and pyramidon, occurs in 
long acicular crystals, melting at 85 C, and freely soluble in water. 
Used as an analgesic. (Zeitschr. d. Allgemein. Oest. Apoth. Ver. } 
1904, p. 1 5 18.) 

Zinc Borate, or Oxyborate. — This is a powder combining the anti- 
septic properties of boric acid with the drying and absorbent prop- 
erties of oxide of zinc, and may be made by the following formula : 

Dissolve 500 grammes of zinc sulphate in from 5 to 10 liters of 



138 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. - { Am M J a ?ch,f9ot. rm " 

water, and add to this solution 443-6 grammes of borax mixed with 
309 grammes of a 15 per cent, solution of caustic soda, collect the 
precipitate, wash until free from sulphates and dry. (Phar. Jour., 
I 9°5f P- 75> fr° m Arch. d. Phat) 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Traite Elementaire de Physico-Chimie, ou lois generates et 
theories nouvelles des actions chimiques. Par M. Emm. Pozzi-Escot. 
Paris: Librairie Polytechnique. Ch. Beranger, Editeur. 1905. 
Pp. 627. 

This is a text-book of general chemistry as interpreted by the 
modern physical chemists and is a very complete and satisfactory 
presentation of the views held to-day on this subject. It is, more- 
over, a presentation of these views in which mathematics is avoided 
as far as possible, so as to make it understood by the average 
chemist who does not wish to undertake the study of certain parts 
of mathematical physics, such as thermo-dynamics, as a preface to 
physical chemistry. 

The well-known fundamental laws of chemistry, such as those of 
gaseous combination, the atomic theory and the meaning of valence 
and its applications in the establishing of chemical equations, are 
first reviewed ; the properties and general laws of the gaseous state 
are then discussed, followed by an account of specific heats of the 
elements and a classification of the elements. In the latter, the 
periodic system of Mendeliefif is fully explained and deductions from 
the same noted. At the . end of this chapter mention is made of the 
discovery of the five rare inert atmospheric gases by Ramsay, and 
that their discoverer had fitted them into the periodic system con- 
stituting a group for themselves, but the author does not incorporate 
them in his table of elements as is now generally done. 

The next chapter, dealing with the properties of liquids, describes 
the phenomena of molecular diffusion of liquids and from that goes 
on to speak of osmotic pressure, which is well explained with the 
aid of several simple illustrations which help one in the understand- 
ing of this important phenomenon and its meaning. This leads to 
the statement of the modern theory of solutions as first proposed 
by Arrhenius. 



Am MSch,i9 h of. rm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 139 

Thermo-chemical changes are discussed in a separate chapter and 
endothermic and exothermic reactions illustrated, the methods of 
calorimetric measurement of chemical changes being also described. 
An account of luminous radiations includes the subjects of photo- 
metry and spectroscopy, as well as a description of the newer forms 
of radiation, such as the Roentgen rays, the N rays and the phe- 
nomena of radio-active matter, in connection with which Crookes' 
interesting speculations on the changeable nature of matter are 
noted. The newest results of Ramsay and Rutherford are not 
mentioned, however. 

No book on modern physical chemistry would be complete with- 
out an account ot Gibbs' famous phase rule and the various systems 
of equilibrium in chemical reaction, and this we find well explained 
in Chapter XV. A discussion on electrolytic phenomena which 
develops the idea of the ion, and a final chapter on the application 
of the theory of the ions and the scientific principles underlying 
analytical chemistry, complete the book. 

No one wishing to master the principles of chemistry and its 
wide-reaching possibilities can any longer ignore the great develop- 
ment of physical chemistry which has taken place in the last decade 
or two, and for one able to follow in the French language the book 
seems to furnish an excellent and not too mathematical survey of 
the field. S. P. Sadtler. 



In Memoriam Charles Rice. Printed for private circulation by 
J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1904. 

This is a neat octavo volume of sixty pages, with seven inserts 
containing appropriate and well executed illustrations. Bound in 
full black leather, with gold lettering, this little volume represents 
probably the acme of the printer's and bookbinder's art. In style 
and appearance it is thoroughly in harmony with the man whose 
name it is designed to perpetuate and to honor. 

The first nineteen pages are devoted to a general outline sketch 
of the life of Charles Rice, while the remaining pages contain a list 
of the "Degrees, Titles and Memberships of Dr. Charles Rice;" 
" A Bibliography of the writings of Dr. Charles Rice ;" " Personal 
impressions and recollections of Dr. Charles Rice ;" " Resolutions 
of the Board of Trustees of the United States Pharmacopceial Con- 
vention ;" " Resolutions of the College of Pharmacy of the City of 



140 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. I Am March.i£f. rm 

New York;" "Resolutions of the National College of Pharmacy;" 
"Dedication of the Monument to Charles Rice, Ph.D.," and " The 
Rice Memorial Committee." 

In the biographical sketch, unfortunately, there is a most lamenta- 
ble absence of detailed information, in connection with the numerous 
subjects enumerated. For this general lack of detail there can be 
but two reasonable reasons — dearth of material, or lack of funds. 
The former of these can hardly be accepted as valid, while the latter 
would constitute a lasting disgrace to the profession of medicine as 
well as to that of pharmacy, as the standing of both of these pro- 
fessions has been manifestly advanced by the disinterested efforts of 
this lone, and in many respects lonely, man. 

It would, for instance, be interesting to know how Charles Rice, 
who, as one writer in this memoir suggests, was but an insignificant 
part of a great political machine, contrived, " despite the vicissitudes 
of political fortune," to conduct his own individual department on 
such a high ethical plane that even the leaders of that political 
machine did not essay to dictate, or even to suggest to him what his 
policy should be or how he should conduct his department. Rec- 
ognizing the difficulties under which he labored, it would be interest- 
ing indeed to know how Charles Rice, for thirty-five years, was able 
to personally conduct and direct the work done in the largest 
general drug bureau in this country, to the complete satisfaction of 
the numerous interests involved and with credit to himself and his 
assistants. 

It would also be interesting to know how, through all this period 
of time, while engaged in work so foreign to research and study, he 
was able to preserve his interest in all that pertained to Oriental 
literature and languages. 

Last, but by no means least, it would be interesting to know how, 
in addition to all this, Charles Rice was able to take such an active, 
or, as is generally admitted, the leading part in producing the two 
works that will ever be recognized as being pre-eminently the lead- 
ing features of the American pharmacy of the latter decades of the 
nineteenth century ; the sixth decennial revision of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary. As Chairman of the 
Committee of Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia and as 
Chairman of the Committee on National Formulary of the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association, Charles Rice essayed to do, and did 



Am MLrch,i9 h o5. rm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 141 

do, work that will be recognized as a credit to pharmacy in time 
still to come. 

A more detailed account of the work done in connection with 
these two works alone would prove interesting and would be of 
inestimable value as an incentive for better work on the part of 
future pharmacists. Information relating to this particular feature 
of his work must be still available. It can hardly be supposed that 
of the thousands of circular letters, written and prepared by him 
himself, none have been preserved. But, even if this were true, we 
still have the voluminous report of the Committee of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association on the Revision of the United States 
Pharmacapoeia, published in 1880; the files of the proceedings of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association ; the National Formulary; 
the Pharmacopoeia of the United States ; the Digest of Criticisms, 
and last but not least, the personal recollections of a number of his 
co-workers and contemporaries who should, and no doubt would, 
furnish the information necessary for a more extended sketch of 
this eminent pharmacist. It is sincerely to be hoped, therefore, that 
this little volume is but a forerunner of something still more elabo- 
rate in the future, and that the present, or at least the succeeding 
Pharmacopceial Revision Committee may see its way clear to collect 
and record much that will be of interest in connection with a study 
of the life work, times and surroundings of this truly noble, original 
and unselfish worker in the field of pharmacy. 

M. I. W. 

The Urine, the Gastric Contents, the Common Poisons and 
the Milk. By J. W. Holland, M.D., Professor of Medical Chemistry 
and Toxicology, Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia. Sev- 
enth edition, revised and enlarged. P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1904. 

This handy laboratory manual, embracing as it does the clinical 
microscopy and chemistry of the urine, as well as the clinical chem- 
istry of the gastric contents, the common poisons, including alka- 
loids and the milk, is a most compact, as well as trustworthy, labo- 
ratory guide for the practical clinician or the up-to-date pharmacist. 

It is a substantially bound working guide, with every other page 
blank, for the addition of certain data which the practical man 
should have in close proximity to the original considerations. 

One valuable feature of this volume is that it not only describes 
instruments that are upon the market for performing the special 



142 



Editorial. 



( Am. Jour. Pharni 
t March, 1905. 



tests and methods of applying the same, but frequently gives a 
method whereby a few pieces of glass tubing or a common test 
tube will practically accomplish the same results with much less 
expenditure. It might also be noted that methods for the centrifu- 
gal estimation of the mineral sulphates, phosphates and albumin 
prove a valuable addition, as well as the latest tests for the presence 
of sugar in the urine ; formaldehyde in milk, and Ewald's test for 
the condition of the stomach. In connection with- some of the 
tests for abnormal constituents of the urine, the following sub- 
divisions are noted, which in themselves should commend it to a 
careful worker, namely, principal reagents, methods of applying, 
test precautions to be observed, fallacies and delicacy of tests, volu- 
metric, gravimetric or centrifugal estimations, objections to and 
advantages of these methods. It might also be noted that the 
preparation of artificial morbid urines for practicing the various 
tests, Freund's method for the determination of acidity, preliminary 
standardization, and Toepfer's method for estimating free and loosely 
combined acids, are among the latest additions to this publication. 

W. S. Weakley. 



EDITORIAL. 

PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO THE PHARMACY ACT IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

The requirement of graduation from a college of pharmacy prior 
to examination by a board of pharmacy has been unanimously in- 
dorsed by the American Pharmaceutical Association, the various 
State pharmaceutical associations, and the International Pharma- 
ceutical Congress, which met in Chicago at the time of the Colum- 
bian Exposition, as well as by other organizations interested in 
pharmaceutical progress. (See American Journal of Pharmacy, 
August and September, 1904.) 

While the proposition favoring the enactment of a law requiring 
every applicant for a proprietor's or manager's certificate to be a 
graduate of a reputable college of pharmacy, probably originated 
in Pennsylvania, it has remained for New York State to first pass a 
law of this kind. 

A bill of this kind is again before the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
and the only changes proposed in the present Pharmacy Act are the 
following : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1905. J 



Editorial. 



143 



(1) A candidate for a proprietor's or manager's certificate must 
produce satisfactory evidence that he is a graduate of some reputa- 
ble and chartered college of pharmacy. 

(2) The amendment does not become operative until January I, 
1906, and it only applies to those going into business after that 
time; it does not affect druggists already in business or clerks apply- 
ing for qualified assistants' certificate before the Board. 

This subject has been so frequently discussed that it seems hardly 
necessary to present any further arguments in support of legislation 
of this kind, but in order that the pharmacists of this State may real- 
ize the necessity for writing to their respective senators and repre- 
sentatives, so that they may be assured that there is a real need for 
the enactment of the proposed amendment, we here present some 
of the more specific reasons for its enactment, as set forth by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington. 

(1) The amendment is needed to elevate pharmacy to the stand- 
ard which the retail pharmacist of the State is entitled to, because 
his position is most responsible before the community, and the 
greater attainments of the pharmacist of to-day warrant the same 
recognition at the hands of the public as that accorded to physicians 
and dentists of this State, who have the same provision in their 
medical and dental laws. 

(2) The passage of such an amendment does not work hardship 
upon any druggist doing business in the State to-day, and on ac- 
count of the prerequisite law now operative in the State of New 
York, the passage of this amendment will prevent a flood of drug- 
gists who are not graduates from coming into this State and going 
into business here, because they are unable or unwilling to qualify 
themselves so as to comply with the law in the State of New York. 
As a protective measure it especially commends itself at this time. 

(3) A profession, trade or occupation which is united in the work 
of excluding uneducated and incompetent men from lowering the 
standard of the whole must commend itself to your judgment. 

(4) The American Pharmaceutical Association, the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association, the Philadelphia Retail Druggists' As- 
sociation, the colleges of pharmacy and the State Board of Phar- 
macy have passed resolutions or have signified their approval of this 
amendment. 

(5) The medical profession, as a body, throughout the State 



144 



Dr. Friedrich Hoffmann. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1905. 



favor it because any measure which improves the practice of phar- 
macy by demanding higher educational requirements from the 
manager or proprietor of a pharmacy, increases the value of the 
physician to the public, because if the doctor's prescriptions have 
not been intelligently and safely compounded, his efforts to save the 
patient's life are null and void. 

When we consider the benefits that have accrued to the medical 
and dental professions in the State of Pennsylvania since the enact- 
ment of the laws requiring that only those who can practise these 
professions in this State shall be graduates of reputable medical and 
dental schools or colleges, it is but fair to ask that the pharmaceuti- 
cal profession receive equal consideration at the hands of our legis- 
lature. The advances in one of these professions should be followed 
by similar advances in the others, as they are more or less allied in 
their aims, and are all more or less intimately concerned with the 
public health. 

DR. FRIEDRICH HOFFMANN. 

The news of the death of Dr. Friedrich Hoffmann, at his home in 
Berlin, on November 30th, was more or less anticipated, for it was 
known to his friends that his health had been in a precarious condi- 
tion for some years past. Dr. Hoffmann spent the best years of his 
life in this country, and to him American pharmacy is much in- 
debted for the progress made during that time. Dr. Hoffmann was 
elected an honorary member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
December 30, 1895, and we feel that we cannot do better than to 
give the sketch of his life prepared by his friend and co-laborer, 
Dr. Frederick B. Power, which appearedjn the Chemist and Druggist 
(London), December 10, 1 904: 

" It is a sad duty for the writer of these lines to record the death 
of one of the veterans of scientific pharmacy, Dr. Friedrich Hoff- 
mann, which occurred at his home in Charlottenburg on November 
30th. The realization of the loss which has thus been sustained, 
and which will be deeply felt by a large circle of professional asso- 
ciates, becomes accentuated to one who for thirty years had known 
him in the more intimate relations of a true and kind friend. 

" Friedrich Hoffmann was born in Wnezen-on-the-Oder on June 
20, 1832. His early instruction was received from his father, who 
was distinguished both as a theologian and philologist, and was at 
one time a councilor of the Consistory at Stettin. He then attended 



A % J a °rch,i905!' m '} Dr. Friedrich Hoffmann. 145 

the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin, and in 1847 began his ap- 
prenticeship in pharmacy. From 1854 to 1856 he studied at the 
University of Berlin, where it was his privilege to receive instruc- 
tion from such eminent teachers as Mitscherlich and Heinrich Rose, 
in chemistry; Otto Berg and Alexander Braun, in botany and 
pharmacognosy ; Ehrenberg, in microscopy ; Dove and Magnus, in 
physics; Johannes Muller, in physiology; and Carl Ritter, in com- 
parative geography. But a little more than a year has passed since 
the writer had the opportunity of walking with Dr. Hoffmann 
through the grounds surrounding the old University buildings in 
Berlin, and many interesting and touching reminiscences were then 
recounted of the time, nearly half a century ago, when, as a young 
and enthusiastic student, Hoffmann spent there many happy days. 
Not less interesting were his elaborated notes on the lectures and 
laboratory-work of that period, in many cases illustrated with hand- 
some pen-sketches, which had been carefully preserved through all 
the wanderings of the intervening years, and in which he evinced a 
justifiable pride. It was evident that even at that early age the 
young apothecary had shown exceptional talent, and that he had 
pursued his studies with something more than ordinary zeal and 
diligence. 

Having passed his State examination in pharmacy with the high- 
est honors, and with a special inclination towards the sciences ot 
botany and forestry, Hoffmann applied himself for a time to these 
studies, but, after having taken his degree at the University of Jena, 
in 1859, circumstances rendered it necessary for him to change his 
plans and return to pharmacy. Thus, after some years devoted to 
this pursuit in his native country, he left Germany in 1862, and 
established himself in the city of New York. In the metropolis of 
the New World, which was destined to be his home for a period of 
thirty-four years, Dr. Hoffmann's sound scientific training and 
literary abilities soon found recognition and appreciation. During 
the first four years of his residence in the United States he was 
engaged in teaching, and as an expert or adviser in connection with 
various chemical industries. For the next sixteen years he was 
engaged in the practice of pharmacy, although still finding time for 
a large amount of literary work. This found expression in several 
papers on the subjects of pharmaceutical education and legislation, 
and in a number of interesting biographical sketches, including 
those of some of his earlier teachers at the University of Berlin, 



146 



Dr. Friedrich Hoffmann. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm 
March, 1905. 



which were published chiefly in the Popular Science Monthly. He 
also issued, in 1872, a work entitled "A Manual of Chemical 
Analysis as Applied to the Examination of Medicinal Chemicals " ; 
of this a third edition, in which the present writer collaborated, 
appeared in 1882. For two years, 1 881-83, Hoffmann served as 
a chemical expert on the New York State Board of Health. 

To the changes which time had effected in the practice of phar- 
macy, involving a departure from the conservative and strictly pro- 
fessional methods of the school in which he had been trained, Dr. 
Hoffmann could never become completely reconciled, and many of 
the duties which this pursuit entailed became to one of his tempera- 
ment and culture increasingly onerous and uncongenial. For this 
reason he was induced in 1882 to dispose of his business and estab- 
lish a new pharmaceutical periodical, which, under the title of the 
Pharmaceutische Rundschau, he conducted with marked ability and 
success for a period of thirteen years, and, in a somewhat altered 
form, it still continues to be issued as the Pharmaceutical Revieiv. 
As the writer has stated on a previous occasion, when reviewing 
Dr. Hoffmann's service to pharmacy : 

In the field of journalism he not only found a congenial occupation, but the 
resources of his mature and cultured mind, his broad scientific training, and 
his extended knowledge of practical affairs, together with his ability to form 
and express correct opinions regarding current problems and events, all served 
to impart to his writings a distinctive character and a literary value which will 
be appreciated and admired by all reflective students who peruse them for 
generations yet to come. 

At the close of 1895 Dr. Hoffmann decided to discontinue his 
journalistic labors and seek rest and retirement in his native land ; 
but it was contrary to his nature, and incompatible with a lie of 
such intense activity, to remain for any length of time without some 
form of occupation. With the opportunities afforded him by the 
large libraries of the Continent he soon became engaged in histori- 
cal researches, and, in collaboration with Dr. Gildemeister, of Leip- 
zig, he produced the very comprehensive work on the essential oils, 
entitled " Die aetherischen Oele." This was issued in 1899, and may 
be regarded as a most worthy and crowning effort of his literary 
career. 

On the occasion of the Jubilee of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, which was celebrated at Philadelphia in the summer of 
1902, Dr. Hoffmann was invited to deliver an address, and in re- 



Am. Jour. Pharna. 
March, 1905 



Pharmaceutical Meetings. 



147 



sponse to this request, he crossed the Atlantic, in order that he 
might once again meet the many friends who had conferred upon 
him this honor. Unfortunately, however, he was even then in such 
a feeble state of health as to rdnder necessary his almost. immediate 
return, thus compelling him to forego the long-anticipated pleasure 
of delivering his address in person, which was naturally a grievous 
disappointment, both to himself and to his friends. The subject he 
had selected for his discourse was " A Retrospect of the Develop- 
ment of American Pharmacy and the American Pharmaceutical 
Association," which was published in the " Proceedings " of the 
Association for 1902, and occupies forty-five closely printed pages. 
It would be needless here to refer to the thoroughness of its exposi- 
tion and the charm of its diction. 

The varied and exceptional attainments of Dr. Hoffmann and the 
service rendered by him in pursuit of the higher aims and ideals of 
pharmacy have been widely recognized, and he was the recipient of 
many distinctions, both in America and on the continent of Europe. 
Although in his sterner moods, and by his strong dislike of the 
superficial, as also by his determined and uncompromising views on 
many subjects, he was sometimes misunderstood or even harshly 
judged, yet those who were privileged to know him most intimately 
could not fail to have been impressed by his many noble qualities, 
by his generous nature, his kindness of heart, and by the encourage- 
ment and inspiration which he afforded those of younger years, to 
whom by his sympathies he was attracted. 

In the attempt which has been made to delineate some of the 
more prominent features of a life so eventful as that which has now 
closed, the writer is fully conscious of the fact that the represen- 
tation he has given is a very inadequate one ; but the work and 
influence of the man will endure, however ephemeral and incom- 
plete may be the tribute which friendship is permitted to bestow. 

And such is human life ; so gliding on ; 
It glimmers like a meteor, and is gone. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETINGS. 

JANUARY AND FEBRUARY. 

The regular pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held in the museum of the college on Tuesday 



148 



PJiarmaceutical Meetings. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1905. 



evening, January ioth, with W. L. Cliffe, member of the Pennsyl- 
vania Pharmaceutical Examining Board, in the chair. The meeting 
was a notable one in several particulars and will probably go down 
in history as one of the most important meetings of its kind ever 
held at the college, certainly in recent years. 

The main topic chosen for consideration was that of the ethical 
relation of pharmacists and physicians, there being three addresses 
along this line. 

Dr. Henry Beates, Jr., President of the State Board of Medical 
Examiners, was the first speaker and read a paper on "A Brief Con- 
sideration of a Few Facts Determining the Relationship between 
the Science and Art of Pharmacy and the Science and Art of 
Medicine." (See February number, page 51.) 

Prof. John H. Musser, President of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, took for his theme the following : " A Tendency in Medicine 
and its Influence on Pharmacy." (See February issue, page 58.) 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., followed with a paper " On the Evident Need 
of a Profession of Pharmacy." (See February number, page 64.) 

A number of physicians and pharmacists, both in Philadelphia 
and elsewhere, had been invited to take part in the discussion, and 
Prof. Henry Kraemer, Secretary of the Committee on Pharmaceuti- 
cal Meetings, read letters from the following, regretting their inability 
either to be present or to send a communication : Dr. William Osier, 
Dr. J. C. Wilson, Dr. H. C. Wood, Dr. Oliver T. Osborne, Dr. H. 
A. Hare, Dr. James Tyson and Walter A. Rumsey. 

The general discussion was participated in by the following : Dr. 
Beates, Warren H. Poley, Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Dr. Clayton 
M. Thrush, M. I. Wilbert and George M. Beringer. (See February 
number, page 70.) 

Dr. Thrush said that he had had eight years experience as a 
pharmacist, and that he believed the prerequisite law for pharma- 
cists should be enacted. Then referring to the shortcomings of 
physicians and pharmacists, he said that some pharmacists will sub- 
stitute and that some physicians will order all of the new remedies 
that come out ; sometimes they order only one prescription and the 
rest of the preparation is dead stock. He said that he had recently 
examined 1,000 prescriptions from leading stores of this city, and 
that only two of them were in the metric system, notwithstanding 
the fact that this system is taught both in schools of medicine 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1905. J 



Pharmaceutical Meetings. 



149 



and schools of pharmacy. Another feature of these prescriptions 
was the frequent ordering of proprietary remedies. 

Professor Remington spoke of the pre- requisite law now being 
considered by the Pennsylvania State Legislature and asked Dr. 
Beates to aid in securing its adoption. Dr. Thrush added that he 
believed that the pre-requisite law for pharmacists should be enacted 
and should receive the support of pharmacists and physicians. 

Dr. P. N. K. Schwenk, an attending surgeon to Wills Eye Hos- 
pital, was the last speaker on the programme and read a paper on 
" The Size of the Dropper as Applied to Eye Drops Containing 
Alkaloids." (See page 123.) 

Professor Remington said, in discussing this subject, that droppers 
are frequently used for other purposes than as eye-droppers. He 
said there was much difference in the size of drops, depending upon 
the kind of liquid used. He then referred to the dropper which also 
serves as a stopper and said that an attempt had been made to make 
this accurate. (See also page 125.) 

Dr. Schwenk said that he favored sterilization, and that in pre- 
paring for operations on the eye he had his instruments sterilized 
each time. In preparing eye-drops he said it was his custom to boil 
the water and then add the alkaloid to the cooled liquid. 

Mr. Poley spoke of a case of poisoning resulting from the use of 
a dropper that had been previously used. 

On motion of Thomas H. Potts a unanimous vote of thanks was 
tendered the speakers of the evening. 

The fifth of the present series of pharmaceutical meetings of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, 
February 14th, with Prof. Joseph P. Remington in the chair. The 
meeting was well attended, and partook of the nature of a sympo- 
sium, the alcohol question being considered from various points of 
view. 

Dr. H. W. Wiley, Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, United 
States Department of Agriculture, gave an address on " Methyl 
Alcohol — what is it and what is it good for? " (See page 10 1.) 

Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler read a paper in which he discussed 
" Methods for the Detection of Methyl Alcohol in Ethyl Alcohol." 
(See page 106.) 

A paper by Mahlon N. Kline, Chairman of the Committee on 



Pharmaceutical Meetings. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1905. 



Legislation of the National Wholesale Druggists' Association, on 
" Some Reasons Why the Internal Revenue Tax on Alcohol Should 
be Reduced, and Why Our Government Should Provide Free 
Denaturized Alcohol for Use in the Arts," was read by Prof. Charles 
F. Parsons. (See page 1 1 1 .) 

Dr. A. R. L. Dohme, of Baltimore, sent a communication con- 
demning the use of methyl alcohol for pharmaceutical purposes. 
He expressed the hope that Congress would grant the reduction in 
the tax on ethyl alcohol, and thus largely eliminate this excuse for 
the use of wood alcohol for any purpose connected in any way with 
medicine or pharmacy. (See page 119.) 

The subject was further discussed by Dr. Henry W. Cattell (see 
page 121), Professor Sadtler, Dr. C. B. Lowe, Warren H. Poley and 
Dr. Wiley. 

Mr. Poley said that milk which contained either formal- 
dehyde or sodium borate or boric acid would not coagulate 
properly upon the addition of rennet, and he desired to know if this 
could be considered in the nature of a test for these substances. 
Dr. Wiley said that his experiments had not covered this point, but 
that he thought that any substance which prevented the action of 
ferments would interfere with the action of rennet, it being in the 
nature of a ferment. 

M. I. Wilbert read a paper on " Camphor Snow and Milk of Cam- 
phor," and exhibited samples of these preparations. (See page 128.) 

Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, Louisville, Ky., was present, and was called 
upon for some remarks by the chairman. Mr. Boring said that the 
older members classed Professor Diehl with such men as Procter, 
Parrish and Maisch, and that he was a veteran of the civil war, and 
had been left on the battlefield at Stone River for dead, but that his 
life had been spared to assist in the development of American 
pharmacy. 

The next meeting will be held on Tuesday evening, March 21st, 
when the subject of professional or scientific pharmacy will be con- 
sidered. Papers will be read by Prof. Henry P. Hynson, of the 
University of Maryland; Dr. Wm. C. Alpers, New York City. 
George M. Beringer, Ph.M., will read a paper on " The Evolution 
of Nostrum Vending and its Relation to the Practice of Medicine and 
Pharmacy." Henry Kraemer, 

Secretary. 



WILLIAM WEIGHTMAN, 
1813-1904. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



APRIL, 1905. 



WILLIAM WEIGHTMAN. 

By Howard B. French. 

By the death of William Weightman, head of the chemical 
manufacturing firm of Powers & Weightman, in August last, 
America lost one of her most prominent industrial chemists. 

Mr. Weightman was elected a member of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy in 1856, and maintained an interest in the work of 
the institution until the time of his death. The last time he visited 
the College he spent more than an hour going over the buildings 
with the writer, offering practical suggestions as to anticipated 
changes, and manifesting the deepest interest in the most minute 
details of construction, arrangements and appliances. Through his 
co-operation the present College House, with accommodations for 
sixty students, was secured a short time before his death. 

William Weightman was born on September 20, 1 8 1 3, in Waltham, 
Lincolnshire, England. At the solicitation of his uncle, John Farr, 
he came to this country in 1829, and obtained employment with the 
firm of Farr & Kunzi, manufacturing chemists. 

John Farr came to Philadelphia in the early part of the last cen- 
tury and was the first to manufacture' sulphate of quinine in the 
United States, and it is interesting to note that he was devoting 
his attention to an investigation of the cinchona alkaloids about the 
time that Pelletier and Caventou announced the discovery of quinine. 
This was in 1820, and two years previously Mr. Farr had formed a 
partnership with B. Kunzi, which partnership continued until 1836, 
when Mr. Kunzi retired. Mr. Farr then associated with himself 
Thomas H. Powers and his nephew, William Weightman, under the 
firm name of Farr, ,Powers & Weightman. After the decease of 

(151) 



152 



William Wcightman. 



Am. Jour. Ptiarm. 
April. 1905. 



Mr. Farr, in 1847, the firm became Powers & Weightman, which 
name was retained until the beginning of the present year. 

The death of Mr. Powers occurred in 1878, whereupon Mr. 
Weightman, in addition to his duties as a chemist, assumed 
charge of the commercial interests of his house. In 1883 Mr. 
Weightman admitted into partnership his two sons, Dr. John Farr 
Weightmann and Dr. William Weightman, both of whom died a few 
years afterwards. In 1893 Robert J. C. Walker, Mr. Weightman's 
son-in-law, was admitted as a member of the firm. Upon Mr. 
Walker's death, in 1903, his wife, Anne M. Weightman Walker, suc- 
ceeded to membership in the firm, she being the only daughter of 
Mr. Weightman, and upon the death of the latter she became the 
sole member of the firm until its consolidation with the firm of 
Rosengarten & Sons recently. 

To give a biographical sketch of Mr. Weightman is almost equiva- 
lent to giving a history of the chemical manufacturing industry in this 
country. His firm early became known for the introduction of new 
chemicals and tor the development of processes of manufacture. In 
1875 the Elliott Cresson gold medal was awarded them by the 
Franklin Institute "for the introduction of an industry new in the 
United States and perfection of result in the product obtained in 
the manufacture of citric acid." The same medal (which is but 
rarely conferred) was also awarded them u for the ingenuity and 
skill shown in the manufacture and for the perfection of workman- 
ship displayed in the production of the cheaper alkaloids of the cin- 
chona barks." It was entirely due to the efforts of this house that 
sulphate of cinchonidine became so favorably known and so largely 
employed as an efficient substitute for quinine, at a time when the 
high price of the latter largely restricted its use. (See editorial in 
Amer. Jour. Pharm., Vol. xxvii, 1855, p. 573.) 

It is not too much to say that in the number and excellence of 
their products, this firm is the equal of any in the United States. It 
is nearly fifty years ago that one as eminent as Professor Procter 
referred to " the deservedly excellent reputation " of Powers & 
Weightman. (See Amer. Jour. Pharm., Vol. xxvii, p. 480.) 

The success of the firm was largely due to the eminent traits 
which marked the character and life of William Weightman, who 
gathered around him competent men who were trained in an atmos- 
phere of correct business principles, and who, because of the equita- 



Am AffiI; £m. rm ' } Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. 153 

ble consideration given them, became devoted to the interests of 
the firm. Probably one of the best indications of the integrity of the 
firm of Powers & Weightman is to be found in the statement made 
in connection with their exhibition at the Columbian Exposition. It 
was stated that " the exhibit made at the Columbian Exposition is 
not entered for competition, but is simply a transfer from its store- 
rooms of some of the leading productions of the house, without any 
special selection, and just as they are being shipped daily. No ef- 
fort has been made at display or elaboration, but purity and excel- 
lence is the standard upon which their claims to merit are based." 

In short, Mr. Weightman's career was a remarkable one. He 
was a man of unusual industry, eminently just in all his transactions, 
and held to an unusual degree the esteem and loyalty of his em- 
ployees, many of whom virtually spent the greater part of their 
lives in his services. 

Mr. Weightman was married in Christ Church, Second Street 
above Market, Philadelphia, on March 17, 1841, to Louisa, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Stelwagon, of Philadelphia. Besides being a member 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Mr. Weightman, at the 
time of his death, was also a member of the Historical Society, the 
Horticultural Society and the Franklin Institute. 

Mr. Weightman died on August 25, 1904, after a short illness, 
and the funeral services were held at his late home, " Ravenhill," 
in Germantown. He is survived by his daughter, Mrs. Anne M. 
Weightman Walker, whose only child died a few years ago, and six 
grandchildren, Mr. Aubrey H. Weightman, Mrs. Richard W. Meirs, 
Mrs. John Strawbridge, Mrs. Nathaniel Norton, and two unmarried 
granddaughters. 

ETHICAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRACTICE AND ITS 
RECOMPENSE. 

By Hknry P. Hynson. 
In this day and for this generation, it is difficult to persuade 
oneself that he may, with propriety, trespass upon the time and 
patience of any audience touching a special subject that has been 
thoroughly discussed and variously treated. In this instance espe- 
cially, as nothing new or helpful can hardly be offered, an apology 
must be made ; an excuse must be given for such a trespass. Your 
complimentary but rather reckless invitation is my apology ; a 



154 Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. { Am A J P rn r ,'5o5 arm ' 

burning desire to contribute a mite, as modestly as may be, toward 
the proper placing of an honorable and useful calling that is gen- 
erally misunderstood and usually undervalued, is my excuse. 

It seems quite meet and right that this venerable institution — the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy— the veritable cradle of American 
pharmacy, should, in turn, become also the reform school of its 
larger grown and, oftentimes, wayward offspring. Commendable 
indeed is the spirit here present, which has fostered this series of 
meetings, all leading, as they do, towards what I shall again and 
again style, " the proper placing of pharmacy." Yet, of all the 
splendid work done by this college, nothing, it appears to me, is 
more creditable than is the persistent maintenance and successful 
conduct of the American Journal of Pharmacy, which now, as 
always, stands out, in precept and example, for clean, dignified, 
ethical practice. 

Lately we have been told, by one whom we are all pleased Xo 
honor, that years, accumulated years, modify the minds of men and, 
although it has appeared unwise to attempt to state just how or 
where this modification applies, it is quite safe to own, for oneself at 
least, that years plainly tell us our faults, our shortcomings, our 
limitations, and it will be quite discreet .to assert that these same 
years, while pleasantly softening our criticisms of others and lending 
excuses for the acts of individuals, intensely emphasize principles ; 
principles which mercilessly disregard individuals and stand as firm 
and fixed foundations upon which are builded all laws — natural, 
common and statutory ; principles which are, without doubt, the 
basis for social laws that we call ethics. Please let it be understood, 
then, that respect for principles, like devotion to law, need not, as 
it does not, lessen our sincere regard or respect for individuals and 
their personal doings. 

Ethical pharmaceutical practice may, aye, must be, looked at 
from three points of view, which offer considerations bearing upon 
the relationships between pharmacist and client, pharmacist and 
brother, pharmacist and physician, respectively. If he will, one 
may contemplate this practice in direct line from his one chosen 
viewpoint ; such a contemplation, however, is difficult. It is the 
blended picture that is most engaging ; beautiful from any observa- 
tory, if properly colored with pride, honor and generosity, while all 
are softened by the exquisite tints of " The Golden Rule." 



Am ApTii r ;i905 arm "} Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. 155 

That pharmaceutical practice is not and never has been just what 
those most concerned would have it be and that it has seldom had 
satisfactory recompense may, I believe, be safely stated. This ad- 
mitted, and being allowed to call this practice— Pharmacy — the 
question naturally follows : Where should pharmacy be placed ? 

The more ambitious, those who would have it in a position to 
better advance science — another name for Truth — better serve the 
afflicted and to better honor its practitioners, answer that it should, 
in the days to come, as early as it is fit, become a special branch of 
medicine with the same ethical laws controlling it that apply to the 
several specialties in medicine. Then its services, alone, would be 
recompensed and the means of service would be but incidental. 
That would, indeed, be ideal and the attainment of the ideal is the 
end ! The less radical and, possibly, more practical, would have 
pharmacy an allied profession to medicine, like dentistry ; that would 
be very desirable, but the future of dentistry, surely, is recognition 
as such a special branch of medicine ! The conservative, non-specu- 
lative, will say: Let it be just what it is, a double-faced thing; a 
profession in so far as it must be sufficiently learned in the sciences 
and trained in its special art to render professional service in num- 
berless and important requirements ; a trade, whenever it must or 
may furnish as much or more of whatever is demanded, that may 
be safely supplied without special learning. Very practicable and 
entirely possible, but it is not the smaller demands upon the strength 
of man that make him most useful and win for him the greater 
recompense. 

Although both practitioner and trader, who shall say the practi- 
tioner shall not be placed in the light — high, clean and dignified? 
And the trader ; shall he not also be in the light — high, clean and 
dignified ? The same conscience should pervade both trade and pro- 
fession ; the same desire to be honest and truthful ; to be helpful, 
dignified and consistent, should be characteristic of both — profession 
and trade. Being thus possessed, they could, indeed, lt lie down to- 
gether," and the one could not detract from the other. Dissect, if 
you will, carefully, intelligently, the ethics of professions and the 
ethics of trades, and when you are ready to report tell me, if you 
can, wherein the organic differences may be found ? 

It does not appear that, with respect to his clients or customers, 
the ethics of the pharmacist are at all different from those of any 



156 Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. { Am Ap r U ii r ;Sr m ' 

other professional or business person. If a fool, a knave or a trick- 
ster, he is not within the control of ethical laws ; but if competent, 
honest and faithful, he will make no mistake for which an honor- 
able and dignified excuse cannot be given. With respect to the 
relationship to his fellow pharmacist, there can be no possible mis- 
take made by him, if, diligently striving to learn what is usual, what 
is generally acceptable, he stands ready to give all that he might 
expect ; if he expects no more than he stands ready to give. 

The picture then revealing pharmaceutical practice in its various 
relations to the practice of medicine would seem, just now, the one 
of peculiar importance, and, in view of what has gone before at 
these meetings, the one best suited to illustrate the points I hope I 
shall be able to make. Should it occasionally happen that glimpses 
of one of the two other views are obtained, they should serve to 
prove there are but few principles underlying life's service that may 
not be made applicable to all its phases. 

In nursing the hope that the ideal placing of pharmacy will 
finally prevail, it should not, indeed it must not, be thought that in 
any degree I undervalue the peculiarly honorable and revered posi 
tion held by medicine. Neither is pharmacy envious or presump- 
tuous; it waits, must wait; but in the end mighty truth must pre. 
vail, no matter what the end may bring. So must it be acknowledged 
that the three great professions are not alike in the exercise of their 
functions. All, as I understand it, aim finally to protect the bodies 
of men. Theology and law professionally, always indirectly, through 
man's senses; while medicine, excepting its rarer and less creditable 
practices, proceeds to act directly upon the body. The latter, then, 
is generally substantial and, like pharmacy, has to do with essentially 
material things. 

Just at this point I imagine are wondering when I will depart 
from generalities and present something tangible for your consid- 
eration, while / am, in turn, wondering what radical reforms you are 
expecting me to suggest and what decided changes you think I will 
advise. Remember, it was but a " fly in the ointment of the apothe- 
cary " that caused it to give off unpleasant odors. Those who prac- 
tise the art of garbling — and it is a most profitable art to practise — 
will at once appreciate how small the loss of material, how little the 
sacrifice of time required to greatly enhance the value, to make al- 
most perfect the substance treated. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
April. 1905. J 



Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice, 



157 



"The little more and how much it is, 
The little less and what worlds away." 

I believe it can be successfully shown that in the large majority 
of our better pharmacies the changes required and the sacrifices 
necessary to make them entirely acceptable to the masses, the rea- 
sonable members of the medical profession, would be very few and 
immaterial. And why should they be acceptable to the medical 
profession ? may be asked. I answer that a pharmacist who for 
cause is not in touch with the medical practitioners around him has 
lost his true mission. He is as much unlike the real pharmacist as 
is the ostracised medical man unlike the ethical physician ; as unlike 
his acceptable brother as is the disbarred lawyer unlike the recog- 
nized attorney. The feeling that would lead us to disregard the 
good will, endorsement and confidence of medical men must be 
closely akin to the feeling that leads the advertising specialist to 
become a world unto himself — a feeling for which the supposed or 
real faults and objectionable practices of a few medical men offer 
no reasonable excuse. 

Assuming the possibility of pharmacy at last becoming a special 
branch of medicine, or even an allied profession, what would it cost? 

Let us picture, if possible, one of medicine's most distinguished 
and respected branches, surgery, and, if not presumptuous, see if we 
cannot from it, sketch the outlines of pharmacy as we would most like 
to find it, at the same time discovering some of pharmacy's present 
greatest defects. The physician who elects to practise surgery 
acquires, of course, a general knowledge of medicine, but secures a 
special knowledge of those subjects with which his art has most to 
do : anatomy, histology, the pathology of surgical diseases. Having 
become learned in the sciences he begins to practise the art, until 
he is proficient also in that. 

Enjoying this proficiency in both the science and art of his 
specialty, he judiciously selects a location with due regard for con- 
venience and prominence. Next he seeks to fully and properly 
equip himself. His reception rooms may be elegant with handsome 
furnishings, but yet are neither gaudy nor extravagant. No matter 
how attractive they may be, they will be inexpensive and altogether 
incomparable in detail and exactness with his operating room. To 
the light and capacity of this operating room all other considera- 
tions will be sacrificed ; the equipment of utensils, appliances and in 



158 



Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice \ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1905. 



struments will be modern, of the most approved type, and ample. 
Great care will be exercised in the selection of assistants and attend- 
ants; there will be several classes, but each class will hold its 
competent and trustworthy personelle. He is known to be compe- 
tent, practised, well situated and properly equipped. From whence 
will his patients come? We all know, from two sources; the one 
helping the other. But if it happens he decides to do general 
practice in connection with surgery, there will be but one ; he may 
expect to depend upon his own efforts and his own cases for success. 
It may not discredit him to do general work ; but will he ever be- 
come a leading or quite so proficient surgeon ? Should he indulge 
in misleading practices, pretend to possess unusual and secret means 
or knowledge, he will soon lose caste and be quickly relegated to 
his rank. He will be allowed to furnish material incidental to his 
practice, and although it may not be directly charged for, it will 
enter as a charge with services, " operating room, $10 " it reads, or 
" including charges for dressings, ligatures, ether." He may with 
propriety sterilize dressings, prepare ligatures, examine anesthetics. 
Indeed, he may have a hospital or sanitorium of his own, and 
charge for the board of his patients. All this he could do with 
perfect propriety. He could own a farm, make an occasional 
deal in real estate or take "a dip" in wheat without sacrificing his 
professional standing. But what would be thought of him if he were 
to run an ice cream and confectionery saloon, with cigar stand and 
pool room attachments, in connection with his sanitorium ? What 
would be thought of him if, when a patient is sent to him by a gen- 
eral practitioner for surgical treatment, he is willing and anxious to 
treat him for all other ailments and at all times, which willingness 
he expresses through conspicuous cards generously distributed 
around his waiting room. And, infinitely worse, if he should pre- 
scribe for a price any old advertised appliance, bath or treatment, 
about which he knew nothing, or which his very attainments told 
him were worthless. Oh, brothers, the cases are sadly parallel ! We 
need not cut out side-lines if in carrying these our self-respect and 
personal dignity do not suffer and the attention they require does 
not too greatly interfere with the more serious demands of our prac- 
tice. We may invite, if we will, the heavy, sickening odor of the 
burning Havana or the annihilating fumes of the scorched " Sweet 
Caporal," both very hard to bear by the delicate young woman 



Am Ap°rii?i&o5! rm '} Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. 159 

waiting for the prescription to relieve that dreadful sick headache. 
We may thrust upon the aching heart of the languishing little 
one's parent, the titter and nonsense of the soda-water girl 
and dude, while he patiently waits for the hope-giving potion. 
These are personal privileges, the right to exercise which cannot 
be disputed, however much the policy may be questioned. 

We cannot, however, as fair-minded, intelligent persons, knowing 
how difficult it is for the learned and skilled physicians to properly 
diagnose and treat diseases, undertake this service, even if the fair 
law of reciprocity does not appeal to us. And more, we cannot and 
must not, kno\ving, as we do, as we are trained to know, the absurd 
claims, the falseness, the impudence of quackery, of quack medicines, 
" patent medicines," if you will, lend our services, our vocations, to 
their imposition upon, as to them, a poorly-informed, a credulous, a 
long-suffering public. Nor should we lend our associations and our 
journals to their pernicious influence. They are not worth it, even 
in dollars and cents, and no amount of organized work or effort will 
ever make them worthy the recognition of so useful, so honorable a 
vocation as is our own. 

In the light of all I have ventured to thrust upon you, and in the 
better light of your own conclusions, I would like to question as 
follows : 

(1) Are not pharmaceutical ethics and the ethics of all other use- 
ful vocations built upon exactly the same foundations, and are they 
not quickened by exactly the same spirit ? 

(2) Are not the ethics of the pharmacist touching himself per- 
sonally, his fellows, medical men and his customers, the ethics of 
the man, of humanity, the gentleman of honor and the accepted 
citizen of a Christianized community ? And — 

(3) Does it not appear that when the pharmacist has become 
ethical, he may become, in fact, has become, very nearly professional? 

It may be asked : Why should we be subservient to these laws ? 
The answer is simple : it is because they are the laws of right, of 
truth and of justice. Even though you may have a birthright in 
the Kingdom, that birrhright cannot be maintained except by 
obeying the laws. Remember, entree into even the smallest social 
coterie is through and by its laws and affiliation therein, is contin- 
ued only so long as these laws are obeyed, which, to obey, you must 
know and understand. While so great an ethical authority as 



160 Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. { Am Aprii,*i905? rm ' 

St. Paul wrote, " I had not known sin, save by the law," he has not 
said we may escape its condemnation, nor has he promised us 
recompense for its non-observance. 

Undoubtedly, ethical pharmaceutical practice can proceed only 
through a knowledge of pharmaceutical ethics, and a more perfect 
knowledge of these can be best obtained by gathering and discus- 
sing the views of individuals. I trust not to appear cynical when I 
express the belief that it is to a desire to get my interpretation ot 
these laws only, that I owe the honor and pleasure of appearing 
before you this evening ; believing this, I must ask pardon for treat- 
ing the subject more fundamentally than was desired, perhaps. I 
have taken this liberty that you might better understand " the faith 
that is within me " and appear more reasonable when I say of the 
pharmacy of to-day : 

That it should be dignified and somewhat office-like in appear- 
ance, with ample space and equipment for pharmaceutical manipu- 
lations. 

That in the arrangement and display of stock, the form and 
character of advertising, in advertising devices, it should conform to 
the importance and seriousness of its mission. 

That supplying medicines, medical and surgical accessories should 
be emphatically paramount, distinctly evidenced, and, instead of 
irrelevant side lines, should be extensively carried, all such articles 
as are peculiar to sick-rooms, hospitals, physicians' offices and their 
laboratories. 

That competent and conscientious care, conformity to modern, 
intelligent, and accepted practice, should rule its policy and conduct. 

That in it no attempt or desire to usurp the functions of the 
physician should be found ; no specifics prepared or supplied, and, 
by all means, no article of medical nature sold, upon the responsi- 
bility of the pharmacist or the customer, about which there is the 
slightest secrecy and for the reliability and safeness of which the 
pharmacist could not vouch. 

This, then, is ethical pharmaceutical practice, without great revo- 
lution but in the line of possible and healthy evolution, with but 
little sacrifice and at small loss. 

Its recompense ! What is its recompense ; what in dollars and cents ? 
Will it pay? will be, no doubt, asked. Yes, it will pay. It has paid in 
larger proportion to the amount invested than has the conventional 



Am A P °r U i[;i9Sr m '} Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice. 161 

pharmacy, and the percentage of failures has been much smaller 
than with these. A business started in the midst of successful and 
long established competitors, with such competitors ever present, 
that can, in its fourteenth year, if it does no more, comfortably 
maintain a firm of four members and pay holding salaries to a corps 
of twenty employees ; that closely approaches 50,000 as the num- 
ber of prescriptions filled, annually, may be thought to pay in dollars 
and cents. The character of this business is such as to lead cus- 
tomers to think that you must and do charge more, and they are 
willing to pay good prices ; they are not attracted to such pharma- 
cies by low prices. This money recompense, while necessary and 
desirable, is really incidental and not peculiar either to ethical con- 
duct, or the reverse ; some make the conventional pay, some do 
not ; some will succeed along restricted lines, some will not. Many 
quack doctors make money — many qualified ethical physicians fail 
to make a living. Money making and money saving is something 
peculiar to itself and invariably follows no profession, no business. 
It is an individual characteristic, the dimensions of which are poorly 
understood, even by its owner ; certainly, it should not, must not, 
influence our ethics. 

Unquestionably the greater recompense comes through increased 
self-respect, through greater pride in our vocation, more interest in 
our daily work and through the consciousness of having done " our 
little best " for humanity, for ourselves and those who are to follow. 

Peculiarly grateful is the recompense that comes from the com- 
munity and our patrons. It is fortunate when you can do the best 
in the best way and for the best reasons — such wins its own com- 
pensation, while relief from many trifling annoyances, the absence 
of distracting, petty demands, leaves one with more to think of that 
is pleasantly uplifting. 

The most pronounced and most unusual recompense that comes 
to us through this practice is the very encouraging and stimulating 
recognition it wins from the medical profession and the good feeling 
it therein engenders. It is really worth the while, with excuses 
unnecessary and apologies out of place, self-respecting — you com- 
mand respect — realizing that to him, only, cometh " that peace of 
mind which passeth all understan ung;" to him, only, who follows 
the broadest, the best and most effective of ethical laws; who does 
unto others even as he would have them do unto him. 



1 62 Professionalism vs. Commercialis7n. { Am *A J SS rm 

PROFESSIONALISM VS. COMMERCIALISM IN 
PHARMACY. 
By Whuam C. Aupkrs. 

The conflict between commercialism and professionalism in phar- 
macy is an old one — as old as pharmacy itself. While in many 
European countries it has long been settled in favor of proessional- 
ism, it is far from being solved in our country. During the last ten 
years pharmaceutical conditions in the United States have reached 
what may justly be called a crisis. A revolution almost is taking 
place, and nobody can foresee the outcome. Of late years the ten- 
dency has been to push commercialism to the front, direct all efforts 
to reforms on strictly commercial lines and let professionalism take 
care of itself. There are even many voices heard condemning pro- 
fessionalism as the source of our difficulties, and advocating its total 
abolishment from pharmacy. Luckily, in all extreme measures a 
reaction is bound to set in, and the signs are numerous that profes- 
sionalism will soon get the upper hand in pharmacy. 

In order to compare the two sides of pharmacy, and try to find a 
harmonious and satisfactory link between them, let us first clearly 
understand what we mean by the two terms, professionalism and 
commercialism. Professionalism, according to our dictionaries, is a 
vocation that involves a special education and mental rather than 
manual labor. Commercialism, however, is the spirit of commerce, 
an exchange of goods. If therefore we speak of the profession of 
pharmacy, we thereby imply a special training of the mind, an edu- 
cation beginning at the lowest step and gradually leading up to 
what is collectively called pharmacy. For it must not be forgotten 
that pharmacy as a profession is not a science in itself, but rather 
the combination or chaining together of certain branches of different 
sciences. A scientific pharmacist, in the widest sense of the word, 
would have to possess a much broader education than a chemist, a 
botanist, a physician, or a microscopist. But even if we restrict the 
word to our daily vocation, a wide range of knowledge is necessary 
which by its very nature must at once raise its possessor above the 
ordinary commercial man. 

The commercial man has little to do with education. It is prac- 
tical experience and a keen perception and exact knowledge of 
goods that make him successful. He may be able to determine at 



Am Aprii'i905* rm '} Professionalism vs. Commercialism. 163 

a glance whether a bale of drugs, like sarsaparilla or ipecac, is of 
good or poor quality. He does not bother his mind with the ques- 
tion whether the drugs under consideration contain an alkaloid, an 
oil, or a resin ; whether they are poisonous or salubrious. His 
experience tells him that they are good objects for commercial 
enterprise, and in this sense alone he is interested in them. The 
pharmacist looks upon his goods from a different standpoint. The 
questions that are uppermost in his mind in handling the same arti- 
cles cannot be solved by practical experience. Their answers are 
based on knowledge, on education. 

To say, therefore, that education in pharmacy is an unnecessary 
thing means retrogression. The advancement of the human race is 
based on education, on enlightenment, and the repudiation of any 
established science by its disciples is indirectly a step toward bar- 
barism. To wipe out the educational part of pharmacy would be to 
wipe out pharmacy itself. It would mean to divest a growing and 
beautiful plant of its leaves and flowers, leaving the bare stem as a 
monument of folly and destructiveness. 

We arrive at the same result if we commence our argument from 
the opposite end. What is a pharmacist? The answer is: a per- 
son skilled in the art and science of compounding and preparing 
medicines. He is not simply a thoughtless mixer of different mate- 
rials, and the compounding of medicines can in no way be compared 
to the mixing of mortar, or the mixing of oils and paints. The 
very definition of the word implies education. But to the public 
and in law it implies more. It is the established principle in all 
civilized communities, that the pharmacist is responsible for the 
quality of his goods, and that he is, and must be, a judge of what is 
good or injurious to the health of his clients. Nobody expects any 
responsibility from the purely commercial man. If the bale of 
ipecac that he sells turns out to be of inferior quality, the buyer 
claims a proportional credit — which is generally granted — and the 
transaction ends. But if the pharmacist dispenses a preparation of 
ipecac that by inferiority or faulty compounding causes injurious 
results, he is held responsible in every direction, and he may not 
only be sued for damages, but also held criminally. In our own 
ranks, the men who for the last five years have worked very faith- 
fully for the elevation of the commercial side of pharmacy, almost 
to the exclusion of all professionalism, have yet unconsciously 



164 



Professionalism vs. Commercialism. 



Am. Jour. Pharm . 
April, 1905. 



acknowledged that professionalism is, and must be, the foundation 
of pharmacy ; for the profit that they claim and try to obtain on 
certain goods far exceeds the just rewards of commercial enterprise, 
and can only be explained and maintained from a professional stand- 
point. 

The public finally give proof every day that they look upon 
pharmacists as men of higher education, and apply to them for in- 
formation in many instances where knowledge of chemistry, 
hygiene, botany or materia medica is presupposed. That these 
demands of the public are sometimes carried too far and may 
become sources of annoyance is probably true — but we should not 
forget that this confidence put in our knowledge and judgment, if 
properly answered and encouraged, will, by the very nature of our 
dual position, give us more than mere mental gratification, and lead 
to increased activity in prescriptions and other professional work. 

Thus, whichever way we look, professionalism is the very back- 
bone of pharmacy, and should therefore have the first consideration 
in all our doings and enterprises. 

In carrying out this principle we must not forget, however, that a 
drug store is a poor place for mere hypothetical speculation ; nor 
can a strict carrying out of a theory, however beautiful, be a suc- 
cessful vocation. The claim that we study pharmacy, and conduct 
pharmacies, for the sole purpose of advancing science or gratifying 
our desire for higher education may justly be called an absurdity. 
We are in business for the sake of profit. We must make a living 
and feed our families. But this merging of the prosaic demands of 
stern reality with the higher ideal of a professional calling is not 
restricted to pharmacy alone. Every professional man has to face 
the same dispute, and must find a way to harmonize the ideal with 
the real. Nor must we forget that this is not an age of abstract 
speculation, and that the tendency of the times points toward an im- 
mediate and quick application of all scientific discoveries. Whatever 
new is invented or discovered in any science, and particularly so in 
medicine and chemistry, does not long remain the property of some 
scientists who keep it like a jewel in a forbidden shrine. No, it becomes 
at once the common property of the whole world ; every man of in- 
telligence reads about it, and commercial enterprise at once takes 
possession of it. Thus science or professionalism and commercial- 
ism or practical application run together, and it is almost impossible 



Am A J p°ri[;i90o arm '} Professionalism vs. Commercialism. 165 

to draw or find the line of demarkation. Let us apply this general 
observation to medicine and pharmacy. The principal aim of medi- 
cine of to-day is not directed to combat disease by ordering reme- 
dies, the tendency is rather to prevent disease, and hygiene and 
sanitation have become such important branches that they form 
almost a science by themselves. And here arises at once the 
demand for an innumerable number of articles and apparatus 
tending to promote hygiene and sanitation, and it is natural that 
the pharmacist should supply them. It is, for instance, quite 
natural that where antiseptics and prophylactics that are used and 
ordered for the purpose of sanitation, as mouth washes and other 
dental preparations, are sold, also the articles for their application, 
as tooth-brushes, etc., are kept ; or to step from dermatological 
preparations to brushes, combs and similar implements. Aromatic 
liniments may without strain of argument lead to perfumery, and 
new methods in practical medicine to a large number of sundries, as 
electro-batteries and various glassware. All these appear like natu- 
ral and legitimate side lines, and even the strongest advocate of pro- 
fessionalism cannot exclude them entirely from his pharmacy. But 
they should remain what they are — side lines, not principal lines — 
and their handling, as well as the whole arrangement of the store, 
should be managed accordingly. 

The history of civilization shows us that wherever it became 
necessary that people of different degrees of civilization lived 
together, the inferior race must yield to the more enlightened one. 
Superior education will enforce its demands in every instance, if 
necessary even by brute force, in order to elevate the lower race. 
When the opposite takes place and higher civilization succumbs, we 
have a retrogression to barbarism. Applying this general observa- 
tion to our little sphere of pharmacy, we must let professionalism 
take the lead. We can never consent to arrange our professional 
calling as a mere commercial practice. Our aim must rather be to 
elevate the commercial part of our vocation and make it subservient 
to professionalism. And it can be done and has been done. It is 
a fact that since the time of the present pharmaceutical crisis the 
complaints about unbearable conditions have come mostly from the 
so-called commercial pharmacists, while the professional man has 
complained little, if at all. He is not blind to existing conditions — 
as is so often claimed — but rather by prudent foresight and keen per- 



166 Professionalism vs. Commercialism. { Am April ^s™' 

ception he recognized the fact that pharmacy based on commercial- 
ism cannot prosper, and his aim has been to elevate the desirable 
side-line, and strengthen his position with the medical profession as 
well as the laity. 

Let me use a metaphor. A strong and vigorous man enjoys the 
freshness of the water of the Niagara River above the Falls. He is 
a good swimmer, he knows his surroundings, no idea of danger 
ever enters his mind. He has done the same for years. Then one 
morning, venturing out further toward the Falls, he discovers that 
he is gently carried off by the current. " I must turn around," he 
says to himself, and he does. But has he become weaker than in 
former days, or is the current stronger ? for he is slowly but surely 
being dragged toward the Falls. His feeling of safety leaves him. 
For the first time in his life he feels that he has made a mistake, 
that he cannot depend on his own resources. He looks around for 
assistance, but there is none. The banks of the river are far from 
him on both sides. The rushing of water drowns his voice, and 
there he is, in the midst of the irresistible, constant current. His 
apprehension turns to fear. How can he save himself? Already 
his strength is leaving him. In a few minutes he will be beyond 
the hope of rescue. In this state of mind he sees not far from him 
a raft. With the last remaining strength he swims toward it, he 
climbs on it. " I am saved," he shouts and lays on it exhausted, 
but in the ecstasy of joy. And more than this, on the raft he dis- 
covers many treasures, precious stones and bags of gold. " What 
a find," he cries, "how lucky I did not reach the shore in time." 
After the first fulness of his joy he again looks around. Is he really 
safe? He discovers to his dismay that his rescue is only seeming, 
for the raft and treasures and rider are still in the current, and slowly 
moving toward the Falls. But there is help from another quarter. 
On the bank he discovers some friends. They motion to him ; they 
show him a rope. At a favorable point they throw it to him. 
" Now I am safe," he cries. Eagerly he grasps the rope. He pulls 
at it in his excitement ; but, alas, it is too thin and weak to stop the 
momentum of the raft; it breaks and leaves him helpless again. 
His fright approaches despair. What shall he do ? Again his 
friends motion to him. Now he understands. The rope is thrown 
again, but this time, instead of trying to carry the heavy raft with 
him, he ties the rope around his waist, takes a few of the treasures 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1905. 



Professionalism vs. Commercialism. 



167 



that are not too heavy, then bravely plunges into the water, and 
with his own great exertion and the help of his friends, he reaches 
the bank in safety. 

Here we have the pharmacist who some day discovered that the 
quiet enjoyment of his business has been interrupted and that he is 
carried to financial ruin. His own efforts of former days fail. He 
climbs on the ra t of commercialism that seems to give him safety 
and promises golden treasures ; but he discovers that still he is in 
the deadly current. Then his friends throw him the line of profes- 
sionalism. It is not strong enough to pull the clumsy raft, but it is 
strong enough with proper guidance to save him alone if he will add 
his own efforts ; yea, he may even carry some of the treasures along. 
Shall we stubbornly stick to the heavy raft of commercialism and 
be carried down the falls ? or shall we bravely plunge again in the 
river of pharmacy, use our own efforts strenuously and with the 
gentle guidance of professionalism be saved ? 

The advocate of professional pharmacy is often called an idealist, 
a visionary, who shoots far beyond the mark and fails to recognize 
the cold facts of the world around him. In reality it is the idealist 
who sees clearly beyond the narrow circle to which he is confined. 
It is the very keenness of his vision that makes him attack and 
reject conditions around him which others deem unalterable, and 
while he may sometimes underrate the difficulties of reform, he yet 
points a way in the right direction. There never was a great man 
without an ideal. It is necessary to have higher inspiration in order 
to rise above the ordinary, and this inspiration is generally trans- 
posed from the leader to his followers and is able to carry a whole 
nation to nobler aims. Without an ideal there would be no civiliza- 
tion. Without an ideal there would be no progress, no reform. 
Without an ideal there would be no art, no music, no greatness. 
Let me put before you the often cited instance of the artist who 
looks in ecstasy at a block of snow-white marble. " How r wonder- 
ful," he exclaimed. " See the grandeur of perception, the beauty 
of the face, the harmonious lines of the whole figure/' " What are 
you talking about ? " asked his neighbor, " I see nothing but a mass 
of stone." " Yes," replied the artist, " there is some stone about 
the statue, but give me hammer and chisel, so I can cut it away, 
that the whole world may see the statue in all its beauty." 

Let us in the same way look at pharmacy as an accomplished 



1 68 The Evolution of Nostrum Vending. { Am A P Ti[;^o5 arm ' 

piece of art. Do not cut up the block of marble for commercial 
paving stones. Let us take hammer and chisel and work faithfully 
from morning till night until professional pharmacy stands before 
us perfected in all its glory. 



THE EVOLUTION OF NOSTRUM VENDING AND ITS 
RELATION TO THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE AND 
PHARMACY. 

By George M. Beringer. 

The term " nostrum " correctly used is restricted to " a quack 
medicine ; a remedy, the ingredients of which are kept secret ; " but 
the discussions in some of our pharmaceutical meetings, as well as 
popular usage, have included under this title all proprietary reme- 
dies. A shade of authority for such usage and broadening of the 
meaning of the term is given in the Century Dictionary and Cyclo- 
pedia, where the derivation of nostrum is given as " L. nostrum, 
neut. of rioster, our, ours." The name is supposed to refer to the 
habit of quacks and other advertisers of claiming special virtue for 
their wares as " our own make." 

While fully recognizing the difference between the terms " nos- 
trum " and " proprietary remedy " when properly used, the writer 
may in this article, following the example set in these meetings, use 
the terms as synonymous. 

We must admit that, at the present time, a large portion of the 
trade of the average American pharmacist is in this class of medi- 
cines, and that even in prescription compounding they have become 
an important factor. 

Some of the writers on professional pharmacy, who have very ex- 
alted ideals, have considered these as entirely modern innovations in 
medical and pharmaceutical ethics, and lay an undue share of the 
blame at the door of the drug trade. They are prone to moralize 
about the happy trade conditions of the past decades, when the 
present generation of duggists were in embryo and the devotees of 
the calling, whose reputation we honor, were practising pure pro- 
fessional pharmacy. 

A retrospection of the history of medicine in this connection, even 
though, necessarily, quite cursory, may not be unprofitable. Among 
the ancient Greeks the treatment of disease was largely in the nature 



Am Ap ru r ;im rm "} The Evolution of Nostrum Vending. 169 

of a worship of Asclepius'(^Esculapius). The patient after prelimi- 
nary ablution, prayer and sacrifice, was permitted to sleep at the 
feet of the statue of the god, and in his sleep the proper remedy was 
revealed in a dream. 

The Egyptian practice of medicine was mainly in the hands of the 
priests and astrologers, and the compounding was done in the most 
secret manner. 

The various schools, and systems of medicine throughout the 
period of Roman supremacy were likewise a mixture of which super- 
stition and . religion were prominent components. 

In Germany, despite the spirit of reform and the revolution of the 
practice introduced by Paracelsus, no real advance was made until 
comparatively modern times. Even his early training was tinctured 
with the prevailing theory and search for the Philosopher's Elixir. 
His peculiar visionary theories regarding the composition of the 
body and its relation to nature and disease had but few advocates, 
and he himself was considered by many to be only a sorcerer and 
impostor. His study of nature was directed principally to gather- 
ing together facts and information regarding the action of mineral or 
chemical, drugs. While advocating the use of chemicals, he did not 
entirely exclude the vegetable remedies, and he will ever be remem- 
bered as the originator of tincture of opium and the common name 
laudanum, which it will always retain. His work can be considered 
mainly as a search for specifics, and many of his followers are said 
to have rapidly degenerated into mystical quacks and impostors. 

The work of the alchemists who devoted their entire lives in per- 
severing researches in the hope of discovering the Elixir Vitas and 
the Philosopher's Stone have left their indelible impression upon 
the practice of both medicine and pharmacy. Their progress, how- 
ever, was likewise through the sea of mysticism, and their extensive 
processes in many cases but attested their ignorance of real science, 
and their nostrums were purposely shrouded in mystery as deep and 
black as their own art. 

In the Middle Ages the monasteries were the chief homes of 
medical learning and the practice was a mixture of superstition and 
religion with such relics of knowledge as had been preserved from 
the early Greek and Roman writers. For centuries some of these 
monasteries were noted for the medicines which they prepared, and 
their secret remedies were sold and exported in every direction. 



170 The Evolution of Nostrum Vending. {^ m \ J ^n:mt m ' 

This practice was continued until quite a recent date and may not, 
even now, be altogether discontinued. A number of the nostrums 
so introduced have become popular household remedies. 

Throughout the ancient and mediaeval periods, there was such a 
close relationship between witchcraft, divination, magic and spirit- 
ualism and medical practice, that it was difficult to tell where the 
latter commenced and the former terminated. The practice of 
medicine and of astrology was quite commonly united by the same 
learned individual. The tendency to associate the practice of medi- 
cine, and especially the action of drugs, with mystery and religion 
has been apparent throughout all periods, and has its modern 
parallel and reproduction in the Christian Science treatment of the 
present day. 

The history of the practice and the development of pharmacy in 
England has been faithfully portrayed in " Progress of Pharmacy " 
by Bell and Redwood, and the writer has taken the liberty of ab- 
stracting freely therefrom. In that country, the earlier records show 
that the practice of medicine was in the hands of the physicians, 
who prepared the medicines themselves or superintended the prepa- 
ration of them. The science of medicine was so little understood 
and so imperfectly cultivated that it was in general practised em- 
pirically and was often confounded with sorcery and witchcraft, and 
this common confusion was said to have lasted until the sixteenth 
century. 

The apothecaries were originally the physicians' assistants, but 
gradually acquired some knowledge of drugs and began to transact 
business on their own account. The first act to regulate the prac- 
tice of medicine was passed by Parliament in 1 5 1 1 . This act pro- 
vided lor the examination of physicians practising in London by a 
Board composed of the Bishop of London or the Dean of St. 
Paul's and four physicians. In 1 542, an act was passed which was 
aimed against the empirics and likewise to prevent surgeons engaging 
in the practice of physic, and under this and subsequent acts a num- 
ber of quacks and nostrum venders were prosecuted. 

It is uncertain at what period in English history the physicians 
gave up the practice of preparing their own medicine. The apothe- 
caries were first separated from the grocers by a charter obtained in 
161 7. It was then enacted that no grocer should keep an apothe- 
cary's shop, and that no surgeon should sell medicines. Similar 



Am Ap°r l ii r ;i905 arm "} The Evolution of Nostrum Vending. 171 

legislation in America, at the present time, would be a boon of 
inestimable value to professional pharmacy. 

The real modern advance in pharmacy in England and in all 
English-speaking countries, dates from this charter. The first step 
towards reducing the processes of pharmacy to a regular standard 
for the guidance of dispensers of medicine was the publication of 
the Pharmacopoeia of the College of Physicians of London in 161 8. 

The medicines formerly employed were complex, heterogeneous 
mixtures of drugs selected with very little scientific knowledge of 
their action, and frequently they were therapeutically incompatible. 
The large number of drugs of animal origin recognized in this phar- 
macopoeia, and in subsequent editions, is only significant of the 
status of medicine and the trend of medical thought at that time. 
Snails, vipers, the urine of men and of animals, calculi, the thigh 
bone of a man that had been hanged, are all examples of remedies 
extolled as specifics for a variety of disorders. The polygenous 
character of many of the formulae given is illustrated by Confectio 
Damocratis or Mithridatium, which^contained forty ingredients, and 
the Theriaca Andromachi or Venice treacle, which contained sixty 
ingredients. 

In 1650, Nicholas Culpeper published his " Physical Directory, or 
a Translation of the Dispensatory made by the College of Physi- 
cians." In this he severely criticises and ridicules many of the 
remedies recognized, especially the drugs of animal origin, such as 
the fat of numerous animals and fowls, some domesticated and some 
wild ; vipers' flesh, brains of a number of animals, excrements of hu- 
man beings and of animals, and he scarcastically states : " They 
should have put the rennet of an ass to make medicine for their 
addle brains." Nicholas Culpeper was himself quite as much of an 
astrologer as a practitioner of medicine, and his work is not at all 
free from the prevailing superstition of the age, as shown by the fol- 
lowing abstract : " The head o r a cole-black cat being burnt to ashes 
in a new pot, and some of the ashes blown into the eye every day, 
helps such as have a skin growing over their sight." 

The early pharmacopoeias were full of substances which derived 
their reputation from superstition or prejudice, and the impossibil- 
ity of obtaining many of them undoubtedly led to gross substitution 
and adulteration, and encouraged secret practices and quackery. 

It is not beyond grave suspicion that the sophistry and cupidity 



172 The Evolution of Nostrum Ve?tding. { Am A J P O rn r ,'i905 arm ' 

of the makers of nostrums dictated the recognition of such revolt- 
ing relics from ancient practice and barbarism. 

Many of the practitioners of the sixteenth and seventeenth centu- 
ries prided themselves on their use of special remedies, and adopted 
a style of advertising their infallible treatments continued in some 
quarters even to the present day. St. John Long, who practised as 
a " consumption doctor " in the early part of the last century, was a 
noted example of this class. His principal remedy was a secret 
embrocation which he would not permit out of his hands. The St. 
John Long's Liniment of the shop is presumably an imitation of the 
same. 

In America it is well known that in the early days of the colonies 
many of these proprietary remedies were imported, and that quite 
early in the history of our country records show that the monas- 
teries engaged in the manufacture and sale of such medicines. For 
some of the popular imported remedies formulas were proposed, and 
many of the leading druggists engaged in supplying their home trade 
with products of their own manufacture. Naturally, there was con- 
siderable diversity in the recipes and resulting products, and one of 
the first acts of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was to ap- 
point a committee composed of Charles Allen, Daniel B. Smith, 
Warder Morris, E. B. Garrigues and William Bakes, to investigate 
the subject and submit satisfactory formulas. 

On May 4, 1824, they submitted a report to the College, and 
their formulas for the following were adopted : Hooper's Female 
Pills, Andersons Scott's Pills, Bateman's Pectoral Drops, Godfrey's 
Cordial, Dalby's Carminative, Turlington's Balsam of Life, Steer's 
Opodeldoc and British Oil. These formulas were published, and modi- 
fications of the foreign wrappers printed, and a local manufacturer 
at once engaged in manufacturing the peculiar vials as used abroad, 
and thus standard, uniform and satisfactory products of these house- 
hold remedies became possible. It is worthy of note that such 
prominent pharmacists of that day considered the subject of such 
importance and devoted their time and energy to such commodities. 
At the Semi-Centennial Celebration of the American Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association (in 1902), in the historical exhibition, Mr. S. W. 
Heinitsh, of Lancaster, Pa., showed a collection of old proprietary 
remedies, such as had been sold at the Heinitsh Pharmacy, in that 
city, and several of these were more than 1 00 years old. 



Am Ap°ru r ;i?o h r m '} The Evolution of Nostrum Vending. 173 

From this review we are compelled to draw the conclusion that 
the manufacture and sale of secret remedies has coexisted with the 
practice of medicine throughout all times. Instead of being a modern 
innovation, the genesis of nostrum vending probably dates with the 
very inception of the practice of medicine. 

The style and character of such remedies necessarily changes with 
the changes and conditions of society. At the commencement of 
the twentieth century, the lovers of the ethical practice of medicine 
and of ethical pharmacy are confronted by an alarming condition — 
a condition which has resulted from the continual development of 
this evil, and is now more apparent, because accentuated by the 
commercialism and energy of twentieth-century methods. In this 
generation the newspapers have an enormous influence, and their 
advertising columns have been a leading factor in the development 
of this giant evil and the encouragement of self-medication by the 
public. 

The blame, however, cannot be laid at the door of pharmacy 
alone, but must be shared by both professions. We all know that 
in recent years a class of proprietaries have been directly offered to 
the physicians and prescribed by many, that have in most instances 
but very little to elevate them above the level of the common 
ordinary nostrums that are advertised direct to the public. 

In a recent issue of an American medical journal, which claims to 
have a very wide circulation and prides itself upon the influence it 
exerts, the writer counted in the advertising pages, nine remedies 
for external use and thirty-two intended for internal administration, 
all under arbitrary coined names, and the advertisements contained 
nothing or next to nothing to signify their composition. Our pre- 
scription files and store shelves show that physicians are prescribing 
such remedies without having but a very indefinite idea of the 
ingredients or actions. 

The following is abstracted from a recent issue of a medical 
journal : " Boys, I'm going to give you a prescription which makes 
the treatment of pneumonia a regular cinch. Put 10 drops of tinc- 
ture of ipecac and 10 drops of tincture of aconite to 4 ounces of 
respiton, and give ^ to 1 teaspoonful every two or three hours." 
Is there a single pharmaceutical journal in America, even among 
the " house organs," that would lend its pages to such a thinly 
veiled advertisement and such an undignified appeal to its patrons ? 



174 The Evolution of Nostrum Vending. {^aSiJ™' 

To what, may be asked, can we attribute this tendency among 
physicians to depart from officially recognized preparations and 
methods of prescribing ? Is it due to any lack of proper instruction 
in the medical departments of the universities and colleges ? It is 
exceptional indeed to find among practitioners of medicine any great 
percentage who are proficient in chemistry, and to a still larger pro- 
portion, botany is a sealed book. Under these conditions was not 
the following statement, attributed to a prominent pharmaceutical 
manufacturer, well founded ? " The average physician of to-day 
gleans his knowledge of Materia Medica from the patent medicine 
man's circular." It is certain that this lack of acquaintance with 
Materia Medica is appreciated by the manufacturer of such pro- 
prietaries, and his circulars and advertisings are framed accordingly. 
Of course, some of the remedies introduced as proprietaries have 
proved to be useful, and the success of such has always had an 
influence on the practice of medicine and likewise on the pharma- 
copoeias. The present United States Pharmacopoeia contains a 
number of such preparations, which are recognized under official 
titles and properly used. In the forthcoming edition of the Phar- 
macopoeia, probably under such titles as Liquor Sodii Phosphatis, 
Liquor Antisepticus and Cataplasma Kaolini, we will discern some 
substitutes for well-known proprietaries. 

It must be acknowledged that the practice of medicine is influ- 
enced to a considerable extent by the character of the surrounding 
community. The practice of pharmacy is still more influenced by 
the environment, and also by the medical practice of the neighbor- 
hood. 

There was no marked progress in pharmacy until the advance 
was inaugurated by medicine, and so in the elimination of this evil 
the two professions must work together, but it must be apparent 
that physicians must cease prescribing proprietaries before the phar- 
macist can cease dispensing the same. 

If the commercialism that has marked in many localities the prac- 
tice of medicine could only be discontinued, and the physicians rise 
to the true dignity of their profession, how soon would the pharma- 
cists seize the opportunity of elevating their calling and relegating 
this abominable nostrum vending to ancient history. 

There is a great responsibility resting on pharmacy which 
it must bear independently of that shared by medicine. We are 



Am Apr U ii;i90o arm "} Discussion on Pharmaceutical Ethics. 175 

entirely too willing to encourage every new applicant that comes 
along to be advertised to the suffering public. Are we, as profes- 
sional gentlemen, or even only as tradesmen, devoid of moral 
responsibility when we encourage the sale of nostrums that have 
the power of creating a liquor or drug habit ? Laws should not be 
necessary prohibiting the sale of morphine and cocaine by pharma- 
cists. Is it not a disgrace to pharmacy to learn that in some locali- 
ties the Sunday sales of liquid malts, bitters and fake tonics are so 
enormous ? The writer has in mind a remedy that is now being 
extensively advertised as a specific for catarrh that is simply a spir- 
itous extract of asarum, and containing very little of the latter. Can 
we conceive that this would prove to be of the least benefit in the 
cure of such a disease as catarrh. The sale of this nostrum is 
simply enormous, and are we not justified in inquiring how many 
drunkards are the drug trade of America thus assisting unscrupu- 
lous advertisers in making per annum ? 

Do the officers of our national association realize the responsibil- 
ity that they are assuming when they advocate that every retail 
druggist in the United States must sign contracts to do nothing to 
discourage the sale of such, and even make himself liable for liqui- 
dating damages if he exerises his right of judgment and discrimina- 
tion against such remedies ? 



DISCUSSION ON PHARMACEUTICAL ETHICS. 
In the discussion following the reading of the three preceding 
papers presented at the Pharmaceutical meeting, on Tuesday even- 
ing, March 21st, remarks were made by 

DR. HENRY BEATES, JR., 

as follows : 

" While sitting here profiting from the papers of the evening just/ 
read, I did not think the pleasure enjoyed was to be interrupted by 
a request from your honored chairman, especially as I am a guest, 
to open the discussion. 

" I noted down several points, and trust you will not feel that the 
notes in my hand are so voluminous as to augur an infliction upon 
you of a long discussion. 

" The three papers treated of one fundamental principle, which 
underlies the correct solution of the profound problems respectively 



176 Discussion on Pharmaceutical Ethics. {^'l^vm*™' 

considered. It is principle, after all, which determines action in all 
pursuits of life, and assumes proportionately increasing value and im- 
portance as the vocation of the individual is more or less related to 
the welfare of those of his fellow beings who necessarily, because of 
obtaining conditions, patronize him and rely upon him for service. 

" The whole matter resolves itself into the one word character, and 
implies, therefore, the moral sense of obligation and that conformity 
therewith which moulds a man's every act into a class belonging to 
either the right or the wrong. 

" What a man does in the struggle for existence, and in endeavor- 
ing to provide himself and those dependent upon him with the 
means necessary for comfortable existence, finds him, as things go, 
exponent of character, the actions of which are in conformity with 
what Professor Hynson so forcefully expressed when he said ' Con- 
duct is based upon the laws of right, truth and justice.' 

" It is the growth and development or the standard of moral char- 
acter, therefore, underlying the action, particularly of those pursuing 
the professions and their art that we represent, which is to be a con- 
dition for the success of their highest achievements. 

" I am reminded here of that leader in thought of rational medi- 
cine who has been so conspicuous in matters pharmaceutical, and 
who has stood before the medical and pharmaceutical worlds in the 
light of strong character and as a leader and a giant in progress, 
Prof. Horatio C. Wood, who defines character as 'an established 
equilibrium existing between the emotional, the intellectual and the 
volitional,' and this implies a struggle to maintain the equilibrium, 
since the impulses originated by the emotional are recognized by 
the intellectual to belong to either the good or evil, and by a culti- 
vation of the volitional enables the body to control the impulse, in- 
stead of the impulse controlling the body, and just as soon as this is 
established will right action be the result. 

" Recompense, if based upon a questionable commercial competi- 
tion, the outgrowth of oblique methods of reaching the end, never 
can assume a definite relation between service and reward. Intrin- 
sic values are only established by the honest exercise of intelligence, 
and when character marks the followers of the science and art we 
represent, the ethical practitioner, other things being equal, will re- 
ceive the legitimate and amply compensating reward. 

" It is with pleasure that opportunity is given to emphasize the 



Am Ap°r l ii r ,'i905 arm '} Discussion on Pharmaceutical Ethics. 177 

thought so well portrayed by Pro essor Hynson, that intrinsic value, 
that for which the struggle of existence tends, is established by the 
laws of right, truth and justice. Inherently natural values, there- 
fore, can only be possessed when, after having become established, 
they are won by men of merit. 

" Dr. Alpers speaks of conflict in his excellent contribution to this 
important subject. The conflict is, as in other matters of this type, 
between honesty and dishonesty, right and wrong. Recognizing, 
as the paper does, that in the processes of superorganic evolution, 
intermediate conditions, as it were, obtain between existing things 
and advanced ideals demanding control by law of those who have 
not yet obtained that degree of character which guarantees right 
action, and secures to the community dependent upon him safety 
against deception and fraud. 

" His sentence, ' Harmonize the ideals with the real,' suggests it 
as the chief problem presenting for solution. It is necessary, there- 
fore, for those so happily circumstanced as to recognize this need, 
to appreciate the fact that there is a principle of common law in- 
volved, which is not as fully comprehended or as widely understood 
as it should be, and, in endeavoring to establish statutory law, oppo- 
sition is often advanced claiming an unconstitutionality of statute 
control. 

" It is a principle of Common Law, which many years ago was 
confirmed by the unanimous opinion of the U. S. Supreme Court, 
that the vocation of any one, upon whom depends the interests of 
fellowmen, can be controlled by establishing standards of qualifica- 
tion, which every State has a right to do, in accordance with what it 
recognizes to be just and proper. This important right should be 
universally recognized. 

"The figure of the block of marble, utilized by Dr. Alpers to 
illustrate the skill, or the science and art which is necessary to cut 
away that part of the block which hides the perfect statue, the use- 
less or superfluous, the unfit, doubly forcefully impresses these facts 
upon the minds of those who are considering the momentous prob- 
lems from the standpoint of necessary and higher ideals. 

"The very word character} above alluded to, from the verb, 
charasso, 2 to cut, to sharpen, and its derivative, character, that 



1 ^KdpdiKTTJp. 



XapdcrcrLO. 



178 Discussion on Pharmaceutical Ethics. { Am - A J Sfwf m 

which is so sharply defined, and the Greek 1 « charactera epemballein 
tini,' to give definite shape, form, outline, to put a mark upon, 
makes clearer the meaning so beautifully portrayed by the essayist. 
It is to put in the hands of authority, those who are qualified, the 
hammer and chisel, the power with which to do away with the 
superfluous and bring into full light unmistakable, clearly-outlined, 
well-defined and permanently- established facts or truths. To build 
up and establish a definite standard. 

" Mr. Beringer referred to the far-reaching consequences of the 
Sea of Mysticism, which doubtless was contemporaneous with the 
origin of the practice of medicine, and with the preparation of the 
means used for the cure of disease, deformity and injury prescribed 
by practitioners. 

" The lay mind, in those early days, was permeated with a super- 
stition which made the community 4 moldable ' to the whim and 
direction — indeed, the control by the practitioner of anybody who 
relied upon him for a cure. The same superstition, only partially 
modernized, rests as a mantle upon the laity of this age, and this it 
is which renders the public gullible by the methods of those misrep- 
resentatives of the professions we represent, and takes shape in the 
form of the nostrum vender — both the manufacturer and the seller. 

" Indeed, this same debased and unprincipled commercialism consti- 
tutes the only opposition to raise the standards of qualification, and 
to improve and render more efficient the methods of pharmaceutical 
and medical education. 

" The whole matter, therefore, resolves itself into the one simple 
fact, and that is the establishment and requirement of higher stand- 
ards of educations precedent to paralleling qualification, and this 
must be specifically moral, as well as mental and physical. 

" As I sat listening to Mr. Beringer and heard him utter a fact, 
the truth of which cannot be denied, ' that quack ?iostrums are pre- 
scribed by a large percentage of the practitioners of medicine] I felt my 
ears tingle with the blush of shame, because I recognized that this 
statement was true. The supply largely must equal the demand, 
and when the demand is of a character to have eliminated entirely 
this sort of unprincipled patronage, pharmacy will no longer be 
encumbered with the disgraceful commercial load, nor medicine 
suffer the blush of shame. 



~K.apa.KT 7] pa eirefAf3a\\eiv tivl. 



Am / P O r 1 ii r ;i905 arm "} Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. 179 

" Our duty, therefore, is plain, and it devolves upon every one 
who recognizes the great necessity for having more thoroughly 
efficient and better qualified practitioners of the professions and their 
art, which we represent, in order to be able to vouchsafe to fellow- 
man safety against incompetency and fraud, and to bring about 
through individual influence such statutory control as will force the 
practical administration of the self-evident necessities." 



THE COUNCIL ON PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY OF 
THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 
By M. I. Whbert. 

The American Medical Association, through its Board of Trus- 
tees, has recently instituted a project that if continued and conscien- 
tiously carried out, will ultimately result in a marked improvement 
in the professional status of pharmacists and of pharmacy. 

This project, as published in a recent number of the Journal of the 
American Medical Association (March 4, 1905), practically consists 
ot the creation of an advisory board to be known as the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry, whose purpose it will be to inquire into 
the composition and standing of the several medicinal preparations 
of a proprietary character that are or will be offered to the medical 
profession, and by comparing them to the requirements embodied 
in a set of ten rules that have been adopted as a guide, determine, 
so far as is possible, whether or not the individual preparation, and 
the firm or firms exploiting the same, are deserving of the patron- 
age and confidence of physicians and pharmacists. If no unforeseen 
obstacles prevent, it is proposed to publish a book entitled " New 
and Non-official Remedies," which is to contain a list of such prepa- 
rations as come up to the requirements, with such additional infor- 
mation on the composition, properties and uses of the same as might 
be considered necessary or of advantage for the rational use and con- 
trol of the several preparations. 

A careful perusal of the appended rules of the Council must con- 
vince any reasonable pharmacist that they do not contain any de- 
mands or provisions that are in any way inconsistent with the 
practices of the better and more responsible manufacturers and 
dealers. 



180 Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. { Am *A£ru 1 '3£ rm " 

To make the plan effective, however, it will be necessary to 
secure not alone the endorsement, but also the active co-operation 
of every honest and ethically-inclined physician, as well as every 
scientific and up-to-date pharmacist. 

The physician must be made to see and to fully appreciate the 
fact that, unless he is in possession of the amount and the kind of 
information that will be forthcoming under the rules that have been 
adopted, he cannot consistently use any given proprietary prepara- 
tion and do justice to himself and to his patient. 

The pharmacist, on the other hand, must be made to see the jus- 
tice of the position here taken, and to appreciate the fact that the 
establishment of this Council will enable him, as an individual, to 
array himself as being in favor of honesty and honorable practices 
and opposed to secrecy, quackery and dishonest, or at least ques- 
tionable, dealings in connection with medicines and medicinal prepa- 
rations. The pharmacist must also learn to appreciate the fact that 
he, individually, is more or less responsible for the social as well as 
professional standing not only of himself, but of all others in his 
particular field or calling, and that he, as an individual, will be clas- 
sified and judged by the doings and practices of others with whom 
he associates. 

It is greatly to be desired, therefore, that pharmacists of all classes 
take an active interest in this work, and that after carefully reading 
the proposed rules they give the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry of the American Medical Association the benefit of such com- 
ment and criticism as they may see fit to make. 

That the chairman of the Council, as well as every individual 
member, will duly appreciate any suggestions and advice is 
evidenced by the following paragraph from the circular letter re- 
cently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association 
(March 4, 1905, p. 719): 

" The Council appreciates the importance and difficulties of the 
work to be undertaken, and does not expect to take a step forward 
without being sure that it is right and just to all concerned. It 
does not dare to hope for perfect results, and can only promise to 
strive earnestly, honestly and impartially to avoid serious errors of 
commission and omission. 



A % J pTn r ;i905! rm '} Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. 1 8 1 

" RULES GOVERNING THE ADMISSION OF ARTICLES. 

"The following rules are adopted to guide the Council on Phar- 
macy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association : 

"(The term 'article' shall mean any drug, chemical or prepara- 
tion used in the treatment of disease). 

"Rule i. — No article will be admitted unless its active medicinal 
ingredients and the amounts of such ingredients in a given quantity 
of the article be furnished for publication. (Sufficient information 
should be supplied to permit the Council to verify the statements 
made regarding the article, and to determine its status from time 
to time.) 

"Rule 2. — No chemical compound will be admitted unless infor- 
mation be furnished regarding tests for identity, purity and strength, 
and, if a synthetic compound, the rational formula. 

"Rule j. — No article that is advertised to the public will be ad- 
mitted ; but this rule will not apply to disinfectants, cosmetics, foods 
and mineral waters, except when advertised in an objectionable 
manner. 

" Rule 4.. — No article will be admitted whose label, package or 
circular accompanying the package contains the names of diseases, 
in the treatment of which the article is indicated. The therapeutic 
indications, properties and doses may be stated. (This rule does 
not apply to vaccines and antitoxins, nor to advertising in medical 
journals, nor to literature distributed solely to physicians.) 

" Rule 5. — No article will be admitted or retained about which 
the manufacturer or his agents make false or misleading statements 
regarding the country of origin, raw material from which made, 
method of collection or preparation. 

"Rule 6, — No article will be admitted or retained about whose 
therapeutic value the manufacturer or his agents make unwarranted, 
exaggerated or misleading statements. 

"Rule 7. — Labels on articles containing " heroic " or " poison- 
ous " substances should show the amounts of each of such ingredi- 
ents in a given quantity of the product. 

"Rule 8. — Every article should have a name or title indicative of 
its chemical composition or pharmaceutic character, in addition to 
its trade name, when such trade name is not sufficiently descriptive. 

"Rule p. — If the name of an article is registered, or the label 



1 82 Recognition of the College Diploma. { Am A P rn r ;iS5 arm 

copyrighted, the date of registration should be furnished the Coun- 
cil. 

"Rule 10. — If the article is patented — either process or product — 
the number and date of such patent or patents should be furnished. 
If patented in other countries, the name of each country in which 
patent is held should be supplied, together with the name under 
which the article is there registered." 

The following is a list of the names of members of the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry, American Medical Association : 

Arthur R. Cushny, Ann Arbor ; C. Lewis Diehl, Louisville ; C. S. 
N. Hallberg, Chicago ; Robert A. Hatcher, New York ; L. F. Kebler, 
Washington ; J. H. Long, Chicago ; F. G Novy, Ann Arbor ; W. A. 
Puckner, Chicago; Samuel P. Sadtler, Philadelphia; J. O. Schlotter- 
beck, Ann Arbor ; Geo. H. Simmons, Chicago ; Torald Sollmann, 
Cleveland ; Julius Stieglitz, Chicago ; M. I. Wilbert, Philadelphia ; 
H. W. Wiley, Washington. 

This proposed plan, to eliminate secrecy and quackery from the 
practice of reputable physicians, has met, and will continue to meet, 
with strenuous opposition and vigorous denunciation from various 
sources. Its ultimate success or failure will, and must, depend 
largely on the honesty of purpose, good will and assistance of the 
pharmacists of this country who are in a position to inquire into, 
and are in duty bound to furnish information on, the character, 
composition and nature of the various proprietary remedies that 
are, or may be, exploited from time to time. 

It is virtually impossible that any dozen or fifteen men should be 
able to command all of the information that will be necessary to 
properly classify the numberless thousands of remedies and mixtures 
that are being offered, and to properly safeguard the interests of the 
public, and of the professions more directly interested, and at the 
same time avoid any possible injustice to manufacturers, without 
the active aid and assistance of all that may be interested. 



THE RECOGNITION OF THE COLLEGE DIPLOMA. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 

It would seem to the average man of affairs that the legal recog- 
nition of the diploma of a regularly chartered institution should 
require no special law to give it practical effect, but pharmacy laws 



Am Ap O rn r ;i905 arm '} Recognition of the College Diploma. 183 

have been in operation in this State for nearly forty years, and al- 
though they have proved effective, in a measure, in controlling the 
practice of pharmacy, it has been regarded by a majority of the 
members of the pharmaceutical profession that until the diplomas of 
reputable colleges of pharmacy were recognized, the full measure of 
usefulness of pharmacy laws could not be realized. The movement 
which has culminated in the signing by Governor Pennypacker of 
House Bill No. 167, on March 24, 1905, had its inception at the an- 
nual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association at New 
Orleans, in 1891. 

At that time the association recorded emphatically its disapproval 
of any such legislation, the principal objection being that pharmacy 
was not ready for such an advanced step. But the chief objection 
came from members of Boards of Pharmacy who attended the meet- 
ing. At the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in 1898, this body reversed itself when they passed a practically 
unanimous vote in favor of the recognition of diplomas. 

The record of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association is that 
on two occasions it passed, by decided majorities, resolutions in 
favor of recognizing college diplomas. In this State the first bill to 
be introduced upon this subject was in 1903, but the effort was a 
thorough failure, as the bill was defeated upon first reading in the 
House. In the meantime the pharmacists in New York State pre- 
pared a bill which passed both houses, was signed by Governor 
Odell, and the law became operative January 1, 1905. 

The present movement in Pennsylvania began in December, 1904, 
and resulted in the framing of an Act, of which the following is a 
copy : 

AN ACT. 

An Act to amend Section 5 of the Act entitled "An Act to regulate the prac- 
tice of Pharmacy and sale of poisons, and to prevent adulterations in drugs and 
medicinal preparations in the State of Pennsylvania," which was approved the 
24th day of May, Anno Domini 1887, requiring that on and after January 1, 
1906, all persons applying for certificates of registration as competent pharma- 
cists under the provisions of Section 5 of the said Act shall be graduates of a 
reputable college of pharmacy. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in general assembly met, and it is hereby 
enacted by the authority of the same, that Section 5 of the Act entitled "An 
Act to regulate the practice of Pharmacy and sale of poisons, and to prevent 
adulterations in drugs and medicinal preparations in the State of Pennsyl- 



1 84 Recognition of the College Diploma. {^'l%™\\w£™' 

vania," approved the 24th day of May, Anno Domini 1887, which reads as fol- 
lows: 

Section 5. That it shall be the duty of said Board to meet at least once every 
three months in the city of Harrisburg, or at such other place as they may 
deem expedient, and examine all persons who may desire to carry on the busi- 
ness of a retail apothecary, or that of retailing drugs, chemicals or poisons, or 
of compounding physicians' prescriptions, touching their competency and 
qualifications, and they, the said Board, or a majority of them, shall grant to 
such persons as may be qualified, certificates of competency or qualification, 
which shall entitle the holders thereof either to conduct or carry on the busi- 
ness or to act as a qualified assistant therein, as may be expressed upon the 
said certificate, and such certificate, together with its renewals, shall be good 
and sufficient evidence of registration under this Act. 

All persons applying for examination for certificate to entitle them to con- 
duct and carry on the retail drug or apothecary business must produce satisfac- 
tory evidence of having had not less than four years' practical experience in the 
business. Aud those applying for examination for certificates as qualified assist- 
ants therein must produce evidence of having not less than two years' experi- 
ence in said business. 

Be and is hereby amended to read as follows : 

Section 5. That it shall be the duty of the said Board to meet at least every 
three months in the city of Harrisburg, or at such other place as they may 
deem expedient, and examine all persons who shall desire to carry on the busi- 
ness of a retail apothecary, or that of retailing drugs, chemicals or poisons, or 
of compounding physicians' prescriptions, touching their competency and 
qualifications, and they, the said Board, or a majority of them shall grant to 
such persons as may be qualified, certificates of competency or qualification, 
which shall entitle the holders thereof either to conduct or carry on the busi- 
ness or to act as a qualified assistant therein, as may be expressed upon the 
said certificate, and such certificate, together with its renewals shall be good 
and sufficient evidence of registration under this Act. 

All persons applying for certificate examination to entitle them to conduct 
and carry on the retail drug or apothecary business must produce satisfactory 
evidence of having had not less than four years' practical experience in the 
business of retailing, compounding or dispensing drugs, chemicals and poisons, 
and of compounding physicians' prescriptions, and of being a graduate of some 
reputable and properly chartered college of pharmacy. And those applying 
for examination for certificates as qualified assistants therein must produce 
evidence of having not less than two years' experience in said business. 

Section 2. That the amendment provided for by this Act shall become 
operative and in force on and after the 1st day of January, 1906. 

Energetic measures were at once instituted to secure the passage 
of this Act. It will be seen that it is simply an amendment to the 
present Pharmacy Act, the only change being as follows : After the 
clause requiring four years' practical experience in the business in the 
last paragraph of the amended Section 5, these words are added, 
" and of being a graduate of some reputable and properly chartered 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1905. 



African Balsam of Copaiba. 



i8 5 



college of pharmacy." Section 2 required that the amendment pro- 
vided for by this Act shall become operative and in force on and 
after the first day of January, 1906. 

The duty of carrying on the campaign of education, for it was 
soon seen that this was necessary, was placed mainly upon the Com- 
mittee of Legislation of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion. This body most wisely had chosen for its chairman, Hon. 
John C. Wallace, of Newcastle, Pa. To his knowledge of legislative 
procedure and intimate acquaintance with the members of both 
houses, the greatest credit is due for the successful passage of this 
Act through the Legislature. 

The members of the Pennsylvania Association were addressed 
personally through a circular, and were given definite instructions 
how to proceed if they approved of the bill. Letters and telegrams 
in large numbers were sent to the members of the House and Senate 
and to the Governor. It was soon seen that the sentiment through- 
out the State was generally in favor of the Act. Upon March 
14, 1905, the vote of the House upon final passage of the Act was 
147 ayes to 10 nays. The vote of the Senate, taken March 20, 
1905, was 35 ayes and no nays. After repeated visits to the Gov- 
ernor, both before and after the passage of the Act by the Legisla- 
ture, the Committee was rejoiced to find that Governor Samuel W. 
Pennypacker signed the bill March 24, 1905. 

The passage of this bill marks an era in the history of pharmaceu- 
tical education in the United States. 



AFRICAN BALSAM OF COPAIBA. 1 
By C. M. KXine. 

This paper deals with an article of commerce which, although it 
has figured rather prominently in pharmaceutical literature, has never 
been accorded a position which is at all to its credit. A glance 
through the literature of the past ten years shows that it has always 
been treated with suspicion ; generally being referred to as an adul- 
terant. 

The pharmacopoeias of different nations have in general thrown 
the weight of their influence against its employment, yet have not 
succeeded in preventing its use. 



1 Read at the twenty-seventh annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association, June 21-23, 1904. 



A frican Balsam of Copaiba. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1905. 



The British Pharmacopoeia of 1898 gives a test to exclude it from 
use with the other copaibas. " The volatile oil should rotate the plane 
of a ray of polarized light from 28 to 38 to the left (absence of 
African copaiba)." The volatile oil of African copaiba, as is well 
known, rotates to the right ; so in defining the degree of rotation it 
was intended to prevent both the substitution of this article and its 
admixture. The degree of rotation (28 to 38 ) demanded in the 
above test is too high to include many genuine specimens, accord- 
ing to figures given by many writers and by our own experience ; 
therefore, the degree of rotation must of necessity be disregarded, 
rendering the test only partially reliable. That portion of the test 
demanding that the ray be rotated to the left is of value, but would 
admit the admixture of a percentage of African copaiba not suffi- 
cient to deviate the ray from left to right, but only just enough to 
modify the extent of its deviation. 

A sample of a lot of Central American copaiba of very excellent 
quality, refined by the company with which I am connected, gave a 
rotation of — iy° i6 r . In other samples we have met as low as 
— 5 . Thus it would seem impossible to define the degree of rota- 
tion, and therefore impossible to prevent in this way the addition oi 
African copaiba. 

The U. S. Pharmacopoeia, either intentionally or otherwise, con- 
tains two tests which operate against its use — the ammonia test, and 
the statement that copaiba must not be fluorescent. The ammonia 
test is unscientific in that its action is not understood. Pure Para 
balsam copaiba does not answer this test ; and yet we do not say 
that it is therefore of less value medicinally. If African or Bahia 
balsams do not answer this test, should they on that account be 
rejected ? Obviously, no ; since their insolubility may be due to 
some perfectly natural constituent not contained in " Copaiba Langs- 
dorffii," but present in some of the "other species of copaiba" 
admitted by the Pharmacopoeia. The statement that copaiba should 
not be fluorescent should be changed to one of degree of fluores- 
cence, since all the copaibas that have come under our inspection 
are, at least, slightly fluorescent. 

That African copaiba finds its way into our market for illegiti- 
mate use is amply demonstrated by the statement of London brokers 
that enormous quantities have been exported from London to New 
York. It is not thereafter sold under its true name, and therefore 



Am A P °rn r ;iiir m '} African Balsam of Copaiba. 187 

appears to be used to adulterate other articles, among which may 
be mentioned ordinary copaiba and peppermint oil. So-called 
Central American copaiba is being offered on the market at a cost 
of 10 per cent, less than the actual cost of the crude Central Ameri- 
can laid down on dock, New York, although the latter has to be 
cleaned, which involves a heavy loss, before it can be sent out to the 
trade. This fact offers a strong clue to the probable destination of 
the African balsam, as does also the statement of Ernest J. Parry, a 
prominent analytical chemist of London, who found what he 
thought to be the essential oil of African copaiba in so-called pep- 
permint oil from New York State, offered on the London market. 

My remarks, so far, refer to the abuses of African copaiba which 
have caused it for the past ten or twelve years to figure in an unfa- 
vorable light. My closing remarks will deal with the article itself 
and its possibilities of legitimate medicinal use. 

African copaiba, as found upon the market in the crude state, is a 
thick, strong-smelling liquid, containing over 10 per cent, of water 
and dirt. This water is very difficult to separate, as the specific 
gravity of the copaiba (0-9916 to 0-9996) combined with the viscosity 
of the liquid, prevents the settling out of much of the water, while 
the mixture is so thick that it will not in the cool state run through 
a filter. 

We have successfully used the following method in our laboratory. 
A number of tin funnels of i-gallon capacity were fitted into a large 
wooden box containing a series of steam pipes in such a manner 
that the stem of each funnel protruded from the bottom of the box. 
These funnels, with their filters, were filled with the copaiba, and 
steam at a low pressure (to avoid loss of volatile oil) was turned on, 
when the heated liquid was found to filter rapidly and effectively. 
To separate the water from the cleaned liquid, we made use of the 
following device : The mixture was placed in a jacketed kettle fitted 
with a tap in the bottom, and heated for some time at a temperature 
below the boiling-point of water. The heat, by rendering the 
copaiba more fluid, allowed the water to settle, and it was then 
tapped off from the bottom. The product so obtained was of a 
dark-brown color, with a reddish tinge, very fluorescent, and with 
an odor very different from the other copaibas. Upon standing for 
some time, it deposited crystals ot what appear to be oxycopaivic 
acid. We have obtained, by distillation with steam, from 43-5 to 



1 8 8 C orrespondence. { Am A J prn r ; i arni ' 

45*5 per cent, volatile oil. This oil has a yellow color, and in one 
sample, redistilled, we obtained a specific gravity at 15 C. of 0-928 
and an optical rotation of -{- 5° 45 

There seems little doubt but that this balsam is a product of a 
genuine copaiba, of which there are a number of species growing in 
Africa. Dr. E. H. Fenwick, F.R.C.S., has made therapeutic experi- 
ments with this material, and summarizes thus: "The oil possesses 
undoubted therapeutic power, all the patients, with one exception, 
acknowledging much benefit from its exhibition. I am told by 
patients that it is less nauseous to take, repeats less, but is less potent 
in its effects than the copaiba oil at present on the market (South 
American). I have used it in prostatic inflammation, fresh and 
chronic urethritis, stricture and pyelitis." (Pharm. Joimi. and Trans. , 
I893-) 

With the evidence indicating that African copaiba is the product 
of a genuine copaiba closely related to the South American variety, 
and with clinical proof such as Dr. Fenwick offers, there seems to 
be little reason why this product, when sold properly under its own 
name, should not be granted a legitimate position in the treatment 
of those diseased conditions to which the other copaibas are 
applicable. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

PHARMACEUTICAL DEGREES. 

Baltimore, February 1, 1905. 
To the Pharmaceutical Press of Ametica : 

I began the New Year owning the same peculiar devotion to 
pharmacy and its loyal votaries that has consistently possessed me 
during all the years that have passed since I first entered its " por- 
tals," and it is in this old-time, respectful, devoted and hopeful 
mood that I come with a plea to the Pharmaceutical Press; fully 
acknowledging its benign interest, splendid influence and unequalled 
power in all things pharmaceutic. 

I come begging that this interest, this influence, this power may 
be actively directed towards the correction of a mistake, the removal 
of a hindrance, and, thereby, the advancement of a cause—no less a 
cause than pharmacy itself. I come earnestly begging the concen- 
trated direction of all these potencies, because I am sadly convinced 



Am Apna;i?w arm '} " Correspondence, 189 

that all will be needed ; needed in their breadth, their strength and 
their fullness. Modesty and timidity made the mistake ; over-am- 
bition and unsympathetic assertiveness will try to perpetuate it. 

For years and years, even from the very beginning, pharmacy as 
a whole and pharmacists as individuals have craved and sought rec- 
ognition ; not as scholars, from men of letters and their guilds ; not 
as scientists, from men of science and their societies ; not as philoso- 
phers, from men of philosophy and their associations ; but simply 
as professional pharmacists, first from the laity, and then from those 
professions — medicine and dentistry — with which they have most to 
do. Strange as it may seem, the single thing that would have done 
most to have won recognition for pharmacy, as a profession — a pro- 
fessional title — " Doctor " — has been withheld ; not the Doctor of 
Science, nor Doctor of Philosophy, nor yet Doctor of Medicine, or 
Doctor of Dental Surgery, but simply Doctor of Pharmacy, a 
science, profession, or what not, that has not risen and never can 
rise above the great mass of its votaries or beyond the demands 
upon its practitioners, no matter how much individuals among these 
may have honored the calling by the unusual advancement they 
may have made. Such a title or degree — Doctor of Pharmacy — as 
heretofore given, however much it may have cost in time, study or 
practical experience, has never meant more and never will mean 
more to any one, excepting those who conferred it, than that the 
bearer has been adjudged worthy, by some legally authorized 
school, to practise pharmacy, plain every-day pharmacy. If it 
means more than this, it will never get its true value from the over- 
whelming majority who are unitiated ; to them, Pharmaceutic Chenu 
ist, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, and, perhaps, even 
Graduate of Pharmacy, have a higher sound, a more exalted meaning. 

The higher title or degree should mean more than does that which 
is so generally conferred upon us by the general public ; conferred 
upon graduate and non-graduate ; the ethical practitioner and the 
proprietor of nostrums alike. The public believes all should be 
qualified — believes all are qualified, and, thus believing, gives the 
title such qualifications it deserves, calling each — " Doctor." When 
none really own the .title, who should defend it ? When but a few, 
a very few, may honestly claim it, how will it be protected ? Give 
it to all honest young men and young women who seek fitness to 
practise pharmacy through accepted channels, and who meet the 



190 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharno. 
April, 1905. 



standards of the times, and they will valiantly defend it against 
usurpers and against its misapplication by the more careless and 
less intelligent public. 

It is absolute folly to contend that the higher degrees from different 
schools have been, or ever will be, of equal value ; in some, it is 
dependent upon so variable a measure as drug-store experience — 
the length of which is known but the quality uncertain ; in another, 
the study and practice of advanced botany, volumetric estimations 
and assay; in still another, upon preliminary university counts. 
And thus will it ever be ; always will be asked, " Whose superscrip- 
tion does it bear ? " It is the lower degree that will become 
uniform. It will be standardized by the requirements of safety, 
through the examining boards, which, after all, offer the great 
stimulus and, as time goes on and they become more closely asso- 
ciated, the standards of both entrance and exit to colleges will be 
raised by them, while enthusiastic and erratic pioneers will continue 
to suffer. * 

If the ultra-scientific, ambitious scholar desires a higher degree, 
one beyond the regular requirements of his vocation, let him seek 
it as so many have done, with great credit to themselves, in the 
better established sciences and in philosophy. Let him secure 
something really distinctive, something that is standardized else- 
where, but let Pharmacy's degree or title be a thing to itself, mean- 
ing no more nor less than it should, and let it gradually grow in 
worthiness as the science of pharmacy has gradually grown, higher 
and higher, in spite of the hindrance ; yet more slowly on account 
of it. 

Gentlemen of the pharmaceutical press, lend all your influence 
and excite the influence of your readers that the noble army of 
coming pharmacists may be saved the embarrassment their elders 
have always suffered. Being properly addressed as Doctofs, they 
will be stimulated to worthily wear the title and thereby honor the 
profession to which they belong. 

In the interest of pharmacy and pharmacists of the future, I am, 
With great respect for all concerned, 

Henry P. Hynson. 



Am Ap r U ii,*wo5! rm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 191 

REVIEWS AND' BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

The Proximate Constituents of the Chemical Elements me- 
chanically determined irom their physical and chemical properties. 
By Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs, M.D., LL.D. With thirty-two plates. 
St. Louis, Mo., U. S. : Carl Gustavus Hinrichs, publisher. New York 
and Leipzig, Lemcke & Buechner ; London, H. Grevel & Co.; Paris, H. 
Le Soudier. 1904. Price, $1.00. 

This latest book by Professor Hinrichs was published last summer, 
and is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Clemens Alexander Winkler, who 
but recently passed away (see this Journal, 1904, p. 532). This 
book contains an excellent photograph of Dr. Winkler, as well as 
photographs of a number ot other eminent scientists who have en- 
couraged and assisted the author in his work on "Atom-Mechanics " 
and the composition of the chemical elements during the years 
1855 to 1904. 

Professor Hinrichs defines a chemical element as " a substance 
which, thus far, has not been decomposed." He gives a graphic 
presentation of the characteristic properties of chemical elements, 
and divides them into genera or families. According to Dr. Hinrichs, 
the geometrical mathematical relation of the elements point to the 
conclusion that " all chemical elements are compounds of groups or 
links of one and the same material, united according to apparently 
very simple and very few modes of combination " (p. 24). 

Dr. Hinrichs considers (p. 48) that from a fundamental substance or 
prime matter called by him pantogen, 114 elements or combinations 
have been formed, and that of these about two-thirds have been dis- 
covered. " Surely," he says, " the young chemist of to-day need 
not fear that the field of work is exhausted, and that there remains 
nothing for him to do." 

The entire book is exceedingly interesting and very suggestive, 
but one needs to be familiar with graphic representations of nu- 
merical relations or geometrical reasoning in order to appreciate it 
fully. 

A Text-Book of Materia Medica, including laboratory exercises 
in the histologic and chemic examination of drugs for pharmaceutic 
and medical schools and for home study. By Robert A. Hatcher 
and Torald Sollmann. Illustrated. Philadelphia, New York, Lon- 
don : W. B. Saunders & Company, 1904. Price, $2.00, net. 



192 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. I Am A J p O riM90o arm " 

This book is intended to be a laboratory manual on organic ma- 
teria medica or pharmacognosy. The book is divided into three 
parts. Part I is devoted to the systematic study of crude drugs. In 
Part II, one hundred pages are devoted to the consideration of plant 
histology. Part III is given to " chemic exercises in materia 
medica." 

Part I differs from the subject-matter in the usual books on 
materia medica in having at the beginning of each group of drugs 
an outline with blanks for the insertion of synonyms, important feat- 
ures in description, chief constituents, etc. The authors say in their 
preface that the laboratory method in materia medica "had never 
been tried." The reviewer might say, from his knowledge of the 
subject as taught in this country and abroad, that he is not aware 
that it is being taught in any other way at the present time. The 
treatment of plant histology in Part II resembles that in other books 
on this subject. The illustrations are chiefly from Godfrin and 
Noel's classical work, due credit being given to these authors. In 
the analytical key for the identification of an unknown powder, the 
main division is based on color, the sub-divisions following being 
based on taste of powder. 

Part III is practically a chemical plant analysis. Some of the 
work outlined by the authors is usually carried out on the lecture 
table, and some in the chemical and pharmaceutical laboratories, 
where it probably more properly belongs. We believe that micro- 
chemical tests, or tests for quickly determining the quality of com- 
mercial varieties of crude and powdered drugs alone, should be 
included in the laboratory courses in ateria medica and pharmacog- 
nosy. If the chemical and pharmaceutical laboratories do not co- 
operate in this work, then it is important that provision be made for 
it in the laboratory course in materia medica or pharmacognosy. 
Leach, in his recent work on food inspection and analysis, shows 
the close relationship of analytical and biological studies, and Tschirch 
in the publications of his students shows the interdependence of 
pharmacognosy and plant chemistry. Dr. Hatcher and Professor 
Sollmann deserve credit for the careful work which they have done 
in the preparation of this book, containing as it does a large amount 
of useful information. 

Food Inspection and Analysis. For the Use of Public Analysts, 
Health Officers, Sanitary Chemists, and Food Economists. By 



Am A P °r l ii r ,i905 arm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 193 

Albert E. Leach, S.B , Analyst of the Massachusetts State Board 
of Health. Large Svo, xiv -f- 787 pages, 120 figures, 40 full- page 
half-tones. New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman 
& Hall, Limited, 1904. $7.50. 

With the vast amount of work which has been done in New Eng- 
land by public analysts it was probably to be expected that a 
first-rate book on this subject should come from an analyst of 
Boston. With the exception of the photo-micrographs, the work 
is extremely interesting and valuable. 

The book is devoted to the consideration of the following sub- 
jects: food analysis and State control; the laboratory and its equip- 
ment ; food, its function, proximate components and nutritive value ; 
general analytical methods ; the microscope in food analysis ; milk 
and milk products; flesh foods; eggs; cereals and their products, 
legumes, vegetables and fruits ; tea, coffee and cocoa ; spices ; edi- 
ble oils and fats ; sugar and saccharine products ; alcoholic bever- 
ages ; vinegar ; artificial food colors ; food preservatives ; artificial 
sweeteners ; canned and bottled vegetables, relishes and fruit prod- 
ucts; an appendix on the Zeiss immersion refractometer, etc. 

There are forty plates of photo-micrographs of pure and adul- 
terated foods and adulterants. These include: cereals, legumes, 
miscellaneous starches, coffee, chicory, cocoa, tea, spices, spice adul- 
terants and edible fats. 

The author has considered the examination of food in a very 
broad way. Not only are chemical analytical methods considered, 
but he devotes considerable attention to the use of the microscope 
in food analysis. This portion is illustrated by the reproduced 
drawings of Moeller and a large number of photo-micrographs by 
the author. The excellent bibliography at the end of each chapter 
as well as the numerous references to literature enhance the value 
of the book considerably. 

There is no one book that has ever been published that contains so 
much information on the subject of the nature, properties, composi- 
tion and examination of food as this work by Leach. While it will 
be a reference book for the analyst, it is also valuable to the research 
worker; in fact, the entire book is an excellent contribution to re- 
search on foods. 



194 The Visit of Henry S. Wellcome. { A Vp r^ r /l?fe a^m • 

THE VISIT OF HENRY S. WELLCOME. 

Henry S.Wellcome, Ph.M., of Burroughs,Wellcome & Co., London, 
accompanied by Mrs. Wellcome and their little son, has been trav- 
elling in the United States, Canada and Mexico for some months 
past. They arrived in America in September last, went up the St. 
Lawrence River, journeyed by way of the Great Lakes to Duluth, 
visited the St. Louis Exposition, and continued their journey to the 
principal cities in the West, going as far as California. They then 
made an extended trip through Mexico, and, returning to the United 
States, visited the principal points in the Southern States, staying a 
fortnight in Washington as the guests of General John W. Foster, 
Ex-Secretary of State, and Mrs. Foster. They witnessed the 
inauguration ceremonies and were received by President Roosevelt. 
They came to Philadelphia on March 9th, remaining here until the 
14th, after which they spent a few days at Lakewood, N. J., and 
ended their tour by a stay of several weeks in New York and 
vicinity, sailing for England the latter part of the month. 

Mr. Wellcome is a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, and was tendered a most cordial reception while in Philadel- 
phia. On the day of his arrival he and Mrs. Wellcome were given 
a dinner by Howard B. French, president of the College, and Mrs. 
French, at their residence, 2021 Spruce Street. On Friday Mr, 
Wellcome visited the College, accompanied by Mr. French and Mr. 
Aubrey H. Weightman, a grandson of the late William Weight- 
man. They spent some three hours in going over the building, and 
Mr. Wellcome repeatedly expressed his pleasure at the improve- 
ments and progress which had been made since his graduation in 
1874. 

On Saturday afternoon, March nth, at a special meeting ot the 
officers and members of the College, including members of the Fac- 
ulty and Board of Trustees, Mr. Wellcome presented to the College 
a massive gold-plated silver loving cup, on which was inscribed 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1905, 
From Henry S. Wellcome, 
A Graduate of this College, 1874. 

Mr. French presided, and in opening the meeting briefly alluded 
to Mr. Wellcome's brilliant career during the thirty odd years since 
his graduation. 



Am Aprif;K rm, j The Visit of Henry S. Wellcome. 195 

In presenting the loving cup Mr. Wellcome said : " Mr. President 
and Members of the Faculty and College: My memories of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy have always been sweet. 
I owe a great deal to this institution, and have never forgotten it. 
Many changes have taken place since I was a student at this grand 
old institution. Dillwyn Parrish was then president, and the Fac- 
ulty included Professors Bridges, Maisch and Procter, Professor 
Remington being assistant to the latter at that time. It was a pre- 
cious privilege, I assure you, to have such men as preceptors, and I 
am happy to see that the traditions of the old P.C.P. are being so 
nobly maintained. With the president of the College I went 
through the building yesterday, and as I saw the improvements , 
which have been made my mind was carried back to the days when 
I was a student here and things were in a comparatively primitive 
state. I see in the splendid success and development of this Col- 
lege, the results of the untiring and well directed efforts of your 
president and your faculty. In appreciation of those old days I desire 
to present this loving cup as a small offering to that pleasant 
memory." 

Mr. French said in response : "As president of the Philadelphia 
College ot Pharmacy I accept this loving cup with great pleasure. 
It is always a delight to know that the graduates of our College re- 
member and esteem their Alma Mater. This token of your appre- 
ciation will be a perpetual reminder of your kindness." 

Remarks were then made by some of the others present. Profes- 
sor Remington said: "I remember when I was also a student un- 
der the faculty which has elicited such warm expressions of regard 
from Mr. Wellcome. Little did they think that one of their students 
would be numbered among the great and distinguished men of 
our art and science. I have frequently referred our classes to these 
young men — Silas M. Burroughs (Class of 1877) and Henry S. 
Wellcome — as examples of the best type of Americans, being dis- 
tinguished for ability, originality, pertinacity and adaptability. They 
went to London, the most conservative city in the world, and estab- 
lished a business which was successful from the start, and which 
takes rank as one of the boldest conceptions in commerce. This is 
certainly a most happy occasion, and I can only regret that those 
dear old professors whom Mr. Wellcome loved so much are not 
here to witness this occasion. Thirty years after graduation Mr. 



196 The Visit of Henry S. Wellcome. { Am A J p O r U ii,'i905 arm ' 

Wellcome comes to his Alma Mater to acknowledge the debt he 
owed to the College and Faculty at that time." 

Mr. Edwin M. Boring referred to the meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, held in Boston in 1875, and said that on 
his return he stopped in New York City to visit Mr. Wellcome, who 
was then associated with Caswell, Hazard & Co. 

Professor Sadtler spoke of the exhibit made by Burroughs, Well- 
come & Co., at the St. Louis Exposition, and said that it furnished 
a most striking display of the products of research, and was not ex- 
celled by that of any other exhibit. He also called attention to the 
Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories in London and the ex- 
cellent work which was being done under the direction of Dr. 
Frederick B. Power. 

Professor Lowe referred to the Wellcome Research Laboratory at 
the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum. 

Mr. Wiegand moved that a vote of thanks be tendered Mr. Well- 
come for his kindness and thoughtfulness in presenting the loving 
cup. This motion was unanimously adopted after being amended 
by Professor Remington to the effect that a committee be appointed 
to have the resolution suitably engrossed and sent to Mr. Wellcome. 

In concluding the meeting Mr. French said : "A graduate who 
meets with such unusual success is a great credit to his Alma Mater. 
I may say that I would not exchange the education and training I 
received at this College for any sum of money." 

Mr. Wellcome was entertained by a number of his friends in 
Philadelphia. He and Mrs. Wellcome were guests at luncheon at 
the home of Professor Remington on Saturday, and on Sunday they 
were the guests of the Rev. Dr. A. J. Rowland, Secretary of the 
American Baptist Publication Society, and Mrs. Rowland. 

On Monday evening, March 13 th, Mr. Wellcome was the guest of 
honor at a dinner at the Union League, which was arranged by the 
following committee: Mahlon N. Kline, James T. Shinn, Joseph P. 
Remington, Miers Busch and Howard B. French. Those present, be- 
sides the members of the committee, were: Mr. Harry B. Rosen- 
garten, of Powers-Weightman-Rosengarten Company; Mr. Alba B. 
Johnson, of Baldwin Locomotive Works; Charles S. Pugh, Vice- 
President of the Pennsylvania Railroad ; George F. Baer, President 
of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad; Hon. W. W. Porter, E. 
T. Stotesbury, of Drexel & Co.; James W. Paul, Jr., of Drexel & Co., 



Am Aprii;i P 9S5 aruJ "} The Visit of Henry S. Wellcome. 197 

Hon. John Weaver, Mayor of Philadelphia, Dr. John H. Musser, 
President of the American Medical Association, and Prof. Samuel 
P. Sadtler. 

THE CAREER OF MR. WELLCOME. 

Mr. Wellcome has had a most interesting and varied experience. 
He was born in Wisconsin, and spent his early boyhood days 
in the midst of the Dakota Indian tribes in Minnesota, the scene of 
Longfellow's Hiawatha. Later he participated in the great Sioux 
Indian War, when more than a thousand whites were massacred. 

Mr. Wellcome's apprenticeship in pharmacy was served under 
an English chemist, in Garden City, on the frontier in Minnesota. 
His uncle was a famous physician and surgeon whom he often 
assisted in operations at a very early age, and quite naturally he at 
first thought of studying medicine, but later decided to become a 
pharmaceutical chemist. He then went to Rochester, Minn., with 
Poole and Geisinger and here made the acquaintance of the dis- 
tinguished surgeon, Dr. William Mayo, who took a great deal of 
interest in him, and encouraged him in his studies, and among other 
kindnesses loaned the young student his books. In 1871 Mr. 
Wellcome went to Chicago, just after the great fire, and entered the 
employ of Thomas Whitfield, whose store was then located at 
Eighteenth and State Streets. Here he met Dr. F. B. Power, with 
whom he formed a strong friendship, and Prof. F. M. Goodman, 
Dean of the Chicago College of Pharmacy, who was then manager 
of Mr. Whitfield's store. He entered the Chicago College of Phar- 
macy, where he attended lectures for one year, but as young Power 
had come to Philadelphia to assume the directorship of Parrish's 
Laboratory, he decided, at the suggestion of the latter, to finish his 
course at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. On coming to 
Philadelphia Mr. Wellcome took charge of Dr. Hershey's store, 
on North Fifth Street. He graduated in 1874, the subject of his 
thesis being " Urethral Suppositories." The mould devised by Mr. 
Wellcome for making these suppositories was exhibited at the 
Pharmaceutical Meeting on March 17, 1874. 

Shortly after graduation Mr. Wellcome went to New York and 
took a position with Caswell, Hazard & Co., on Broadway. As 
showing the bent of his mind at this time, and his early appreciation 
of research work, we may refer to a paper by him on " Chlorinated 



The Visit of Henry S. Wellcome. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1905. 



Alkalies as a Test for Morphia and Other Proximate Principles," 
which was published in this Journal in 1874 (Vol. xlvi, p. 305). 
Other published investigations by Mr. Wellcome soon after were 
" Eriodyction," " the Damianas of the Market," " the Sources of 
Bromine," etc., etc. As showing still further his keen appreciation, 
even at this time, of the necessity for maintaining pharmacy on a 
high plane, we may refer to an article of his (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 
Vol. xlvii, p. 15) on "Liquor Selling by Pharmacists," in which 
he asks for a remedy " by which the outside world can distinguish 
between the pharmaceutical saloon and the legitimate pharmacy." 
In 1876 Mr. Wellcome accepted a position with McKesson & Rob- 
bins, and in the interests of this firm went to South America, where 
he visited and studied the native cinchona forests which he 
described in a paper read before the American Pharmaceutical 
Association in 1879; also in an article published in the Popular 
Science Monthly. He conceived the idea that London would be an 
ideal place for a manufacturing chemist, and accordingly in 1880, 
in conjunction with the late Silas M. Burroughs, established the 
firm oi Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., who have become noted all 
over the world as manufacturers of fine chemicals, alkaloids, phar- 
maceutical products, etc., etc. The keynote of this firm's success 
probably lies in their ready " recognition of scientific advancement 
and the adaptation of its results in their methods and work." 

Mr. Wellcome's efforts have not, however, been confined entirely 
to the development of applied science as carried on in their manu- 
facturing laboratories, but he has established two independent re- 
search laboratories in London, the one being devoted to chemical 
research under the direction of Dr. F. B. Power, and the other to 
physiological research under the direction of Dr. Walter Dowson. 
In addition, Mr. Wellcome has also founded and endowed Research 
Laboratories in connection with the Gordon Memorial College, 
Khartoum, Soudan, which was opened on November 8, 1902. These 
laboratories are for the study of tropical diseases of bacteriological 
and parasitical origin, of both plant and animal life and for general 
chemical and physiological research. The investigations are under 
the direction of Dr. Andrew Balfour, and the report of the first 
year's work has been recently published by the Soudan Government. 

At the St. Louis International Exposition, 1904, the jury awarded 
a grand prize and three gold medals to the Wellcome Chemical 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April. 1905. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



199 



Research Laboratories for chemical and pharmacognostical research 
and for educational work, and a grand prize and a gold medal to the 
Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories for bacteriological 
research and preparations, and for educational work, while three 
grand prizes and three gold medals were awarded to Burroughs, 
Wellcome & Co., for the scientific excellence of their products. 

Along with the science of pharmacy Mr. Wellcome has also devel- 
oped the art of pharmacy in a high degree, and in this he has been 
aided by his researches in the history of pharmacy and medicine, 
and the allied sciences. 

Mr. Wellcome married the daughter of the distinguished London 
philanthropist, Dr. T. J. Barnardo ; who has successfully rescued 
more than fifty thousand waifs from the miseries of the slums. 

Mr. Wellcome is unpretentious and modest in demeanor, but 
genial and kindly, and this together with his magnanimity in pro- 
moting scientific research and his interests in public benefactions 
have won him a wide circle of friends, not only among scientific 
and business men, but also among those in other avocations. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on the evening of March 21st, Prof. Joseph 
P. Remington presiding. The meeting will probably go on record 
as one of the most important held in recent years tending to the 
uplifting and betterment of pharmacy. It will be recalled that at 
the January meeting the subject of the " Ethical Relations of Phar- 
macists and Physicians " was considered by Dr. Henry Beates, Jr., 
President of the Pennsylvania State Board of Medical Examiners ; 
Prof. John H. Musser, President of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, and M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., Apothecary to the German Hospital, 
Philadelphia, and the papers at the March meeting being on the 
subject of " Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice," followed as a sequence. 
This subject was considered by men actively engaged in the practice 
of retail pharmacy, and who were in every way qualified to treat its 
several phases. 

Prof. Henry P. Hynson, of the Department of Pharmacy, Uni- 
versity of Maryland, was the first speaker, and read a paper on 



200 



Pilar maceu tica I M eeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1905, 



" Ethical Pharmaceutical Practice and its Recompense." (See page 
153) 

Dr. William C. Alpers, of New York, read a paper on " Profes- 
sionalism vs. Commercialism in Pharmacy." (See page 162.) 

George M. Beringer, Ph.M., read a paper on " The Evolution of 
Nostrum Vending and its Relation to the Practice of Medicine and 
Pharmacy." (See page 168.) 

Professor Remington said that the Philadelphia College of Pharm- 
acy was honored in having present such able representatives of the 
professions of medicine and pharmacy, and called upon Dr. Henry 
Beates, Jr., to open the discussion on the papers presented. Dr. 
Beates' remarks are given in another part of this Journal. (See 
page 175.) 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., said, in commenting upon the papers pre- 
sented, that Professor Hynson had shown that professional pharmacy 
is both a reality and an ideal; that Dr. Alpers, in his simile of the 
raft on the Niagara, had shown the course which pharmacy should 
take ; and that Mr. Beringer's paper was important at this time in 
view of the action of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the 
American Medical Association, with regard to nostrums and pro- 
prietary remedies. (See page 179.) He then asked those present to 
read carefully the rules formulated by this Council in the spirit 
manifested at this meeting, and to assist the Council in carrying on 
the work. 

Mr. E. M. Boring said that the question of right pharmaceutical 
practice was one depending upon personal character, and that we 
either do right of ourselves or are compelled by the law to do so. 

Professor Lowe followed in a similar manner, and said that suc- 
cessful men are men of character. Mr, William Mclntyre said that 
the young men present had an advantage in hearing such teachings 
as had been advanced this evening. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington announced, in the course of the meet- 
ing, that the prerequisite law had passed both houses of the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature, and that there was a probability of Governor 
Pennypacker signing it, which has since been done. (See page 182.) 

Prof. Harvey H. Mentzer commented upon the papers read, and 
also said that he was glad to hear that there was a strong probabil- 
ity of the prerequisite clause becoming a part of the pharmacy law. 

Henry Kraemer, Secretary. 



WILLIAM J. JENKS, Ph. 
1822-1904. 



THE AMERICANS^ 

JOURNAL OF PHARMApY 



MAY, 1905. 




WILLIAM J. JENKS, 
By George M. Beringer. 
Among the sturdy pioneers and adherents to the doctrines of 
" religious freedom " and " the inward light," who accompanied 
William Penn in his emigration from England, was Thomas Jenks, 
He settled near Newtown, in Bucks County, Pa., his landed estate 
and the family home, which was built in 1732, being known as 
•'Jenks Hall." 

William J. Jenks was a direct lineal descendant of this Quaker 
pioneer, and was born on the 30th day of March, 1822, at " Pomona 
Farm," near Newtown, Pa. He was the oldest son of Michael 
Hutchinson Jenks and Mary Ridgway Earl Jenks. His father was 
a judge of the County Court, and in 1844 was elected a member of 
the United States Congress to represent the district of Bucks and 
Lehigh Counties. 

His sister, Anna Earl Jenks, married Alexander Ramsey, the first 
Governor of Minnesota, and subsequently United States Senator and 
later Secretary of War under President Hayes. 

The act to " Incorporate the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy " 
was approved March 30, 1822, and it is a remarkable and a strange, 
although a peculiarly fitting, coincidence that on the natal day of 
Wm. J. Jenks there was issued the charter of an institution with 
whose welfare he was to become so intimately associated, and in 
whose service he was to devote such a large portion of his life work. 

In his youth he attended the district school of the Township of 
Middletown, and afterwards the academy at Newtown. 

As a boy he was fond of such outdoor sports as fishing, skating, 
boating and hunting, which developed a good physique and a 
sturdy, healthy constitution, which sustained him to a ripe old age. 

(201) 



202 



William J, Jenks. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1905. 



His scholastic education was finished at the institute of John 
Bullock, in Wilmington, Del. This select school was conducted by 
the father of the late Charles Bullock, and enjoyed an excellent 
reputation, and was well patronized by many of the prominent 
families of Friends of that day. Here he paid particular attention 
to the sciences, and to the study of the Latin language. 

After leaving this school, in the fall of 1838, at the age of sixteen 
years, William J. Jenks came to Philadelphia, and at once entered 
the store of Smith & Hodgson, at the northeast corner of Sixth and 
Arch Streets, to learn the mystery and the art and science of the 
apothecary. This firm conducted both a retail and a wholesale 
drug business, and manufactured many of the pharmaceuticals and 
chemicals supplied to their customers. They also imported many 
rare drugs, some of which have since become obsolete, or nearly so. 
Mr. Jenks was wont to describe some of the old drawers and bottles 
that had accumulated in the " back store," so called, which was on 
Sixth Street, and contained such drugs as sagapenum, sarcocolla, 
bdellium, tacamahac, mummy and issue peas. Some of these had 
come down to them from their predecessor in business, John Biddle. 
This firm was composed of Daniel B. Smith and William Hodgson, 
Jr. Daniel B. Smith was well versed in chemistry and botany and 
the sciences generally, and was undoubtedly the most influential 
and best educated pharmacist in Philadelphia at that time. He was 
not only prominent in pharmaceutical circles as a writer and editor, 
but was greatly interested in the problems of education and social 
advancement of his day, and for a number of years he was a teacher 
at Haverford College. 

William Hodgson, Jr., was an Englishman by birth, who had 
served his apprenticeship with the celebrated firm of John Bell & 
Co., of London. He is said to have been a very skilful and neat 
compounder and dispenser. This firm enjoyed the confidence of 
the leading physicians and the patronage of many of the best fami- 
lies of the city. This store had an established reputation, and the 
embryo pharmacist of that time was considered, indeed, fortunate to 
obtain employment therein and the knowledge and experience which 
the firm's business afforded. 

William J. Jenks was happy in his association with these precep- 
tors, and always spoke admiringly of their kindness and con- 
sideration for their employees. He endeavored to profit by the 



Am Ma°y, r i9 P of rm '} William J. Jenks. 203 

opportunities afforded, and studiously and earnestly applied himself 
to the mastering of all details, and his thorough training in the 
business and duties of the pharmacist was ever afterward apparent 
to his friends and associates. 

He attended his first course of lectures at the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy during the winter of 1839-1840, and the second 
in 1841-1842. The lectures in materia medica and botany were 
delivered by Dr. Joseph Carson, and those in chemistry, in the first 
course, by Dr. Franklin Bache, and in the second by Dr. William 
R. Fisher, who succeeded Dr. Bache who had resigned on account 
of his election as Professor of Chemistry in the Jefferson Medical 
College. In the year intervening between his attendance at college 
he selected a subject for his thesis and performed the experiments 
recorded in his inaugural essay on " Juniperus Virginiana," which 
was published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1842, folio 
230. 

At that time the college occupied a property on Zane Street (now 
Filbert Street), east of Seventh Street, and the instruction consisted 
of lectures and such experiments as could be demonstrated on the 
lecture table. The students who were applicants for the degree and 
were coming up for examination at the end of the course, were re- 
quested to occupy the front seats, and the professor would devote 
about fifteen minutes before commencing his lecture in quizzing 
these on the instruction previously given. As there were no regular 
quizz masters the students were generally paired and quizzed each 
other. 

William J. Jenks graduated in the spring of 1842. Among his 
classmates were Edward Parrish, who later became Professor of 
Pharmacy in the college, and Laurence Turnbull, who studied medi- 
cine and gained a reputation as a specialist in otology. 

After graduating from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Mr. 
Jenks continued with Smith & Hodgson as head clerk for about two 
years. It had been his intention to take up the study of medicine, 
but an intimate friend, Charles S. Ogden, desiring to engage in the 
wholesale drug business, a partnership under the firm name of Jenks 
& Ogden was formed in January, 1845, and the new firm located at 
160 North Third Street. 

Here a wholesale and retail drug business was successfully carried 
on for a number of years. The affability, genial disposition and 



204 



William J. Jenks. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



the recognized ability and character of Mr. Jenks gained many 
friends and customers. At the commencement of the Civil War, 
the firm met with financial embarrassment and Mr. Ogden then 
retired. A new partnership with Elwood Middleton was then 
formed, and the firm of Jenks & Middleton carried on the business for 
several years. After the dissolution of the latter firm, Mr. Jenks 
continued in the business at the same location until 1887, when, 
finding the jobbing business no longer satisfactory, he removed to 
4043-4045 Market Street, and devoted himself exclusively to the 
retail drug trade, being actively engaged therein until incapacitated 
by his final illness. 

William J. Jenks became a member of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy in 1846, and the same year was elected as a trustee. 
He remained continually thereafter, for fifty-eight years, a member 
of the Board of Trustees. For a number of years he was secretary 
of the college, then second vice-president, and he was first vice- 
president at the time of his decease. On March 26, 1900, he was 
elected president of the college to succeed Charles Bullock. He 
immediately resigned, and in eloquent and appropriate language 
expressed his appreciation of the honor intended and the compli- 
ment paid by his fellow-members to his years of service, but he was 
firm in his conviction that the conditions now called for a younger 
man of energy and aggression, and his interest in the progress of 
the college, as well as his increasing years, admonished him against 
accepting the honor and duties of the office. 

Shortly after his election as a trustee, Mr. Jenks was appointed a 
member of the Committee on Examination, and was soon made 
the chairman, which position he held until 1887. As chairman it 
became his duty to collect and arrange the committee questions and 
specimens. He took great pride in this work and was especially 
pleased in noting the increase in the number of students. " His 
boys," as he called them, were ever near to his heart. 

It was in the work of this committee that he came in contact 
with the students and became endeared to them. His always 
pleasant, smiling, happy countenance during the examinations, 
proved an inspiration to many a student nervous over the finals, 
and restored confidence and natural ability. Many are to-day cher- 
ishing the memory of the "Grand Old Man" and his reassuring 
smile, who happened along with a pleasant word of encouragement 
just at the right time. 



Am Ma^o5 arm '} William J. Jenks. 205 

William J. Jenks knew personally the prominent pharmacists of 
Philadelphia, extending back over a period of more than half a cen- 
tury. His retentive memory stored away many remembrances of 
their peculiarities and the trade conditions existing during several 
generations. He greatly enjoyed relating some of the reminiscences 
of the days when the apothecary made many of his chemicals, pow- 
dered his drugs, spread his own plasters and priced his prescriptions 
in " fips " and " levies " (6y^ and 12^ cents) and exchanged shin 
plasters. The latter were small credit slips or notes issued by a 
number of city institutions and a few prominent business houses, 
and locally circulating as currency. When Boullay's process of 
displacement, subsequently named percolation, was introduced it 
met with much opposition from the druggists of Philadelphia, but 
Ambrose Smith championed the process and mastered it completely, 
and William Jenks was likewise interested in it and engaged in a 
number of experiments to perfect the process. 

William J. Jenks was too modest to seek either political or social ad- 
vancement, but his ability was too evident to be either overshad- 
owed entirely by his diffidence or overlooked by his friends. He 
was elected a member of the School Board of the Tenth Ward in 
1876, and a few years subsequently was selected as a member of 
the Thirteenth Ward School Board, and for several years served as 
secretary of this sectional board. He was a member of the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Society, of the Friends' Historical Association of 
Philadelphia, of the Union League, the Numismatic and Antiquarian 
Society and the Bucks County Historical Society. For many years 
he was a director of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange, and was its 
president during the Centennial celebration in 1876. In 1887 his 
Alma Mater conferred upon him the honorary degree of Master in 
Pharmacy. 

William J. Jenks was always of a happy, even cheerful, disposition, 
and his very presence was a pleasure of which his associates were 
sensible. Reserved, yet with an inspiring dignity, thoughtful and con- 
siderate of others' views and feelings, he enjoyed universal confidence 
and respect. His calm judgment, his conscientiousness, his sincer- 
ity, his friendly manner and his kindly mode of expression all be- 
spoke the true character and the exemplification of the Christian 
gentleman. 

William J. Jenks retained his physical strength and energy to a 



206 Ptomaine Extracted from a Dog. { Am M a ya?c h 5 arm * 

remarkable degree to a ripe old age, and his memory and mental 
faculties remained unimpaired, as if he had discovered the secret of 
recurrent youth, He accomplished the difficult task of growing old 
most gracelully. 

" Though old, he still retained 
His manly sense and energy of mind. 
Virtuous and wise he was, but not severe ; 
He still remembered he once was young : 
His easy presence checked no decent joy." 

In September he contracted a cold which resulted in a severe 
attack of pleurisy and congestion of the lungs, and later became com- 
plicated with a weakness of heart action. In the course of several 
weeks he rallied from this severe illness, and again took a lively 
interest in current events, and his friends considered him as con- 
valescent. On Friday, October 2L, 1904, in the eighty-third year 
of his age, he succumbed to a sudden attack of heart failure, and so 
another devoted, noble character in pharmaceutical circles finished 
his earthly career. Another of the " old guard " of Philadelphia 
apothecaries that maintained the honor of their profession and added 
renown to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has responded to 
the Master's call. 

The funeral services were held on Tuesday, October 25th, at his 
late home, 428 South Fortieth Street, Philadelphia, and interment 
was made at Woodlands Cemetery. 

On October 7, 185 I, William J. Jenks married Lydia A. Martin, 
daughter of Oliver Martin. They had six children, four of whom, 
one daughter and three sons, survive him. 



ON A PTOMAINE EXTRACTED FROM THE PUTREFYING 
STOMACH AND STOMACH CONTENTS OF A DOG. 
By F. A. Norton, B.S. 

During the latter part of July, 1904, the stomach of a dog sup- 
posed to have died from strychnine poisoning was sent to this 
laboratory for examination. About one-third of the stomach and 
contents was immediately examined by a modification of the 
Dragendorff method for strychnine, which was demonstrated to be 
present by both chemical and physiological tests. At this time no 



Am Ma?a9os. arm '} Ptomaine Extracted from a Dog. 207 

putrefactive products were'encountered. The portion of the stomach 
and contents not used was returned to the container — a screw-top 
Mason jar — and the jar again sealed. No prosecution was made, 
and the stomach still being in the laboratory the following January, 
a re-examination was made to determine what, if any, decomposition 
products of toxicological interest might be present. 

The Stas-Otto method as outlined by Vaughan and Novy in their 
work on Cellular Toxins was employed in this examination. Rea- 
gents were tested as to purity, and solvents purified when necessary. 
The stomach was in good condition, though the odor and presence 
of considerable gas indicated putrefaction. As the jar was tightly 
closed so that the gas was retained, the bacterial action must have 
been largely anaerobic. 

Strychnine was again found to be present in considerable quantity 
in the chloroform extract, with traces in the ether extract. How- 
ever, another body of a brown resinous character giving reactions 
for ptomaines was obtained in limited quantity in the acid and 
alkaline ether extracts, in the alkaline chloroform extract, and in 
large quantity in the alkaline amylic alcohol extract. Benzine alone 
of the solvents used, failed to remove any of the substance from 
alkaline solution. The amylic alcohol extract yielded about two or 
three grammes of residue. This I subjected to the usual chemical 
tests for strychnine with negative results, and then proceeded to the 
following examination of its properties. 

The extract in color was a clear dark brown. While of a resin- 
ous consistence, it was rather soft, though not sufficiently fluid to 
flow. The taste was intensely bitter, but more acrid than strych- 
nine. The odor, very strong and disagreeable, resembled that of 
certain beetles. The extract was readily soluble in water to a clear 
beautiful golden-yellow solution of slightly alkaline reaction. This 
solution on concentration yielded under the microscope, first, yellow 
oil-like globules, from which later needle-shaped crystals separated 
out to some extent. A drop of hydrochloric acid added to a por- 
tion of the aqueous solution seemed to render the odor and color 
less pronounced, and on concentration on a glass slide beautiful 
needle-shaped crystals readily formed, arranging themselves along 
radiate axes. The radiate arrangement was visible to the naked 
eye, but a low magnification was required to distinguish the indi- 
vidual crystals. This readiness to form salts, together with the 



208 Ptomaine Extracted from a Dog. { Am May!'i£S arm * 

slight alkalinity of the body, would indicate that it was of a basic 
character. 

In order to determine the constancy of the above characters, I 
dissolved a portion of the extract in distilled water, filtered to 
remove slight impurities, precipitated the body with mercuric 
chloride solution, filtered, diffused the precipitate in distilled water, 
precipitated the mercury with hydrogen sulphide, filtered, rendered 
the filtrate slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate and extracted 
with amylic alcohol as before. In this treatment the mercuric 
chloride filtrate was colorless, while the precipitate was a light yel- 
low. On precipitating the mercury, the filtrate again assumed a 
clear yellow color, and on evaporating the amylic alcohol extract I 
could detect no material difference between the residue and the 
substance as first obtained. This would seem to show that the 
body was of quite definite character, as given above, and very free 
from impurities. 

I then tried the physiological action of the extract on a good- 
sized frog, with very pronounced results. Ten milligrammes of the 
substance administered by the mouth produced a stupor in four or 
five minutes, from which the frog appeared to entirely recover in 
about two hours. Twenty milligrammes more was then given. 
Immediate stupor was produced, accompanied by slowing of the 
respiration and rate of the heart beat, congestion of blood in the 
extremities and finally death in about an hour. The frog was, at 
any time during this experiment, capable of reacting toward reflexes. 

The reaction of the body to the following reagents employed in 
alkaloid tests was then determined. Unless otherwise stated, in 
each case a filtered aqueous solution of the amylic alcohol extract 
was employed for the test : 

Phosphotungstic Acid. — Yellowish-white precipitate, amorphous, 
insoluble in excess, but soluble in ammonia. 

Picric Acid. — No immediate precipitate, but on standing a slight 
yellow flocculent precipitate. 

Tannic Acid. — An immediate dirty white flocculent precipitate. 

Potassium Mercuric Iodide. — A turbidity was first produced, fol- 
lowed after a time by a light yellow flocculent precipitate. 

Gold Chloride. — An immediate heavy brown precipitate was pro- 
duced. The supernatant liquid, on standing a few minutes, became 
of a beautiful lavender color, and after a time a lavender amorphous 
precipitate settled out, leaving the liquid clear. 



The Cultivation of Saffron, 209 

Platinum Chloride.~No immediate precipitate, but on standing 
some time a slight yellowish brown flocculent precipitate was pro- 
duced. 

Mercuric Chloride. — An immediate voluminous yellow precipitate. 
Iodine in Potassium Iodide. — A. slight brown flocculent precipi- 
tate. 

Ferric Chloride and Potassium Ferricyanide. — Immediate bluish 
green color, followed by separation of an intense Berlin blue amor- 
phous precipitate. 

Potassium Bichromate in Concentrated Sulphuric Acid. — Brownish 
green color with odor of butyric acid. The solid extract gave a 
beautiful deep green color, resembling the test for morphine. 

Frohde's Reagent. — A blue color was produced. 

Chlorine Water. — A reddish color, disappearing on standing or on 
heating. 

Sulphuric Acid. — No apparent reaction. 

Nitric Acid. — Intensified yellow color, yellow residue on evapora- 
tion. 

Hydrochloric Acid. — Apparent slight discharge of color ; needle- 
shaped crystals were formed on concentration of the solution. 

A further examination of the substance as to whether more than 
one ptomaine was present, and as to the ultimate composition of 
the body, together with other tests which might have been of inter- 
est, was prevented by exhaustion of the amylic alcohol residue. 
However, the presence, as a result of putrefactive action, of a basic 
body of alkaloidal character and marked physiological action is 
shown. 

Chemical Laboratory, South Dakota 

Agricultural College and Experiment Station. 



THE CULTIVATION OF SAFFRON IN LEBANON 
COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 
By Joseph L. Lemberger, Lebanon, Pa. 
CROCUS. — SAFFRON. 

The stigmas of Crocus Sativus, U. S. 

The dried stigmas aild top of the style of Crocus Sativus, Br.; 
Safran, French, German ; Zafferano, Ital. ; Azafran, Sp. ; Hebrew, 
D2D2I (Karkom) ; Gr., Kpo/cos (Crocus), and Pennsylvania German^ 
Saffrig. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



210 



The Cultivation of Saffron. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
3Iay, 1905. 



In treating the subject referred to me, I am inclined to believe 
that some pre-history of this interesting drug will be acceptable — as 
I have failed anywhere to find a complete history of saffron ; it is 
true that all of our dispensatories have given some attention, treat- 
ing the subject as fully as required for the general reader and 
student. In an article quoted from the Pharmaceutical Journal, 
published in Vol. XIV, American Journal of Pharmacy, 1848, 
which covers the subject fairly well and describes the cultivation of 
saffron in France and Austria, the kind of soil and physical condi- 
tion best adapted ; the diseases to which the corms are subject, the 
insects or parasites contributory to these conditions, and a partial 
remedy; the soils favorable, some of the adulterations found, and 
names the uses for which saffron is employed. 

I may be permitted to quote the following from an ancient source 
of information, after giving the Persian, Greek and Hebrew names, 
and finding no difficulty tracing the name to the modern crocus or 
saffron. The writer states that all these names, Persian Karkom, 
Greek Krokos, Hebrew Karkom, had the one common origin, saf- 
fron having from the earliest times been cultivated in Asiatic coun- 
tries as it still is in Persia and Cashmere, and especially in ancient 
Cilicia. Crocus is mentioned by Hippocrates and Theophrastus. 
Dioscorides describes the different kinds ot it, and Pliny says, " that 
the benches of the public theatres were strewn with saffron, indeed 
the ancients frequently made use of this flower in perfumes. Not 
only saloons, theatres and places which were to be filled with a 
pleasant fragrance were strewn with this substance, but all sorts of 
vinous tinctures retaining the scent were made of it, and this costly 
perfume was poured into small fountains. Even fruits and confitures 
placed be ore guests and the ornaments of the rooms were spread 
over with it." It was used for the same purposes as the modern " Pot- 
Pourri." 

It is associated with fragrant substances in Holy Writ, a passage 
in Solomon's Song, chapter 4, verse 14. 

Much might be quoted of most interesting information as indicat- 
ing the high esteem in which saffron was held by the ancients, but 
I dare not depart any further from my subject as related to a mod- 
ern period, and especially to our own time. During the past 
century a great deal of saffron was cultivated in my section of Penn- 
sylvania — and no product of the garden was more profitable ; it was 



Am. J our. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



The Cultivation of Saffron. 



211 



the one product that was, at least, worth its weight in silver, and to 
this day I do not purchase the home product in any other way. 
Saffron is placed on one scale pan and silver upon the other, and, as 
we say, what it draws, the seller receives. You may question this 
commercial singularity — it is that way or no way; unless the 
equivalent is proven to the satisfaction of the seller. In my county 
— Lebanon — the cultivation of saffron is declining ; it is dying out 
with the generation of the Pennsylvania German housewives now 
passing, and as the care of the saffron bed is generally confined to 
the female head of the household for the reason that a portion of 
the garden (the woman's domain) is usually set apart for this pur- 
pose. The girls growing up to take their places, prefer attending 
crops not requiring the tedious care that saffron does ; strawberries, 
and other small fruits having more attraction for them, which, while 
not quite as profitable, do not require the same amount of labor. 

I took occasion to visit several homes where were found saffron 
beds, just at the season (late in October) while a few flowers were 
still to be found. I am, therefore, able to give the following facts: 
The soil is first well prepared (indeed the same preparation must be 
made as is needed for a garden), much attention is given to fertiliz- 
ing with well-rotted barnyard manure, the soil thoroughly worked 
with spade and rake, and after this preparatory work the bulbs are 
planted as early in the spring as possible ; the usual custom is to 
place 6 inches apart in drills, about 5 to 8 inches deep, 6 inches 
apart between the rows, and evenly covered. The bulbs rest 
'through the summer thus planted, but the same bed is utilized for 
lettuce as a first crop, cucumber or any vegetable that will mature, 
so that the bed can be cleared by early fall. The saffron patch I 
saw, and have a note of, had produced a crop of early radishes, some 
lettuce and a large crop of cucumbers ; without digging deep, the 
soil was again lightly worked and made mellow, as was done for 
spring planting, after removing the refuse vines and weeds ; in a 
few weeks thereafter, about the time of the early autumn frosts in 
the latter part of September or October, the sombreness of the sea- 
son is cheered by the growth of the crocus ; when the flower and 
leaf appear almost simultaneously and as soon as the flower matures, 
the real labor commences. It is declared by growers that when the 
flower appears as soon as the foliage, the yield is most abundant ; 
the flowers are plucked daily, early in the morning, and it is usually 



212 



The Cultivation of Saffron. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



made the evening work of mother, and other helpers, to separate 
the stigmas. The gathering of the flower covers eight or ten days, 
sometimes longer, depending largely upon weather conditions; much 
more tedious is the caring for the trifid stigma; there is an art in right- 
ly plucking and separating it from the yellow style; some women are 
quite expert in this branch, as was demonstrated to me on my visit, 
and right here is where our commercial friends in the saffron coun- 
tries abroad are not as careful as they might be. Cheap, ignorant 
labor is largely responsible for the quality of the saffron sold in the 
American market. With care saffron can be kept clean and clear 
of accidental, to say nothing of intentional, adulteration. It is very 
easy to adulterate saffron at least 25 per cent, before the flower is 
dropped in the operation of plucking the stigma, as any one familiar 
with the flower can appreciate. You have seen the dried corolla 
and other parts of the flower mixed in saffron. I have a specimen 
of commercial saffron which you will all pass as a good quality. It is 
in my judgment as good as usually found in the market. I also 
present for your inspection a portion of a specially selected article, 
bought several years ago, and saved to prove that pure unadulterated 
saffron may be produced. 

It will be interesting for some of the readers to know what are 
the uses made of saffron by the housekeeper in our Pennsylvania 
German counties, and especially Lebanon, Lancaster and Berks and 
possibly sections of other counties. They have the ancient custom 
of employing the article in culinary dishes. A noodle soup, chicken 
and other stews are not considered up to standard if not flavored 
and colored with saffron ; and when measles and kindred exan- 
thematous diseases visit the household, saffron tea is the first remedy 
to promote eruption, and very frequently a handy remedy is found 
in its use as an emmenagogue. When the home demand is cared 
for and neighbors accommodated, the surplus may be sold to the 
druggist or country merchant. 

WOULD THE CULTURE OF SAFFRON PAY? 

The garden patch I saw and have associated with the following 
figures, will also be of interest: Its area was 12 x 14 feet, planted 
as indicated, and produced 1,500 to 2,000 flowers per season; this 
particular patch had the rows 1 5 inches apart. The estimate of 
flowers produced varied according to weather conditions, and was 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



Substitution of American Centaury. 



213 



based on the average of a number of years. The money value of 
this 1.259th of an acre was between $9.00 and $io.co. A simple 
sum in arithmetic will prove the value of saffron culture if sys- 
tematically conducted with a view of making it an agricultural 
industry. 

Custom and superstition go hand in hand with saffron culture 
in Pennsylvania. It is also interesting to learn that the foremothers 
of the present growers of the saffron realized the necessity for some 
remedy to counteract the diseases the bulbs were liable to. As a 
matter of fact, the two principal diseases are the dry-rot and the 
other the death ; the French name it la mort, caused by parasites or in- 
sects ; tradition has taught our people to plant garlic (Allium sativum) 
and allow it to occupy intervals between the rows for a part of the 
season. The mole or ground- rat sometimes assails the saffron bed 
also, and to meet this enemy the same teacher has arranged that 
they must bury a quarter of a loaf of bread in the saffron patch. 
About the time of picking saffron, when driving through the 
country, you will readily observe where attention is given to saffron 
culture. It is the invariable rule to throw the useless flowers, after 
separating the stigmas, into the highway. I had a curiosity to 
know why this was so generally done. The answer was, " the old 
people always did so, and we carry on the custom." When further 
pressed for a reason, I was told it was done to perpetuate good 
luck. To insure future crops, the flowers must be scattered, not 
burned nor thrown upon the dunghill to rot. 



SUBSTITUTION OF AMERICAN CENTAURY. 
By Rodnky H. True. 
At the request of a prominent Eastern drug house, a number of 
samples of American centaury have been examined in the labora- 
tory of Drug Plant Investigations of the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
the differing appearance of herbs going by this name having aroused 
a suspicion that a partial substitution had taken place. Samples of 
the types involved were submitted to Dr. J. N. Rose of the National 
Herbarium, who found that in large part the material represented 
consisted of Rhexia mariana, commonly known as deer grass or 
meadow beauty, the remainder being the true article, Sabbatia annu- 
laris. Samples from five other sources gave, from a total number of 



214 



Substitution of American Centaury. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1905. 



eight samples seen, three of the spurious article and five of the 
genuine. 

Sabbatia angnlaris (L.), Pursh, 1 a member of the gentian family, 
is found in rich soil from New York and Pennsylvania to Ontario 
and Michigan and southward to Florida, Indian Territory and Lou- 
isiana. It reaches a height of from 2 to 3 feet, flowering in July and 
August, the bloom being rose-pink in color with a central greenish 
star. 

Rhexia mariana L., 2 a member of the Melastomacecz, grows in 
sandy swamps from Long Island and New Jersey to Florida, Illi- 
nois, Missouri and Texas. It reaches a height of from 1 to 2 feet, 
flowering from June to September and bearing pale purplish flowers. 

It will be seen that the plants have some striking points in com- 
mon. They occupy the same territory over a wide area ; the time 
of flowering overlaps ; the stature is not distinctive, and the general 
coloring of the flowers is somewhat similar. In Sabbatia angularis 
the stem is square and narrowly winged ; in Rhexia mariana it is 
round, but in the nearly related species, R. virginica L., which 
seemed to constitute the bulk of one sample, the stem is square. 
Hence, it would not be altogether surprising if ignorant collectors 
had to some degree confused the plants concerned. 

It is, however, not dificult to distinguish the spurious article from 
the genuine. The following points of difference are readily de- 
tected in the dry herb, and may be observed in the chopped articles : 

(1) Sabbatia herb has a strong, clean, bitter taste, which is quickly 
noticed on chewing. Rhexia herb is not bitter, but lacks a dis- 
tinctive taste of any kind. This is a quick and convenient way of 
distinguishing them in the warehouse. 

(2) In Sabbatia, portions of the flowers, turned reddish-yellow in 
drying, are to be seen and the oblong seed vessels enclosed about 
the base by the remnants of the calyx containing a large number of 
small seeds. In Rhexia^ the seed vessel enclosed by the remnant of 
the calyx consists of a rounded basal portion passing upward into a 
narrower neck-like part which is expanded again into a flaring por- 
tion, on the margins of which are situated the remnants of the calyx 



1 " Britton's Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada," p. 730, 
1901. 

2 Ibid, p. 651. 



Am May?i905 arm '} Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. 215 

lobes. This flask-shaped structure is somewhat ribbed, and is spar- 
ingly beset by bristly hairs. As seen in the samples inspected, the 
Rhexia seems to be a more stemmy article than the Sabbatia, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
December 31, 1904. 



ON THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF PHARMA- 
CEUTICAL DEGREES IN AMERICA. 

By M. I. Wilbert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

At no period during the thirty or more years that the question 
has been actively under discussion has the subject of pharmaceutical 
titles attracted, or received, greater attention than is being given it 
at the present time. 

The direct cause for this unusual interest is no doubt to be found 
in the greater attention that is being devoted to the subject of phar- 
maceutical education, its shortcomings and its ultimate possibilities, 
and also to a more thorough understanding of the very great differ- 
ences that exist, in the entrance requirements that are asked, the 
instruction that is given and the degrees that are conferred by the 
various pharmaceutical schools now existing. 

Appreciating the fact that the history of any given subject may 
have an important bearing on the probable solution of questions 
arising in connection with the same, and believing, furthermore, that 
the history of the origin and uses of pharmaceutical titles in America 
might have a peculiar and timely interest for all concerned this 
contribution is offered with the hope that it may prove interesting, 
and that the ideas and opinions of some of the earlier leaders of our 
profession may serve to indicate a rational and generally acceptable 
solution of the present controversy. 

Dr. John Morgan, who is properly recognized as the originator 
of pharmacy in this country, returned to Philadelphia in 1765, where 
he was the first to institute the European practice of writing pre- 
scriptions and of having them compounded by competent apothe- 
caries. This practice, even in Philadelphia, spread slowly, and it 
was more than fifty years later, in 1816, before any attempt was 
made to teach pharmacy by means of a regular course of lectures. 
Five years later, on February 21, 1821, the Board of Trustees of 



216 Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. { Am Mayfi905. arm ' 

the University of Pennsylvania, acting on a recommendation from 
the Professors of the Medical Faculty, adopted a resolution institut- 
ing the degree of Master of Pharmacy, to be conferred by the 
Board of Trustees on such persons exercising, or intending to exer- 
cise, the profession of an apothecary as are or shall be duly qualified 
to receive the same. Provisions were also made for instituting a 
course of lectures on chemistry, materia medica and pharmacy in 
the University, and all future candidates for the degree, in addition 
to serving three years' apprenticeship with a respectable apothecary 
or a master of pharmacy, were to be required to attend at least two 
courses of lectures in the new school. 

At the ensuing medical commencement in April, 182 1, sixteen 
gentlemen, apothecaries, the majority of them resident in the then 
city of Philadelphia, received the degree of Master of Pharmacy. 

This attempt on the part of the Trustees of the Universitv to 
improve and to elevate the practice of pharmacy aroused the enter- 
prising spirit of the druggists and apothecaries of Philadelphia and 
led them to found a college of their own, " for the two-fold purpose 
of providing a system of instruction in pharmacy, and subjecting 
themselves to regulations in their business." 

One of the most frequently quoted objections to the proposed 
course on pharmacy in the University was the fact that the trustees 
and professors proposed to bestow distinguishing titles on the grad- 
uates. So deeply was this objection to distinctive titles rooted in 
the minds of the founders of the new school of pharmacy that they 
positively refused to include testimonials, degrees or awards in the 
provisions of their school. It was not until some years after Dr. 
George B. Wood had been elected to fill the chair of chemistry in 
the college that any concerted attempt was made to introduce some 
form of distinction or award to such of the students as had com- 
pleted the prescribed course and had undergone a satisfactory 
examination. 

So far as known, this subject was first brought to the attention of 
the College in an address to the members of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, by Dr. George B. Wood, delivered November 16 
1824. In the course of this address, while speaking of the require- 
ments of the institution, Dr. Wood said : " In all great seminaries 
of learning and science it is a practice sanctioned by the experience 
of centuries to reward by some public testimonial of approbation 



Am May, r 'i905 arru "} Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. 217 

those students whose industrious application and correct deport- 
ment have given satisfaction to their instructors. The hope of dis- 
tinction is perhaps the strongest passion of the youthful mind ; and 
even that honor, which an ordinary degree in the arts confers, is 
sought after with an ardor and perseverance which they who have 
forgotten the feelings of their earlier years can seldom fully appre- 
ciate. 

"The power of conferring degrees, attached to all collegiate insti- 
tutions, may be considered almost an essential part of their consti- 
tution, and the practice is certainly essential, as a general rule, to 
their successful operation. The school of pharmacy cannot be 
regarded as an exception. I do not think I am going too far when 
I say that it will never flourish until this practice is adopted. 

" To the young apothecary, a degree from the college would be 
desirable, not only as an honor, but also as an effective instrument 
for the promotion of his success in business. When the public are 
generally informed, as they some time undoubtedly will be, of the 
nature and designs of the institution, it cannot but happen that a 
preference will be shown for those to whose knowledge and skill its 
testimonial can be advanced ; and at some future period a degree in 
pharmacy may be as indispensable to the apothecary as that in 
medicine now is to the physician. In order, however, that the 
degree may have the greatest possible weight in the opinions of 
men it should never be conferred on the student till he have passed 
through a certain course of study and practice united, and, by an 
examination before competent judges, shall have shown himself 
worthy of the honor. It should, moreover, be confined to those 
whose moral character is unexceptionable." The suggestions made 
in this address were acted on but slowly. It was more than a year 
later, on January 31, 1826, before the members of the College, 
recognizing the necessity of such a move, finally adopted a reso- 
lution that in future all students who had completed the attend- 
ance on two courses of lectures, had passed a satisfactory examina- 
tion in the branches taught and were able to furnish satisfactory 
evidence that they had been engaged in the business of an apothe- 
cary, were to be adjudged "Graduates in the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy." Is was fully half a century later, however, before the 
use of such a certificate of proficiency, to generally promote the 
business of a pharmacist, was considered legitimate, and we of 



2i 8 Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. { Am M2"iSj* rm 

to-day, more than eighty years after the address was delivered, 
are only now beginning to appreciate the necessity of some such 
evidence of systematic instruction in the sciences relating to 
pharmacy before an applicant be admitted to the practice of our 
profession. 

It was on August 23, 1826, that the then president, Mr. Daniel 
B. Smith, conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy, or ''Grad- 
uate in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy," on the first success- 
ful candidates, comprised of a class of three young men. 

On this occasion the president delivered an interesting, and now 
extremely valuable address, dealing largely with the conditions as 
they then existed, and outlining to some extent the objects of the 
College and its ambitions for future improvements. As much of 
the material contained in this address has a direct bearing on the 
subject under discussion, it may be well to quote from it quite exten- 
sively. In speaking of the objects of the College Mr. Smith said : 
" The mark at which we are aiming is, however, much above the 
standard of any present attainments. Before we can assume to 
compete with the kindred institutions of the Old World our system 
of scientific instruction must be extended to other branches of natu- 
ral history and rendered more thorough and minute in those which 
are already taught." 

" Our diploma is, of course, but an honorary distinction, that con- 
fers no privileges or advantages beyond those which public opinion 
accords to the well instructed and intelligent. It bestows no title, 
for it was the design of the college to avoid any name which may 
hereafter acquire a peculiar meaning, and become the designation 
of a new class analogous to the English apothecary. In attempting 
to avoid this danger, it has committed what may perhaps be 
esteemed a blunder by establishing a distinction without giving to 
it a specific name, and simply declaring that the successful candi- 
date is a graduate in the college." 

The example set by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was 
closely followed by the other schools as founded, and it was not until 
about 1873 that any concerted attempt was made to confer what 
might be termed a collegiate degree for a course in pharmacy. 

In the early seventies no less than three, then newly founded, 
schools of pharmacy began to confer the title Phar. D. on their 
graduates. As was to be expected, this rather startling innovation 



Am May^i905. arnJ "} Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. 219 

met with considerable opposition from the officers and representa- 
tives of the older and more conservative colleges of pharmacy. The 
meetings of the American [Pharmaceutical Association, and the 
accompanying conferences of the representatives of teaching colleges 
of pharmacy were frequently fburdened with lengthy and at times 
caustic discussions relating to^this, at that time, unpopular innova- 
tion. 

In this connection it may be of interest to refer to the discussion on 
the admission of the delegate from the Georgetown College of Phar- 
macy, in the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion for 1872, the report of the meetings of the representatives of 
teaching colleges of pharmacy in 1874, the report of the special com- 
mittee appointed by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1874, 
to inquire into the subject of granting the title of Doctor in Phar- 
macy, published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, and the 
discussion on reputed irregularities in granting the title of Doctor 
in Pharmacy, with report of special committee to inquire into and 
report on the facts in the case, published in the Proceedings of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association for 1875 and 1 876. 

How deeply the leading pharmacists of that period felt on the 
subject of pharmaceutical titles is evidenced by the opinions ex- 
pressed by Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., in one of his last editorials in 
which, in answer to an inquiry on the subject, he said : " The value set 
upon titles varies much with individuals ; so much so, indeed, that 
many will work more earnestly for a title than for more important 
things. If their possession carried with it the knowledge and dig- 
nity which sometimes it is presumed to represent, then titles might 
well be sought for as desirable evidence of accomplished work. 

" Pharmacy is to a large extent an art which every well-qualified 
apothecary masters. Its pursuit involves so much scientific knowl- 
edge that it may very properly be called a profession, and be who 
properly practises the art is a master in pharmacy." 

Professor Procter further suggested that the young men be mod- 
erate in their desire for titles, and that they be satisfied with 
Graduate or Bachelor of Pharmacy, and that they, after a due pro- 
bationary period, aspire to the more elevated and more dignified 
degree of Master of Pharmacy. 

The title of Doctor of Pharmacy, as a purely honorary distinction, 
was first conferred by the Maryland College of Pharmacy some time 



220 Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. { Am 'May^i905. arm ' 

before 1870. Prof. Edward Parrish, in referring to this distinction 
in 1 87 1, said : " A degree of Doctor of Pharmacy seems appropriate 
to place our profession on a par with those of medicine and of 
dentistry. 

" This has already been granted to a few distinguished pharma- 
cists by the Maryland College of Pharmacy, but would seem well 
suited to designate all graduates in pharmacy who have devoted 
themselves creditably to the legitimate practice of their profession 
for a term of years. A title of this kind would hardly seem preten- 
tious if held in reserve by the college until their graduates had 
attained a well-recognized professional standing and the prospect of 
attaining it would be an honorable incentive to professional effort." 

The special committee appointed by the Board of Trustees of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1874 to consider the subject of 
conferring the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy on the graduates of 
the College, in their report, deprecated the adoption of the pro- 
posed title, and enumerated, among other reasons, the fact that 
pharmacy and the practice of medicine being so closely connected, 
the title would tend to confusion. The committee recommended 
that the College adhere to the time-honored practice of conferring 
the title of Graduate in Pharmacy, but also recommended the con- 
ferring of an additional degree, not designated, on graduates of the 
College who, by pursuing some original investigations, had demon- 
strated their fitness for the same. This latter recommendation was 
acted on the following year, when the degree of Master in Phar- 
macy, in course, was provided for. Eleven years later, on May 4, 
1886, the degree of Master in Pharmacy i( Honoris Causa " was 
instituted, and in the following year, February 1, 1 887, the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy conferred its first honorary degree. 

Recurring now for a few moments to the now generally accepted 
propriety of exhibiting the evidence of having attended a college of 
pharmacy, it may be interesting to note that as late as 1874 this prac- 
tice was deprecated by a writer in, and also the editor of, the Chi- 
cago Pliarmacist, one of the predecessors of the Western Druggist. 

Prof. John M. Maisch, the editor of the American Journal of 
Pharmacy, contended, in opposition, that the number of graduates 
from colleges of pharmacy had increased to such an extent and the 
opportunities for attending schools of this kind had become so 
numerous that there was little or no reason why graduates from 



Am Mayy'i905 arm ' } Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. 221 

pharmaceutical schools should not display the evidence of their 
superior interest in their calling. 

Of the present status of Pharmaceutical Degrees little need be 
said in addition to what has already been pointed out by Prof. J. T. 
McGill in his paper on " What Degrees should be conferred by 
Schools of Pharmacy," read before the section on Education and 
Legislation of the American Pharmaceutical Association, at Kansas 
City, in 1904. 

Of the origin of the several titles it may be said that Graduate 
in Pharmacy was undoubtedly suggested by the title " Pharmacien " 
conferred by the French schools of pharmacy. This will appear all 
the more probable when we remember the close relations that ex- 
isted between the founders of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
and the products and writings of the French pharmacists of their 
time. The title Pharmaceutical Chemist is generally used in Eng- 
land and is awarded by the Pharmaceutical Society on all that 
successfully pass the major examinations. Master of Pharmacy has 
been used for many years in several of the larger countries of Europe, 
particularly in Russia and in Austria, and its more recent use in this 
country was probably suggested by the communications of Professor 
Dragendorff on the subject of pharmaceutical titles. The titles 
Bachelor and Doctor are generally considered to be of academic 
origin, and for academic use, and for this reason there has been 
much and varied opposition to their use in purely technical schools. 

The rather promiscuous use of the title Doctor, by colleges of 
pharmacy, is particularly to be deplored, and despite what Professor 
Remington, and more recently, Professor Hynson, have had to say 
in favor of conferring the degree of Doctor on graduates of colleges 
of pharmacy, there appears to be a peculiar unfitness about this 
particular title that makes its use for graduates in pharmacy espe- 
cially undesirable. 

The objectionable features connected with the title Phar. D. are 
more particularly evidenced if we review the dictionary definitions 
for the use of the word Doctor. Lexicographers tell us that a 
doctor is a teacher, an instructor, a learned man, a person endowed 
by a university with a diploma certifying to his proficiency in the 
sciences or recognizing his position as a teacher. The evident 
derivation of the word, in this connection at least, is such that it can 
hardly be made applicable to the acquirements and practices of the 
retail pharmacist. 



222 Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. { Am May^905. arm ' 

There are, it is true, other definitions for the word. The same 
lexicographers tell us that a doctor is a person duly licensed to 
practise medicine or surgery, or a person duly qualified and experi- 
enced in the treatment of diseases. Under this somewhat popular, 
ized definition we may very properly include the M.D. or doctor of 
medicine; the D.D.S., vulgarly speaking, the tooth doctor; and the 
D.V.S. or horse doctor, for the definition does not confine or limit 
the definition of diseases to diseases of human beings. The P.D., 
on the other hand, would necessarily be restricted under this defini- 
tion to the treatment of drugs, and under this interpretation we 
might possibly apply the corresponding definition of the verb to 
doctor; that is, to disguise by mixture or manipulation, to alter for 
the purpose of deception, to cook up, to tamper with, to adulterate. 

Surely no one having the interests of pharmacy at heart can or 
will countenance such an interpretation of the objects of our voca- 
tion. If pharmacy is to be our occupation, and if the occupation 
has been and is a legitimate and honorable one, why should we object 
to being called pharmacists, and why should we attempt to appro- 
priate titles that are not in harmony with the requirements and 
objects of our occupation ? Despite the fact that the title Phar. D. 
has been conferred in this country for upwards of thirty years on 
the graduating classes in colleges of pharmacy, and during that 
time has probably been conferred on thousands of graduates, it cer- 
tainly has signally failed to be recognized or appreciated by the 
mass of people who have come in contact with, or have required the 
services of, these men. 

The title Pharmacist, on the other hand, has become recognized 
as a proper and honorable one. The occupation of the pharmacist, 
as an occupation, is much more in keeping with that of the chemist, 
having bred and fostered the latter, it would be quite appropriate, 
therefore, to adopt or to continue the use of pharmaceutical chemist, 
providing we were not quite content with the now time-honored 
Graduate in Pharmacy. In this connection we should always 
remember that we cannot expect to raise our own individual stand- 
ing, or the standing of those dependent on us, by attempting to 
bring the conditions of our surroundings down to our particular 
level ; we must, on the other hand, attempt by all the means at our 
command, to raise ourselves and others in our particular line, up to 
oreven above the standards of requirement for the classes with 



Am *May!\£5. arm "} Pharmaceutical Degrees in America. 223 

which we wish to come in competition or with whom we wish to 
associate. 

The question then naturally arises : What of the future ? are we 
to be content with present educational requirements, and are our 
successors in the same field to be satisfied with the degree of Ph.G., 
or Ph.C. ? Certainly not. The future American pharmacist will be,' 
must be, a truly educated and highly scientific man. With the ever 
increasing demands for specialization there will be a corresponding 
demand for more specialized education along chemical and pharma- 
ceutical lines ; fully in harmony with that given in all other lines 
requiring specialized instruction or education. With this tendency 
to specialization there is a corresponding tendency towards concen- 
tration, particularly along educational lines. This tendency having 
once been fully appreciated, it will rapidly develop, and the time 
will not be far distant when by a proper selection of scientific 
courses at any of our larger universities the B.A., or perhaps only 
the M.A., may gain for himself an honorable and fitting title and 
sufficient technical knowledge to properly conduct a dispensing 
pharmacy and, in addition, make such contributions to the advance- 
ment of his own particular branch or branches of science as will 
enable him to do honor to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, that 
he may rightfully claim to be his. 

LITERATURE. 

The printed articles relating to this particular subject are unusu- 
ally numerous, and for this reason only such references are given as 
have been actually quoted from, or are readily accessible. 

" History of the Medical Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania." By Joseph Carson, M.D. Page 145. 

" Historical Memoirs of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy." 
By Edward Parrish. Page 2. 

" Introductory Lectures and Addresses." By Dr. George B. 
Wood. Page 15. 

Minutes of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Vol. 1. 

Address delivered by the President, Daniel B. Smith, before the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, at the Annual Commencement of 
the College, September 24, 1829. A. J. P., Vol. I., page 243. 

" Pharmaceutical Degrees by Medical Colleges." Editorial, A. J. P., 
1872, page 489. 



224 



I he Importance of Insurance. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
May, 1905. 



Discussion on admission of Delegates. Proceedings A. Ph. A., 
1872, pages 47 and 69. 

Report of the Fifth Convention of the Teaching Colleges of Phar- 
macy. A. J. P., 1874, page 538. 

Report of special committee, On granting the title of Doctor in 
Pharmacy. A. J. P., 1874, page 391. 

Discussion on reputed irregularities in conferring the degree of 
Doctor in Pharmacy. Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1875, pages ^3° t0 
840. 

Report of special committee to inquire into reputed irregularities 
in conferring degree of Phar.D. Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1876, page 
609. 

" Pharmaceutical Titles." By William Procter, Jr. A. J. P., 1871, 
page 157. 

" The Relations of the Several Classes of Druggists and Phar- 
macists to the Colleges of Pharmacy." By Edward Parrish. A. J. P., 
1871, page 535. 

" The Use of Pharmaceutical Titles." By John M. Maisch. 
A.J. P., 1874, page 397. 

" What Degrees should be Conferred by Schools of Pharmacy? " 
By J. T. McGill. Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1904, page 115. 

" Educational Development in the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy." By Joseph P. Remington. A. J. P., 1895, P a g e l %3- 

" Pharmaceutical Degrees." By Henry P. Hynson. A. J. P., 1905, 
page 188. 

Century Dictionary, Definition of word " Doctor." 
Chairman's Address before the Section on Education and Legis- 
lation. James M. Good. Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1895, P a § e 34 2 - 



THE IMPORTANCE OF INSURANCE TO PHARMACISTS. 

By J. B. Moore. 

FIRE INSURANCE. 

Every pharmacist, business man and, in fact, every person possess- 
ing property of any value, should have it insured in some good and 
reliable company. If he is not able to take a policy for the whole 
.amount of the property he should have it insured for such part as 
he can afford to carry. This should be done not only in compliance 



Am May"ifo5 arm '} The Importance of Insurance. 225 

with the dictates of common sense, prudence and good business 
judgment as a protection against loss by fire, which may occur at 
any time and usually when least expected, but also for the peace of 
mind and sense of security which it affords. 

When you are properly insured you will not be greatly excited 
every time you see a chimney on fire or smoke issuing from the 
doors and windows of a neighboring house when they are making 
their morning fire, or when you hear the sound of the bells of a fire 
engine passing in the immediate vicinity. 

Many persons are often deterred from taking out fire insurance 
because they imagine they are so careful and watchful in the man- 
agement of their fires that the occurrence of a destructive fire upon 
their premises is next to an impossibility. Hence, they repose in 
confidence, inspired by a false sense of security, and apparently un- 
mindful of the fact that neighbors, their servants and employees 
may not all be such careful and prudent folks as themselves. 

When I first started in business I was, like many other young 
men, rather careless and indifferent about fire insurance. In those 
days, however, insurance was not so popular and people did not pay 
the same attention to it as they do nowadays, so I conducted my 
business for a number of years without any insurance, either upon 
the stock and fixtures of my store or upon my household goods, an 
omission which I now consider an important mistake of my life ; 
fortunately, however, no evil results followed. I was influenced in 
the matter by just such erroneous and misleading notions as I have 
mentioned above, although on one or two occasions I came very 
near having a fire in my cellar which, if it had not been extinguished 
in time, might have stripped me of all my earthly possessions. 

Notwithstanding this timely warning, I still neglected from day 
to day my insurance, until one cold and blustery morning I noticed 
smoke issuing in dense volumes from a neighbor's chimney only a 
short distance away, and the wind blowing quite a gale in the direc- 
tion of my store. I became alarmed, naturally, until I ascertained 
that it was simply the chimney that was on fire. I hastened at once 
to the office of a reliable insurance company and secured a suitable 
policy which covered my household goods as well as my stock and 
fixtures, which insurance I maintained ever afterwards. 

An ambitious and industrious young man may commence and 
by close attention build up quite a prosperous business — a fire occurs 



226 The Importance of Insurance. \^'^l$v£ xm ' 

and destroys everything he has and, as he is not insured, what is to 
become of him ? He has lost all and is without reserve capital to 
fall back upon to refit and restock another store. The very build- 
ing which he occupied has been destroyed and he is left neither 
business, money, nor perhaps home with maybe a wife and small 
children to take care of and provide for. Under these distressing 
circumstances he may not have a kind and generous friend to appeal 
to for aid, for friends at a time like this are generally very scarce. 

The friend who would have been willing to have loaned you in 
the days of your prosperity a thousand dollars, when you didn't 
need it, would not now loan you a dollar. He would probably not 
even as much as give his sympathy, for he would more than likely 
say, " Served you right. Why didn't you have your property 
insured as any sensible and good business man would have done ; 
for the sake of a few paltry dollars you neglected to perform one of 
the most important business duties of your life, which was to have 
your stock and fixtures and your household goods insured as soon 
as they were put in place" 

In taking out your insurance policy do not make the mistake that 
many persons do of greatly overestimating the actual value of your 
property, but rather take the exact cost with an allowance for such 
increase of stock as you would reasonably expect from the growth 
of the business during the year or period for which you are insured. 
You may have a stock which at a liberal valuation is worth 33,000, 
and you have it insured for 55,000 or S6,ooo, thus encumbering 
yourself with a premium nearly double, which you will have to pay 
every year and from the half of which you will never derive any 
benefit in case of loss by fire, because all first-class and reliable 
insurance companies ignore all claims for imaginary losses. 

Insurance companies and their adjusters thoroughly understand 
their business and are very quick to detect any attempt at deception 
or fraud ; and the fact of a person having his property insured 
greatly above its value at once excites the distrust and suspicion of 
the company and its adjusters as savoring of an attempt to defraud, 
which may militate against your securing a generous or even a fair 
adjustment of your loss. 

If you show the least disposition to take any undue advantage 
of the company they will be likely to fight you at every step of the 
adjudication. All of your statements of claims for damages have 



Am May!'i9{5 arm '} The Importance of Insurance. 227 

to be made under oath, so that any attempt to sustain an unfair 
claim will make it very unpleasant and embarrassing, if not humili- 
ating, for you. Hence I would advise you to take the warning and 
keep out of all such embarrassing predicaments. 

In life insurance a man can value his life at any amount he chooses, 
and the company issuing the policy is obliged to pay the claim in 
full unless it can be proven that the insured had resorted to mis- 
representation and fraud to secure the policy. But not so in fire 
insurance. The claim for loss has to be sustained by actual proof of 
the amount of damage. 

This wise and conservative rule of fire insurance companies in dis- 
criminating against and positively refusing to pay all exaggerated 
losses claimed upon excessive insurance policies, prevents many 
conflagrations. If they made no resistance and paid all such losses 
it would offer a premium to incendiarism, and neither our lives nor 
our property would be safe at any time. 

There are thousands of dishonest and heartless people who would 
have their stock of goods, furniture and other property insured for 
excessive amounts, and then deliberately apply the torch for the 
purpose of securing the large amount of insurance, regardless of con- 
sequences, endangering the safety of the lives and property of a 
whole neighborhood, for when a fire is once started, and especially 
at a time of high winds, no one can foretell where it may end, or 
what loss of property and life it may entail. 

So we must all concede that this prudence and conservatism on 
the part of insurance companies is just and commendable and not 
for their own interest alone, but for the protection, safety and wel- 
fare of the insured. 

Many persons think that insurance companies are often unfair 
and unjust in their adjudication of losses, but I believe that in most 
cases of this kind it is due to there being a condition of confusion 
in the facts or circumstances of the case which interferes with a clear 
and accurate estimate of the loss. For instance, a person may not 
have had an inventory of his stock taken, or not for a number of 
years, and there really may be no correct or reliable data to guide 
him in estimating the loss, and so may have entertained a very 
exalted and erroneous idea of his loss. In all such cases doubt and 
dissatisfaction are sure to result. From what I have learned from 
many persons who have been so unfortunate to have had losses by 



228 



The Importance of Insurance. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1905. 



fire, I am led to believe that the insurance companies treated them 
generously. In fact, their success and popularity, even their very 
existence, depend upon their justice and fair dealing toward the 
insured. But we are all apt to think we don't get enough. 

Thus it will be readily seen by any intelligent and reasonable per- 
son of what momentous importance fire insurance is to us all. And 
it is not so much to the rich property holders that fire insurance ap- 
peals with the greatest force, but to the man of limited means who 
has only his stock and fixtures, with perhaps the property he occu- 
pies. If he should lose it by fire it would deprive him of the means 
of making a livelihood and leave him in dire distress. Yet it is un- 
fortunately just this class of our citizens who, on account of their 
scarcity of means and consequent inability to pay the premium on 
an insurance policy, are the most likely to neglect to protect them- 
selves by fire insurance. 

Whereas, if a man of wealth should lose a whole block of houses 
by a disastrous conflagration, and not be insured, and he still has 
another block in his possession, he of course will feel the loss very 
seriously and it will be the source of much grief and regret to him, 
which, however, he will soon forget and he may find much consola- 
tion in the thought that it might have been still more serious. 

The best and wisest business man will sometimes neglect and 
postpone the performance of an important act which may be fol- 
lowed by the most disastrous consequences, but he takes chances, 
hoping for the best. Many of us are afflicted with this weakness of 
procrastination, unmindful of the old adage — " What is to be done 
to-morrow should be done to day." When, under such circum- 
stances, misfortune befalls us, we have no sympathizers. Everybody 
is ready to say " it served him right," not having charity enough to 
think that under similar circumstances they might have been guilty 
of the same omission. 

Fire insurance should never be deferred or neglected. 

LIFE INSURANCE. 

I will now offer a few hints in regard to the importance of life in- 
surance. Although the latter is not of such imperative necessity at 
the incipiency of his business career as the former, yet if he has a 
wife and children it should receive his attention at the earliest pos- 
sible time that he is able to take out a policy, which, if small, he 



Am May!'i9(5 arm " [ The Importance of Insurance. 229 

should increase at every available opportunity. If he has a poor 
widowed mother or invalid sister he should, as soon as he is able, 
make some provision in the form of a life insurance policy for their 
support after he is gone, so that they will not be left in poverty and 
distress. 

This, of course, is not obligatory, but the natural promptings of 
humanity and a good kind heart should make it so. The provision 
for your immediate family, however, should be secured at the earli- 
est possible moment, for you know not when the fatal hour may 
come, and because the premium in life insurance up to 30 or 35 
years of age is small. Therefore, if you are doing only a moderately 
fair business you can take out a policy for a few thousand dollars 
and you will hardly feel the payment of premiums, as you can have 
them made payable quarterly, half-yearly or annually. While your 
means are limited I would advise you to take out a policy on the 
life plan, as in this form your premium will be lighter. Endowment 
policies are much more expensive, but one of these can be taken 
out later when it won't draw so hard upon your exchequer. 

There is hardly anything in which you can invest your money 
that will be more secure or that will pay you a better interest than 
life insurance. Besides, you will experience much peace of mind 
and comfort in knowing that in case of your untimely death your 
wife and family are provided for, although you may not have an ad- 
ditional dollar in savings to leave them. 

After you have liberally provided yourself with life insurance you 
can enjoy life better and be happier, and you and your family can 
indulge a little more freely in life's pleasures. Whereas, if you are 
not insured you may have to exercise the most rigorous and even 
painful economy, and often be obliged to deprive yourselves of neces- 
sities at the table and in dress, and also many little pleasures and 
enjoyments, in order to save as much as possible for the future. 

While you are young and premiums are low in life insurance, and 
you are still in such condition of health as to give you ready accept- 
ance into the best companies, and you have been in business a few 
years with fairly easy circumstances, and are able to afford it, I 
would then advise you by all means to take out a ten- or fifteen- 
year endowment policy. The premium on this will greatly exceed 
your life policy, but you will now be better able to pay it. You 
should make the amount of your policy as large as you feel able to 



230 



The Importajice of Insurance. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



pay the premium upon, without the possibility of embarrassing your- 
self financially. This policy will come due and payable to you at a 
time in your life, perhaps, when you need it most, and be invalu- 
able to you and a credit to your foresight and good judgment. 
Besides, you could not invest your earnings in anything that would 
pay you so well. 

There are, I understand, several kinds of endowment policies. I 
would, therefore, advise you by all means before investing in one to 
investigate thoroughly and ascertain from proper sources which is 
the most desirable. In all matters of this kind it behooves you to 
be prudent and cautious, as it is always the " first step that costs." 
Don't invest your money thoughtlessly and heedlessly in anything. 
Remember that when you part with your money you say " Good- 
bye " to your best friend. 

Stocks are dangerous and often fatal to dabble in. Real estate is 
uncertain and troublesome, and unless you are a good judge of it 
and understand handling it, is not desirable. Besides, you may not 
be able to get sufficient money together in a lump at one time to 
make the first payment on a purchase of a piece of real estate. If 
you should happen to be so fortunate as to have a little stagnant 
capital you hardly know what to do with, or where to place it, in 
order to draw interest, and you finally put it in bonds, mortgages, 
ground rents, etc., they will pay you only 4 or 5 per cent, interest ; 
so that I cannot call to mind anything that is better than life or 
endowment policies in good and reliable companies. This will 
absorb your small savings as fast as they accumulate, and you do 
not have to wait for a large aggregation of small amounts before 
you can make an investment. 

I have written good and reliable companies. This is exceedingly 
important, as I know from very costly experience. Assiduously 
avoid all cheap and unreliable companies. The danger, however, 
of getting into such companies is not so great as it was some years 
ago, as the law and the rigid surveillance of the insurance commis- 
sioners, under which they are all obliged to operate, has pretty well 
weeded them out of existence. But I believe there are still some 
weak ones that make a judicious selection somewhat necessary. 

I read a short time ago one of the most intelligent, interesting 
and able speeches upon the subject of life insurance by the Hon. 
Judson Harmon, Ex-Attorney General of th United States. It is 



Am 'M°ay^905 arm '} Tke Importance of Insurance, 231 

so much to the point and so logical and forcible that I cannot refrain 
from quoting part of it here : 

" Want soon destroys the innocence of children, the chastity of 
women, the honesty, loyalty and self-respect of men. Its victims 
become worse than savages. The history of every community 
shows that the vicious and criminal come chiefly from families left 
unprovided for before they were capable of self-support. The poor 
widow has to struggle for her children's bread. She cannot train 
or educate them. So they are likely to become the prey of chance, 
which is usually evil. While this country abounds in employment 
and opportunities which are open to all, yet nearly all our people 
are dependent on their personal efforts from day to day . . 
The small number who possess the ability to gain a competence 
must have the time, and this may be cut short. And what are those 
who manage to lay something by from their savings going to do ? 
There is a visionary or a rogue after every dollar, and if those are 
escaped it is hard to invest small amounts so as to make them both 
safe and productive. The purchase of life insurance furnishes the 
solution of the problem, and thus far the only satisfactory one. No 
one for whom insurance is possible has now any excuse for neglect- 
ing to secure it, when his life is a risk to others. If one does neglect 
it, when that is the only means of covering the risk, what Paul 
wrote to Timothy may well be applied to him: « But if any provide 
not for his own, and especially "or those of his own house, he hath 
denied the faith and is worse than an infidel.' " The above is the 
observation and comment of a keen observer, who is a student of 
the economic and sociologic conditions of the past and present. 

After you have been in business long enough to learn whether 
. your location is satisfactory or not, and you feel that you would like 
to remain permanently where you are, the best investment you could 
make, outside of life insurance, would be to purchase the property 
you occupy for yourself and family, providing you can buy it at a 
fair price and on satisfactory terms. 

I will also call attention to another very substantial opportunity 
for investment, which I understand yields a good interest and has 
some other incidental advantages attending it, to those whose savings 
are small, namely, "the various building and loan associations." 
They are handy and convenient for the small investor and they are 
generally considered safe, if well managed. Occasionally we hear 



232 



The Importance of Insurance. 



lui. .Tour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



of a failure, which should be a warning to all who cannot afford to 
take chances on the safety of their investments to be scrupulously 
particular to choose a thoroughly reliable company. 

I do not consider building and loan associations as free from risk 
as life insurance, especially when care is taken to secure investments 
in the latter in companies whose published statements of assets and 
general financial condition assure us beyond doubt of their safety 
and stability. 

There are, however, many persons whose general bad health and 
physical condition, family record, etc., are such as to disqualify them 
for admission into any good and desirable insurance company. In 
all such cases the building and loan associations are the next safest 
aud best paying investment for small amounts. 

There is necessarily a great diversity of opinion amongst the most 
experienced and judicious business men as to the merits and demerits 
of the various schemes and opportunities offered to investors. It 
would be well for you to investigate and consider well the circum- 
stances and terms upon which you invest your money. These 
remarks are simply suggestive and are intended to stimulate you to 
make an early and prompt investment of your earnings in some safe 
place where they will yield you the best interest before you may 
thoughtlessly spend them. 

When a young man makes an investment in any enterprise and 
takes upon himself the responsibility of making monthly, quarterly 
or yearly payments, it is apt to have a very steadying and salutary 
effect on him and it may change the current of his whole life. It 
has a tendency to arouse in him ambition, awaken a spirit of enthu- 
siasm and inspire him with hopeful visions of success. He sees in 
the distance cheering prospects and a bright goal which he resolves 
to attain. 

The baseball, golf, football and other games ; the theatres and 
other places of amusement and pastime are less frequently, if at all, 
attended. The habitue of the beer saloon, the race-track or gam- 
bling resort, if he has been a patron, will wonder at his absence. 
So he settles down and determines to become an earnest pharmacist 
and a good business man, goes to work with energy and renewed 
effort ; attends strictly to business and becomes frugal and 
economical. 



Aru. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 



233 



OINTMENT OF MERCURIC NITRATE. 1 

By Clarence O. Snaveey. 2 

A CONSIDERATION OF THE OFFICIAL PROCESS WITH REFERENCE TO AN 

IMPROVED ONE. 

Among the official preparations there are many of such inestima- 
ble value in the treatment of disease that we are puzzled oftentimes 
to understand why physicians will look elsewhere to find remedial 
agents the nature of which is a closely guarded secret. But, alas ! 
there are many of these to be found who are even satisfied to con- 
sider such knowledge alienable. ■ When a preparation receives a 
place in the United States Pharmacopoeia, it has surely been deemed 
of sufficient merit. 

Probably no official preparation has been more carefully studied 
than the familiar ointment of mercuric nitrate, or, as it is more 
commonly called (on account of its color) citrine ointment. Not 
only is it therapeutically of great importance, but also none the 
less pharmaceutical^ and chemically interesting. It is then with 
reluctance we would attempt to suggest changes relative to a prepa- 
ration than which there is none more difficult in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia to make, and which might present, after suggesting 
changes, similar difficulties to encounter by all who find such in the 
present official formula. 

In this ointment the base is a butyraceous substance, obtained 
through the action of nitric acid upon lard oil. The classic researches 
that have been made upon oils and fats from time to time have 
shown us that the effect of nitric acid upon fixed oils depends not 
only upon composition of the latter, the presence of coloring mat- 
ter, etc., but likewise upon the strength of the acid and the tempera- 
ture. 

That principle of fixed oils, whether of animal or vegetable ori- 
gin, which is liquid at ordinary temperature, is termed olein, or 
elain. It is extremely difficult to obtain olein pure, as it is almost 



1 Read at the twenty-seventh annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association, June 21-23, 1904. 

2 The authorship of this paper is credited to Mr. J. H. Redsecker, Lebanon, 
Pa. , in the recent Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, but this is erroneous, as we are assured by Mr. Redsecker, he merely 
having presented the paper in Mr. Snavely's behalf. 



234 Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. { Am Ma^"ifo5. arm ' 

invariably accompanied by the concrete principles of oils, either 
stearin or palmitin, or both. A glance at the empirical formula of 
olein C 3 H 5 (OC 18 K 33 0) 3 at once reveals to us the fact that it is an 
oleate of the triad radical glyceryl, C 3 H 5 . 

By reaction with nitric acid, or more exactly speaking, under the 
influence of nitrous acid fumes, olein is converted into a deep yellow, 
butyraceous mass. If this be treated with hot alcohol, a deep 
orange-red oil is dissolved, and a peculiar fatty matter remains, called 
elaidin. This is white, crystalline, fusible at 34 C, and appears to 
be isomeric with olein. The solid fat then which forms the base of 
our ointment is elaidin, accompanied by red oil. The result of the 
action of nitric acid upon lard oil, then, is a mutual decomposition 
of the acid and the fat, producing nitrogen dioxide, this becoming 
the tetroxide, and the transformation of triolein into its isomer 
elaidin. In the next place the reaction is characterized by a violent 
evolution of volatile products. These volatile products are 1 a 
number of the volatile fatty acids of the series C n H 2n 2 , from acetic 
to capric inclusive, together with the dibasic acids, adipic and 
sebacic, of the series C n H 2n . 2 4 . Unquestionably the most desira- 
ble starting point for the production of elaidin and red oil is olein 
of animal origin, and recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia 
as lard oil. 

The higher-priced fats frequently suffer adulteration with cheaper 
ones, and owing to the similarity of composition, such admixtures 
are difficult to recognize. The fact that dealers in petroleum oils 
sell large quantities of lard oil has, no doubt, led many pharmacists 
to look about for substitutes for lard oil in the preparation of this 
ointment, presuming that lard oil would be adulterated to a shame- 
ful degree; but this oil, and that, too, of excellent quality, is to be 
had notwithstanding that fact. 

Several years ago I set out to procure samples of lard oil to be 
used in making citrine ointment, since up to this time, and I be- 
lieve for twenty-five years, this ointment had been made with fresh 
unsalted butter by Dr. Geo. Ross & Co. The very first sample, 
upon critical examination, proved of excellent quality ; whereupon I 
procured a larger quantity of the oil. Lard oil is defined by the 
Pharmacopoeia as " A fixed oil expressed from lard at a low tem- 



1 Witthaus, Manual of Chemistry, p. 266. 



Am May^9 P o5 arm '} Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 235 

perature." Its properties are those of a colorless or pale-yellow 
oily liquid, having a slightly fatty odor, a bland taste, etc. Its 
composition is chiefly olein, with variable quantities of palmatin 
and stearin. 

It seems, too, that the proposed changes in the bases of the 
citrine ointment have resulted from a disregard of several important 
facts. First, that we have in lard oil a colorless or pale-yellow sub- 
stance, and forgetting that the effect of nitric acid upon fixed oils 
depends not only upon their composition, but also upon the pres- 
ence of coloring matter. In the second place, the comparative sim- 
plicity of the product excluding as far as possible complicated and 
not thoroughly understood reactions. Third, that these existing 
natural impurities, stearin and palmatin, permitted by the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, can be augmented to a certain degree, if it 
should be desired, without very materially altering or introducing 
more complex reactions. Such a procedure as the latter is, how- 
ever, under no circumstances recommended. 

Many fats and mixtures of fats have been proposed to replace 
lard oil, and resulting, perhaps, in as many failures to produce a sat- 
isfactory product; just what happens when temperature is disre- 
garded and the thermometer ignored in carrying out the official 
process. Suffice it to mention but a few : Olive oil and lard, lard, 
butter, lard oil and lard, etc. 

Not infrequently is there lodged complaint against the official 
ointment that it remains too soft, which may be overcome in a 
measure by the use of a formula given below. The proportions 1 of 
lard and lard oil used by a certain experimenter, who found after 
a consideration of various fats and mixtures of fats, including the 
one hinted at above, none as satisfactory as lard oil, a conclusion in 
which we certainly concur, could not be ascertained, or they should 
have been used here for a comparative study. 

The official formula as it would stand modified follows : 

Mercury 70 grammes. 

Nitric acid 175 " 

I/ard (anhydrous) 150 

Iyard oil 610 " 

" Heat the lard oil, in a glass or porcelain vessel, to a tempera- 



1 Reichard, Am. Jour. Pharm., Vol. 55, pp. 438 et seq. 



236 Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. { Am Ma^i? harm ' 

ture of ioo° C. (21 2° F.) ; then withdraw the heat, gradually add 
70 grammes of nitric acid, and, when the reaction moderates, reap- 
ply the heat until effervescence ceases." (It may now be stirred 
gently once or twice while cooling, but not vigorously, as has been 
recommended.) " Then allow the mixture to cool to 40 C. (104 
F.). Having dissolved the mercury in the remainder of the nitric 
acid with the aid of sufficient heat to prevent the solution from crys- 
tallizing, add this solution to the mixture." Now raise the temper- 
ature to 6o° C, add the lard, which at this temperature will melt 
and permit of thorough incorporation, and maintain the" tempera- 
ture until no further evolution of gas takes place, thereby obviating 
the tendency to form a spongy mass. " When the mass has become 
entirely cold, mix it thoroughly by trituration, avoiding the use of a 
metallic spatula." 

The reaction for the production of mercuric nitrate in the process 
is as follows : 

3 Hg + 8HN0 3 = 3Hg(N0 3 ) 2 + N 2 2 + 4 H 2 
6Hg + 8HNO3 = 3 Hg 2 (NO s ) 2 + N 2 O z + 4H 2 

If the solution of the metal is effected in contact with the acid at 
the ordinary temperature, 1 it is positively certain, as seen by the fore- 
going reaction, that both mercuric and mercurous nitrate form, 
consequently the ointment receives both nitrates from the beginning. 
At the same time there is produced the colorless gas nitrogen 
dioxide (N 2 2 ). When this colorless gas comes in contact with air, 
it unites with its oxygen, forming red fumes of the tetroxide (N 2 4 ). 
Now upon mixing and stirring this nitric acid solution of mercuric 
nitrate with the fat, this nitrogen dioxide takes up oxygen from the 
air that is stirred into the ointment (for the more it is stirred the 
brighter yellow will be its color), and, whatever may be the effect of 
this gas as a most energetic oxidant, we are sure of the production 
of a decidedly more disagreeable odor than is given off under certain 
other conditions by the fatty base of this ointment. 



1 It will, however, be found that when the solution of mercury in nitric acid 
is effected at the temperature of a water-bath or higher, and maintaining tem- 
perature about twenty minutes, no precipitation or cloudiness will occur in the 
solution on the addition of water, or of diluted hydrochloric acid (absence of 
mercurous salt). 



Am uay^?05 arm '} Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 237 

We come now to the suggestion 1 long since offered, and at one 
time made use of, to remedy the difficulty in producing a solution 
of mercuric nitrate to replace that in the official formula. 2 Rother 
first suggested the use of red mercuric oxide dissolved in nitric acid 
to produce this solution. He had also pointed out that the solution 
prepared with mercury and nitric acid is in reality one of mercuric 
nitrate and mercurous nitrate, as our reactions above showed. He, 
too, has been accused of failing to state his reason for using a solu- 
tion prepared by dissolving red mercuric oxide in nitric acid ; but it 
can readily be seen that if we are to have an ointment of mercuric 
nitrate, it were far better we should start with a comparative simple 
solution and one containing only mercuric nitrate, than with the 
complex solution containing mercury in both its mercurous and 
mercuric states. 

This investigator has pointed out another modification. 3 In this 
he proposes to use a larger portion of the nitric acid for the oxida- 
tion of the fat. By such treatment the oxidation of the fatty matter 
proceeds to the utmost capacity of nearly all the available nitric acid 
whereby violent reaction upon the addition of the nitrate solution 
to the nearly cold fat is precluded. 

The formula to be suggested and recommended will, it is hoped, 
appear as a most logical deduction, while its manipulation must 
necessarily be productive of more uniform results. Notwithstanding 
the fact that it has been commented on before, the reasons here 
adduced in urging its adoption differ widely from those used before. 4 

Such is the formula which follows : 

Red mercuric oxide 75*5 grammes. 

Nitric acid 175- " 

Lard oil 760* " 

Heat the lard oil in a clean glass or porcelain vessel, to a temper- 
ature of ioo° C. (212 F.), or the dish may be placed into a bath 
of hot water until the temperature of the oil has risen to about 
100° C. (212 F.) ; then withdraw the heat, gradually add 100 
grammes of nitric acid, and, when the reaction moderates, reapply 



Mother, Am. Jour. Phar., Third Series, Vol. 18, pp. 417 et seq. 

2 England, Am. Jour. Pharm., Vol. 69, pp. 209 et seq. 

3 Rother, Am. Jour. Pharm., Third Series, Vol. 18, pp. 417 et seq. 

4 England, Am. Jour. Pharm., Vol. 69, p. 211. 



238 



Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1905. 



the heat until effervescence ceases. Positively, at this point in the 
process, the liquid should not be disturbed by stirring. Now, when 
all the nitric acid has been decomposed, the temperature can be 
considerably raised without causing further effervescence, and the 
liquid simply boils. This elevated temperature may be maintained 
for ten or fifteen minutes, whereby the volatile fatty products will be 
more or less completely dissipated. Then allow the mixture to cool 
to about 40 C. (104 F.). Having dissolved the red mercuric oxide 
in the remainder of the nitric acid without heat, by adding the 
former to the latter in small portions, add this solution to the nearly 
cooled fatty product. Now raise the temperature of this mixture to 
6o° C, and maintain such until no further evolution of gas takes 
place, then withdraw heat entirely. When the mass has become 
entirely cold, mix thoroughly by trituration, preferably by the use 
of a glass rod. 

The reaction in this process for the production of mercuric nitrate 
is as follows : 

HgO + 2HNO3 = Hg(N0 3 ) 2 + H 2 0. 
21576 + 12578 = 323-58 , + 17-96. 

From the above reaction it will be apparent there still remains 
an excess of nitric acid over the amount required to bring the red 
mercuric oxide, the equivalent of the amount of metallic mercury in 
the official formula, into solution, but not so greatly in excess as it 
is found in the official process. 

With the production of mercuric nitrate alone in this way, there 
is formed a little water, which, however, can be of no practical 
moment. It is not at all possible to introduce nitrogen tetroxide 
when this solution is used, though it does inevitably result from 
the mutual decomposition of the fat and acid ; but in the latter 
instance its most energetic oxidizing action is, by reason of the 
elevated temperature, almost instantly utilized. When, on the other 
hand, this substance is introduced at a very much lower temperature 
the finished product gives off from the beginning rather disagree- 
able odors. 

Even by permitting a larger portion of the nitric acid to react, 
with the lard oil the reaction is not final. Upon the addition of the 
acid solution of mercuric nitrate further action takes place far less 
intensely than when the solution with larger excess of acid is 



Am May?i905? rm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 239 

added ; whereupon the chances of reduction of the mercuric com- 
pound are fewer. The mercurous compound, if present, would even 
be more readily decomposed. 

Unfortunately, of necessity, there remains to be noted here the 
fact that not infrequently red mercuric oxide is not completely solu- 
ble in nitric acid. This insoluble residue bears a resemblance to 
brick- dust. At the same time the slight advance in the cost of the 
oxide over that of the metal itself must be mentioned ; this, cer- 
tainly, should not militate against it, when its advantages are cor- 
rectly estimated. 

The salient points in the proposed process are : 

(1) The use of a definite solution of mercuric nitrate. 

(2) The use of a larger proportion of nitric acid to oxidize the fat. 

(3) The production of an ointment true to the pharmacopceial 
name — Ointment of Mercuric Nitrate. 

(4) A product to a greater degree devoid of odor. 

(5) An ointment, assuming the existence of a combination of 
mercury with elaidic acid, 1 which, from the viewpoint of therapeutics, 
is physiologically more active, while it exists in its mercuric state 
alone, than when accompanied by a mercurous compound. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Ten Lectures on Biochemistry of Muscle and Nerve. By W. 
D. Halliburton. With illustrations. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co., 1904. 

This book contains the special lectures on the chemical aspect of 
muscle and nerve physiology, delivered by Professor Halliburton in 
London and New York City in 1 903-1904. Professor Halliburton is 
well known for his own researches as well as those of his students 
on this subject, and it is extremely fortunate that he has brought 
together the results as contained in some forty papers which are 
more or less scattered in different publications, and correlated them 
so that they may be of value to the animal physiologist and physician. 

The subjects treated are : composition of muscle ; heat vigor of 
muscle, euglobulins and pseudoglobulins ; the pigment of muscle, 
properties ol nucleo-proteids, the ferments of muscle ; the extrac- 



1 Witthaus, Manual of Chemistry, p. 226. 



240 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am May'"ifo5 arm 

tives and salts of muscle; chemical changes accompanying the con- 
traction of muscles, chemistry of tendon ; the chemical composition 
of nervous tissues; metabolism in nervous tissues; the coagulation 
temperature of the nerve-proteids, and its bearing on the ques- 
tion of: (i) the galvanometric response of nerve under varying 
temperatures, (2) heat contraction in nerve, and (3) hyperpyrexia; 
the chemical pathology of certain degenerative nervous diseases ; 
degeneration and regeneration of nerves. 

The subjects are discussed in a most interesting and instructive 
manner, and the book will do much towards placing the treatment 
of disease on a still more scientific basis. 



Manual of Physiological and Clinical Chemistry. By Elias H. 
Bartley. Second edition, revised and enlarged. With 47 illustra- 
tions. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1904. 

There seems to be considerable difference of opinion as to just 
what should be the nature of the chemistry taught in medical 
schools. In successfully teaching applied chemistry it is important 
that the student appreciate the fundamental facts in physics and 
chemistry, and that he have good laboratory courses in elemen- 
tary physics and chemistry. With this as a foundation, it will 
largely depend upon the training and duties of the professor as to 
whether he will limit himself to the teaching of the examination of 
blood, urine, faeces and milk, or whether toxicological and other 
sanitary analyses will be included. Perhaps it is not stating it too 
broadly to say that the medical man needs chemistry as much as 
he needs physiology. While he requires clinical chemistry, as con- 
sidered by Dr. Bartley in this book, he also requires a broad 
knowledge of physiological chemistry, so that he can appreciate 
the effects of poisons and their antidotes, the action of medicines 
and their proper combination, etc. 

The second edition of Dr. Bartley's chemistry is devoted to the 
examination of blood, urine, contents of stomach, faeces and milk. 
The subject-matter has been brought up to date, and will be found 
of value to the physician and analyst. 

A Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis, or the quan- 
titative estimation of chemical substances by measure, applied to 
liquids, solids and gases. Adapted to the requirements of pure 



Am May!*i905 arm "} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 241 

chemical research, pathological chemistry, pharmacy, metallurgy, 
manufacturing chemistry, photography, etc., and for the valuation 
of substances used in commerce, agriculture and the arts. By 
Francis Sutton. Ninth edition, revised and enlarged. Philadel- 
phia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1904. 

This work by Sutton is so well known that it hardly requires 
more than a mention. Dr. Knecht's process for the estimation ol 
azo dyes, nitro- and nitroso-compounds by the use of titanous chlo- 
ride is given on pages 366-369. A condensed record of analyses of 
various compounds existing in gas liquor and the methods of deter- 
mining them as carried out by the Chief Inspector under the Alkali 
Works Regulation Acts has been included in this new edition (p. 77, 
etc.). Sodeau's gas apparatus, a modification of Macfarlane and 
Caldwell's apparatus, and adapted for gas analysis of the highest ac- 
curacy is described on pages 569-572. Throughout the book are 
numerous references to recent literature indicating that the book 
has been brought up to date, and thus it continues to be one of the 
most valuable all-around laboratory manuals on industrial chemistry 
in its many phases. 

The Art of Compounding. A text-book for students and a ref- 
erence book for pharmacists at the prescription counter. By Wilbur 
L. Scoville. Third edition, revised and enlarged. Philadelphia ; 
P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1904. $2.50, net. 

One of the most hopeful signs in American pharmacy is the dis- 
position of authors to write books which contain not only a new 
presentation of the subject but something also in the application, at 
least, that is new. Scoville's book has now gone through several 
editions, each of which has been wide awake to the present tenden- 
cies and needs of the pharmacist. One of the most happy introduc- 
tions is the chapter on " Sterilization," etc. This is well written 
and is deserving of careful attention by the pharmacist. When the 
brewer, the bottler and even the farmer are practically carrying on 
work involving modern researches in bacteriology, surely the phar- 
macist should know how to preserve his drugs and preparations 
and dispense prescriptions that are free from harmful micro, 
organisms. 

The chapter on tablets and the manufacture of compressed and 
triturate tablets will also be found valuable, as many pharmacists 



242 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. I Am May?L9a5. arm 

are using tablet machines in connection with prescription work. 
The chapter on emulsions has been largely rewritten and includes 
the latest theories of emulsification, and also improved methods and 
formulae for commercial emulsions. 



The American Year-Book of Medicine for 1905. A Yearly 
Digest of Scientific Progress and Authoritative Opinion in all 
branches of Medicine and Surgery, drawn from journals, mono- 
graphs, and text-books of the leading American and foreign authors 
and investigators. Arranged, with critical editorial comments, by 
eminent American specialists, under the editorial charge of George 
M. Gould. In two volumes. Volume I, including General Medicine. 
Two octavos of about 700 pages each, fully illustrated. Philadel- 
phia and London: W. B. Saunders & Co., 1905. Per volume: 
Cloth, $3 net; half morocco, $3.75 net. 

In the present volume Dr. Gould has the co-operation of a corps 
of able collaborators who have summarized the researches in 
the different departments of medicine during the past year. Instead 
of these researches being disconnected they are brought into rela- 
tion with each other and thus furnish excellent reading. The 
researches are brought under the following heads : General medi- 
cine ; pediatrics ; pathology and bacteriology ; nervous and mental 
diseases ; cutaneous diseases and syphilis ; materia medica, experi- 
mental therapeutics and pharmacology ; physiology ; legal medicine ; 
public hygiene and preventive medicine ; and physiologic chemistry. 

Considering the excellence of the work, the moderate price of the 
book, and the fact that much of the matter is of interest to biolo- 
gists, chemists, analysts and lawyers, as well as members of the 
medical profession, it ought to appeal to a large number. 

The Elements of Chemistry. By M. M. Pattison Muir. Phila- 
delphia : P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1904. 

The object of this work is to prepare the reader or student for 
research work. A good idea of the character of the work may be 
obtained by an enumeration of the subjects treated: (1) Some of 
the marks of those changes the elucidation whereof is the subject 
of chemistry. (2) The study of composition ; the laws of chemical 
combination. (3) The determination of the combining weights of 
elements, and the reacting weights of compounds ; chemical sym- 



Am May?i%5 arm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 243 

bols and formulae. (4) Introduction to the study of interactions, 
and the connections between them and compositions ; acids, basic 
and acidic oxides ; metallic and non-metallic elements. (5) Chemical 
nomenclature. (6) Oxygen and hydrogen. (7) Compounds formed 
by the union of hydrogen and oxygen ; water and hydrogen perox- 
ide. (8) Hydrogen and some of its compounds. (9) Sulphur and 
some of its compounds. (10) Potassium and sodium and some of 
their compounds. (11) Iron and a few of its compounds. (12) 
The chemical character of metals and non-metals illustrated by cer- 
tain compounds of manganese and some compounds of chromium. 
(13) Chemical characters of elements illustrated by oxides of anti- 
mony, arsenic, bismuth and tin. (14) Chlorine, bromine, fluorine, 
and iodine; and some of their compounds. (15) Oxidation and 
reduction ; oxidizers and reducers. (16) The molecular and atomic 
theory. (17) Some applications of the molecular and atomic theory, 
chiefly to classes of facts already considered. (18) Isomerism and 
structural formulae. (19) The periodic law. (20) The measurement 
of the thermal values of chemical changes. (21) Phosphorus; its 
oxides, hydrides, and some of its acids. (22) Carbon, silicon and 
a few of their compounds. (23) Magnesium, zinc, cadmium, and 
mercury ; calcium, strontium and barium. (24) Some of the physi- 
cal and chemical properties of copper, lead and aluminium. (25) A 
few physical and chemical properties of palladium and platinum. 
(26) Argon and its companions. (27) Short descriptions~of the 
general chemical characters of each of the eight groups of elements. 

We rather like the treatment of the subject of chemistry as given 
by Muir. There is a philosophic consideration of the subject which 
is too often lost sight of in the practical applications that are usually 
demanded and which have made chemistry so fascinating to students 
and the public alike. The author has collected a vast amount of 
information and presented it in a very interesting and instructive 
manner. 



A Portrait of Prof. Charges F. Chandi.fr was presented to Columbia 
University by the Alumni Association of the Schools of Science of Columbia 
University on Thursday evening, April 27th. Professor Chandler is one of the 
founders of the School of Mines of Columbia University and this is a worthy 
tribute to his attainments. 



244 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am Ma^iSs™ 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

The annual meeting of the members of the College was held on 
March 27, 1905, at 4.00 p.m., in the Library. The president, 
Howard B. French, presided. Twenty-three members were present. 

The minutes of the quarterly meeting held December 27, 1 904, 
were read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees for 
the meetings held December 6, 1904, January 3d, January 17th, 
(special meeting), February 7th, were read by the Registrar and 
approved. 

The President read his annual report, from which are abstracted 
the following items: The walls, ceiling and woodwork of the pharm- 
aceutical laboratory were repaired and painted ; the seats in the 
lecture-rooms were re-varnished and numbered, and re- wired for 
electric lighting ; a general overhauling of all electric wiring through- 
out the buildings was made, and, after inspection, has been ap- 
proved by the Board of Fire Underwriters ; a system of inter- 
communicating telephones was placed throughout the building, and 
has materially added to the comfort of the faculty and Registrar ; 
the exterior woodwork of the front building has been painted and 
put in good order ; these improvements put your buildings in a 
fairly good condition. 

It is a matter of interest to note that Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler has 
completed twenty-five years of service in the College. 

The new course in pharmaceutical arithmetic, which was made 
compulsory for the first-year students, has proven a very desirable 
addition. 

The supplementary course for the third-year students, which has 
just gone into effect, is expected to prove of material advantage to 
the students. 

A new system of tickets was instituted. One ticket is now issued 
by the Registrar, which takes the place of the six formerly used. 
This change has proven exceedingly satisfactory. 

Forty-one more students are receiving instruction at the College 
this year than last. Eighty-one students have availed themselves 
of special instruction in the chemical laboratory. A number of 
the students are receiving additional instruction in the pharmaceuti- 
cal laboratory, special course in bacteriology and in technical 
microscopy. 



Am *M°ay r ;i905? r " m } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 245 

The College has lost by death during the year five honorary 
members and three active members. During the year eight active 
members and five associate members were elected. There have 
been two resignations. 

During the year the " Troth " scholarship was established by 
Mrs. John R. Drexel in honor of her father, William P. Troth, and 
her grandfather, Henry Troth. The latter was an early member of 
the College, and served as vice-president from 1829 to 1841. 

In educational matters the College has maintained its former high 
rank among pharmaceutical colleges, and the hope is expressed that 
the time is not far distant when research laboratories may be estab- 
lished in connection with the College. 

The activity and able management of the Alumni Association is 
commended. 

Reports of committees were then given as follows : 

Publication Committee — Samuel P. Sadtler, chairman, reported : 
There has been an increase in the amount received from subscrip- 
tions, the sale of back numbers and reprints. On two occasions 
larger editions of the Journal were printed. The number of unsold 
volumes on hand is estimated at 1,975, covering the period from 
1829 up to the present time. There is a constant demand for back 
numbers, and as we have not a complete set of the Journal for sale 
at the present time, we would particularly request the members to 
let the committee know when any volumes for 1829, 1830, 1 83 1 , 
l8 33> 1834, l8 35» 1842, 1846, 1847, 1856, 1865, 1876, and the four 
preliminary numbers published previous to 1829, can be obtained. 

During the year back numbers have been presented by H. N. 
Rittenhouse, James T. Shinn, George J. Scattergood and Mr. Zeller. 

Editor's Report. — Prof. Henry Kraemer said that during the 
past year there has been no lack of original matter for publication ; 
about seventy original papers were printed, being an average of 
about five or six papers an issue. They have nearly all been of a 
high order of merit, and have covered a wide range of subjects. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings. — Joseph P. Reming- 
ton read the report of the committee. " The meetings have been 
held regularly during the year. In compliance with the wishes of 
some of the members, three of the meetings have been held in the 
evening, and, judging from the attendance, it would seem desirable 
to hold some of the meetings in the future in the evening. The 



246 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am 'ii ay r 'i£)5 arm ' 

meetings this year have been more or less in the nature of sym- 
posiums, one principal topic being taken for discussion and con- 
sidered from different points of view. The meetings have been 
unusually interesting and profitable, and we are indebted to those 
who have contributed papers, taken part in the discussion, or in 
other ways helped to make them a success. The committee not 
only urges the members of the College to attend these meetings, 
but would welcome any suggestions tending to increase interest in 
them." 

Librarian's Report. — Thomas S. Wiegand said : " There have 
been added to the Library thirty-five new-bound volumes by pur- 
chase, and 105 volumes bound ; these latter being mostly exchanges 
received for the American Journal of Pharmacy. There has been 
expended for books and binding, $552.09. The Library is fre- 
quently consulted by persons desiring information, finding works 
on our shelves which they cannot find elsewhere in the city." 

Curator's Report. — Joseph W. England said: "The Museum of 
the College is in good condition. When additional shelf room is 
secured it might be well to consider the propriety of adopting a 
standard-sized container for specimens, and re-arranging the collec- 
tion. With the advent of the forthcoming issue of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia, it will be necessary to bring the students' collection of 
vegetable drugs in the students' reading-room up to date." 

The Historical Committee reported verbally through Professor 
Remington that the work was being rapidly pushed. 

Under new business, Professor Remington read the resolutions 
presented by the committee, to whom had been referred the subject 
of preparing resolutions on the death of Prof. Albert B. Prescott and 
Dr. Frederick Hoffman, honorary members of the College, which 
were adopted, and the Secretary was directed to forward copies to 
the Faculty of the University of Ann Arbor, Mich., and to the 
widows of our deceased members. 

The election of officers and committees followed. Joseph W. 
England and Jacob M. Baer were appointed tellers, who, after a 
ballot, reported the election of the following : President, Howard B. 
French ; First Vice-President, Mahlon N. Kline ; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, R. V. Mattison ; Treasurer, James T. Shinn ; Corresponding 
Secretary, A. W. Miller; Recording Secretary, C. A. Weidemann; 
Curator, Joseph W. England ; Librarian, Thomas S. Wiegand, and 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
May, 1905. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



247 



Editor, Henry Kraemer. Trustees : Joseph P. Remington, C. Carroll 
Meyer, Gustavus Pile and Aubrey H. Weightman. Publication 
Committee : Henry N. Rittenhouse, Samuel P. Sadtler, Wallace 
Procter, Henry Kraemer, Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Reming- 
ton and Martin I. Wilbert. Committee on Pharmaceutical Meet- 
ings : Joseph P. Remington, C. B. Lowe, Henry Kraemer, William 
L. Cliffe and William Mclntyre. 

The President appointed C. B. Lowe, Mahlon N, Kline, M. I. 
Wilbert, William Mclntyre and Jacob M. Baer delegates to the 
meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association to be held 
at Bedford Springs, June 20-22. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

ABSTRACTS FROM MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

January, 1905. — Committee on Property reported that the greater 
part of the work attending the installation of a telephone system 
throughout the building had been done, and the phones would be 
in working order in a few days. 

John W. P, Outerbridge, of Flatts, Bermuda, was elected an asso- 
ciate member. 

February, 1905. — John J. Coleman, of Wheeling, W. Va., was 
elected to active membership. 

March, 1905. — Committee on Library reported a number of addi- 
tions to the Library, among them being the Centenary of the 
Paris School of Pharmacy," a very valuable work, being splendidly 
illustrated and descriptive of their School of Pharmacy and allied 
branches. The death of Prof. A. B. Prescott, Dean of the University 
of Michigan, was reported. John F. Hancock, of Baltimore, Mi. 
was elected to associate membership. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The regular pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, April 1 8th, with Wm. 
Mclntyre, a well-known member of the College, in the chair. 

Joseph L. Lemberger, Ph.M., of Lebanon, Pa., was the first 
speaker on the programme, and read an interesting paper on " The 
Cultivation of Saffron in Lebanon County, Pa.," exhibiting samples 



248 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am 'Ma^fo5. arm " 

of the home-grown product and of the commercial article in connec- 
tion therewith (see page 209). 

During the discussion that followed Mr. Lemberger said that one 
of the favorite ways of adulterating saffron is to add some product 
to it which has been colored to resemble it. He said, however, that 
the adulterant, which is frequently colored byjthe use of aniline 
dyes, can usually be detected by placing a sample in the mouth, a 
very different color being imparted to the saliva than when true 
saffron is similarly tested. It was also noted that in France saffron 
which has been leached by the dyers of silk is added to the better 
grades. In answer to a question by Dr. Weidemann, Mr. Lem- 
berger said that among the Pennsylvania Germans saffron is not 
only a common household remedy, but is also used as a flavoring 
and coloring material in cooking. 

At this point Professor Kraemer exhibited a sample of cake which 
had been colored with saffron, and which was of a beautiful golden- 
yellow color. The sample was presented to him by Millicent L. 
Renshaw, P.D. 

Mr. Wilbert alluded to a nursery rhyme which is still taught the 
children in the German families of the Mohawk Valley, and in which 
saffron is mentioned as an essential ingredient of good cake. He 
also referred to some experiments made by the late Charles A. 
Heinitsh, of Lancaster, Pa., in the gathering of saffron, whereby he 
found that 300 stigmas weighed 15 grains, and that it took 50,000 
flowers to produce 1 pound of the drug. At that time Mr. Heinitsh 
estimated that about 40 pounds of the drug were produced in the 
two counties of Lancaster and Lebanon, Pa., annually. 

Professor Lowe spoke of the work done by the late Professor 
Maisch in the detection of the adulterants of saffron, and said that 
among these was meat fibre, several factories in Germany having at 
one time been engaged in the manufacture of this adulterant. 

Mr. Boring said that some years ago he had purchased a pound 
of saffron which was infested with animal life, and this he supposed 
to have been due to the presence of meat fibre. 

Mr. Lemberger said that he had never seen but one sample of 
the drug which was adulterated with meat, and that owing to the 
exposition of this fraud, he thought it was probably not practised 
afterward. 

Professor Kraemer alluded to some experiments which he had 



Am Mayj905? rm " } Pharmaceutical Meetings. 249 

made some years ago tor determining the amount of adulteration in 
commercial saffron. It was found by the use of sulphuric acid, 
which turns the stigmas blue, that the better grades of commercial 
saffron contained as high as 92 per cent, of stigmas, while the 
cheaper grades contained as low as 45 per cent. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., read a paper entitled " The Past, Present 
and Future of Pharmaceutical Titles in America." (See page 215.) 

In discussing the paper, Dr. Weidemann said that he had also 
noticed that the title Doctor of Pharmacy did not seem to be gener- 
ally recognized by the public, nor was it generally used by the 
graduates themselves. Sometimes it appeared on their signs, or on 
prescription blanks furnished by them. Likewise the old-time 
honored title Graduate in Pharmacy, which he rather preferred, 
appeared not to be much used. 

Dr. Lowe thought that perhaps one reason for the graduates hav- 
ing the title Doctor of Pharmacy not using it more, was because 
they were afraid of opposition from physicians or of giving offense 
to them by the use of a title which might tend to the pharmacist 
being consulted for medical advice. 

Prof. F. P. Stroup said that it was probably modesty on the part 
of some graduates. The title signified more, and, therefore, more 
would be expected from the pharmacist having it. 

Mr. Wilbert said that with the establishment of departments of 
pharmacy in the universities, and also with the establishment of 
elective courses in science in the universities leading to the degree 
of Bachelor of Science, it is to be expected that the standard of 
pharmaceutical education will be raised, and that the future phar- 
macist will not only be a well-educated, but highly scientific man. 
He was of the opinion that the pharmacist should be educated along 
with other scientists, and suggested the title of Doctor of Science in 
Pharmacy as being an appropriate university degree for those stu- 
dents who have taken the special pharmaceutical courses. 

A paper by J. B. Moore, on " The Importance of Insurance to the 
Pharmacist," was read in the absence of the author by E. Fullerton 
Cook, P.D. (See page 224.) 

In opening the discussion on the paper Dr. Lowe said that he did 
not consider it advisable to take out a straight life policy. He said 
there was very little difference in the premium on a life policy and 
one on an endowment policy, and that the latter could be paid up 



250 



Pharmaceutical Meetings. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1905. 



in a term of years. He did not advise too short a ttrm, however, 
as the premiums are higher and it is well to let the insurance com- 
panies bear some of the risks. 

Theodore Campbell, who was a sufferer from fire a few years ago, 
expressed himself as highly in favor of insurance. He said that it 
was important to insure fixtures as well as stock. He also empha- 
sized the necessity for taking stock often, as this furnishes the only 
reliable basis on which the insurance company can estimate the 
loss. Mr. Campbell said that he understood that a few of the drug- 
gists in Philadelphia take stock every year, but that about 75 per 
cent, of them never do this. 

Mr. Evan T. Ellis said that he believed in insurance provided the 
company was known to be reliable. He said that a director of the 
Penn Mutual Company had told him that policy holders get their 
money back with about 4 per cent, interest. 

Mr. Boring said that if all of the losses and disappointments to 
policy holders could be published he thought we would have the 
Government back of the insurance business. 

Mr. Cook spoke of an insurance company which enables its policy 
holders to invest in Government bonds, thus giving them additional 
security. 

Mr. Mclntyre said that it was a dangerous policy for a young man 
to become a capitalist rather than a business man. 

A jar of the fruit from which nutmegs are derived, which was 
presented by James W. Gladhill, a graduate of the college, was ex- 
hibited. 

In this connection Professor Kraemer called attention to some 
plant specimens which he had preserved by means of a saturated 
salt solution. He said that while making some experiments with 
seaweeds at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Wood's Hole, Mass.) 
for extracting the green coloring substance, he found that by first 
treating the material with salt solution and then with alcohol the 
chlorophyl could be extracted. He had found that the salt solution 
was also useful as a preservative, as it appeared to preserve the color 
better even than formaldehyde, and said that it could probably be 
recommended by pharmacists as a preservative for fruits, flowers 
and vegetables. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary pro tent. 



ALBERT BENJAMIN PRESCOTT. 
i 832-1905. 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



THE AMERICAN 




ALBERT BENJAMIN PRESCOTT. 



By Oscar Oi^dberg. 



JUNE, 1905. 








The life of Prof. Albert B. Prescott, Dean of the School of Pharm- 
acy of the University of Michigan, ended February 25, 1905. It 
was a life devoted to high ideals. 

He was born at Hastings, N. Y., December 12, 1832; graduated 
in medicine at the University of Michigan in 1864 ; was assistant 
surgeon, U. S. V., 1864-5; became assistant professor of chemistry 
in the University of Michigan in 1865 ; professor of organic and 
applied chemistry in 1870; and Dean of the School of Pharmacy 
in 1876. 

He received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1886, and the 
honorary degree of Doctor ot Laws was conferred upon him by the 
University of Michigan in 1896, and by Northwestern University 
in 1903. 

He was president of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science in 1 891, the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in i899-i900,the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties 
in 1900, and ©f the American Chemical Society in 1902. 

He became a Fellow of the Chemical Society of London in 1876, 
a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1898, and an 
honorary member of the British Pharmaceutical Conference in 1891. 

He was an active member of the Committee of Revision and 
Publication of the Pharmacopceia of the United States from 1880 to 
1890, and continued up to his death to freely render valuble 
services and advice sought from him by that committee. 

He was the author of " Qualitative Chemical Analysis," 1874; 
"Outlines of Proximate Organic Analysis," 1875; " Chemistry of 
Alcoholic Liquors," 1875; " Morphiometric Processes lor Opium," 



1 Professor Prescott was elected an honorary member of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, March, 1902. — Editor. 

(251) 



252 Albert Benjamin Prescott. { Am j J u Xim rm ' 

1878; "First Book of Qualitative Chemistry," 1879; "Nostrums 
in Relation to the Public Health," 1881 ; "Manual of Organic 
Analysis," 1888. 

His contributions to scientific periodicals were many, and he did 
a great amount of original research work. He always encouraged 
his more advanced students to undertake scientific investigations 
under his guidance, and much of their work was published. At 
the memorial exercises held February 28th at the University of 
Michigan in honor of Professor Prescott, his colleague, Dr. Victor 
C. Vaughan, presented an account of the scientific work of the de- 
parted. Dr. Vaughan referred to Prescott's researches into the 
composition of the alkaloidal periodides as probably his opus 
magnum. These researches extended through several years, and 
were carried out with the cooperation of several assistants, notably 
Dr. Harry M. Gordin. 

Dr. Prescott rendered services of inestimable value to the prog- 
ress of pharmacy, and the elevation of pharmaceutical education in 
America by his earnest and consistent adherence to high standards. 
The School of Pharmacy of the University of Michigan was the first 
university school of its kind in the United States. It offered a 
course occupying two full academic years devoted wholly to study 
and laboratory practice. Such a course had never before been 
attempted for the education of pharmacists in this country. The 
task of introducing it was a most difficult one in view of the ab- 
sence of any definite educational requirements prescribed for pharm- 
acists by law, so that very few students prepared to successfully 
undertake the programme of work laid out in a full two years' 
course could be found in the drug stores at that time. American 
pharmaceutical college education thirty years ago was almost 
wholly dependent upon concurrent drug store training, and the re- 
quirements for graduation in pharmacy, therefore, included it. But 
the School of Pharmacy of the University of Michigan opened its 
doors to students not employed in drug stores, but prepared and 
ambitious to devote their whole time for two years to study. 
Pharmaceutical education, including substantial laboratory courses, 
has at length become firmly established in the United States largely 
through the perseverance, tact and patience of Dean Prescott and 
those who followed in his footsteps. 

Dr. Albert B. Prescott was a singularly unselfish, modest, help- 
ul, generous and lovable man. 



Am ju°n u e,'i9j5? rn1 '} Death of Professor Prescott. 253 

RESOLUTIONS ON THE DEATH OF PROFESSOR 
PRESCOTT. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

On the 25th of February Dr. A. B. Prescott, Dean of the Depart- 
ment of Pharmacy of the University of Michigan, passed away, and 
memorial services were held in Sarah Caswell Angell Hall on the 
28th of February. 

Fitting tributes were paid his memory by President Angell, Dr. 
Victor C. Vaughan, Dr. Herdmann and Professor Dooge, after which 
resolutions were read by Professor Schlotterbeck and Dr. Novy, for 
the Pharmacy and Medical Departments, respectively; and also res- 
olutions by the presidents of the various classes of the two depart- 
ments. 

I enclose herewith resolutions from the Faculty and Senior and 
Junior classes of the Pharmacy Department, for publication. 

Yours very respectfully, 

J. O. Schlotterbeck. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., March 11, 1905. 

Whereas, the Faculty of the School of Pharmacy of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan has sustained an irreparable loss in the death of 
its Dean, Albert Benjamin Prescott; and, 

Whereas, The Faculty of the School of Pharmacy wishes to 
record its deep sense of sorrow, caused by the removal from its 
midst of a wise leader and a beloved colleague who for more than a 
quarter of a century has labored earnestly and unceasingly for the 
advancement of pharmaceutical education and for the welfare of 
the School of Pharmacy, be it therefore 

Resolved, That by the death of Albert Benjamin Prescott, to 
whose efforts and labors the School of Pharmacy owes its high 
standing in the educational world, it has lost a most valuable execu- 
tive, one whose sterling and unselfish qualities have gained the last- 
ing respect, admiration and love of every one with whom he came 
in contact ; and 

Resolved, That his colleagues and students will ever carry the 
recollection of that kindly face, that cordial and considerate manner, 
that forgetfulness of self in thoughtfulness for others, as a cherished 
and tender memory and inspiration to better work and a better life; 
and be it further 



254 



Death of Professor Prescott. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the 
minutes of the Faculty, and also that a copy, with the assurance of 
our profound sympathy, be conveyed to the bereaved family. 

Signed: J. O. Schlotterbeck, E. D. Campbell, L. S. Bigelow. 

Inasmuch as it has seemed best to Divine Providence to take 
from our midst, our revered and beloved professor and Dean, Dr. 
Albert Benjamin Prescott, be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Albert Benjamin Prescott the 
members of the senior class ol the School of Pharmacy of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan have lost a kind and loving friend, teacher and 
guide whose life and successes may well be a model for all. 

Resolved, That we tender to his family our heartfelt sympathy in 
this their hour of grief, and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family 
and preserved in the archives of the School of Pharmacy and pub- 
lished in the college and pharmaceutical journals. 

Cornelius J. Dutmer, Florence M. Meek, James T. Bowles. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty God to fulfil and perfect 
the illustrious life of Dr. Albert Benjamin Prescott, and 

Whereas, His distinguished services to the profession of pharm- 
acy, to the University of Michigan and to the individual members 
of the School of Pharmacy, have become a lasting and priceless 
treasure, and 

Whereas, His pure and noble character, lofty ideals and kindly 
nature will ever be an inspiration to us for greater and nobler 
efforts; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Albert Benjamin Prescott the 
University, and especially the students of the School of Pharmacy, 
have lost a most kind and loving friend and teacher, and be it 

Resolved, That we, the students of the junior pharmacy class, 
herewith express our keen sense of the loss we have sustained, and 
wish to convey our deepest sympathy to the bereaved family in this 
their greatest sorrow, and be it 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family, 
to the University and to the pharmaceutical and city publications. 

Committee on resolutions : 

George B. Morris, Frank S. Schanher, Robert A. Holbrook. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



} 



Nitrogen in Gums. 



255 



NITROGEN IN GUMS. 



By A. B. Stevens, 



Pharmaceutical Institute, University of Bern, Prof. A. Tschirch, Director. 

I became interested in the tests for nitrogen while conducting 
research work upon Japanese Lac, 1 a product of Rhus vemicifcra, 
which contains, in addition to other constituents, a gum and an 
oxidizing enzyme. The gum and enzyme can be obtained as a 
white powder by extracting the resin with alcohol, dissolving the 
residue in water and precipitating with alcohol. By re-dissolving 
and re-precipitating two or three times, it can be obtained perfectly 
white. Finally wash with ether and dry in an exsiccator. When 
so prepared the enzyme is very active, rapidly changing tincture of 
guaiac to a deep blue color. If an emulsion is made with the gum- 
enzyme, water and the separated resin, it soon changes from yellow- 
ish-white to black. If a solution of the gum is boiled with water, 
it becomes entirely inactive. It is a generally conceded fact that 
all enzymes contain nitrogen. 

The Lassaigne test for the detection of nitrogen is undoubtedly 
considered the most reliable. It consists in heating the substance 
with metallic potassium or sodium and converting the cyanide so 
formed into Prussian blue. This test was applied to the gum- 
enzyme, but failed to detect the presence of nitrogen. According 
to Kehrer the Lassaigne test must be modified for certain pyrrol 
derivatives, 2 and cannot be applied to diazocompounds. 3 In view of 
the certainty of the presence of nitrogen and the general reputation 
of the test, it was repeatedly tried with various modifications. The 
gum-enzyme was previously mixed with dry sodium carbonate and 
carefully ignited. The rapidity of the heating was varied. In 
another experiment the substance was placed in a narrow tube 
closed at one end, and the tube drawn out to contract the opening, 
small pieces of sodium were then introduced and the tube again 
contracted, thus : 



\ 



GUM -ENZYME 



SODIUM 



/ 



\ 



1 A report of the work upon Japanese lac will follow later. 
2 Berichte, 35, 2,525 ; 1902. 
3 Berichte, 17, 1,178 ; 1884. 



256 



Nitrogen in Gums. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I June, 1905. 



The sodium was first heated, then the gum-enzyme slowly heated 
so that the gases would pass over the glowing sodium. This test 
was repeated in the same manner, except that the gum-enzyme was 
first mixed with dry potassium hydroxide. In another experiment 
the substance was heated with a small quantity of concentrated 
sulphuric acid until a dry charred mass was obtained, then mixed with 
metallic iron and sodium and ignited, and finally tested for cyanide. 
In another experiment a modification of the Kjeldahl quantitative 
method was tried. The gum-enzyme was heated with concentrated 
sulphuric acid and a little mercuric oxide until a colorless solution 
was obtained. The solution was then mixed with an excess of 
potassium hydroxide and distilled. The distillate was passed 
through a tube containing a piece of red litmus paper into a mix- 
ture of chloroform, alcohol and potassium hydroxide to convert the 
ammonia into cyanide. The litmus paper remained red throughout 
distillation. All attempts to convert the nitrogen into cyanide 
failed. 

Another test for nitrogen, which is considered less reliable than 
the Lassaigne test, is to convert the nitrogen into ammonia by 
heating the substance in a tube with soda-lime or potassium 
hydroxide. This test was applied to the gum-enzyme when the red 
litmus paper placed over the end of the tube rapidly changed to 
blue, but no odor of ammonia could be detected. The paper was 
evenly colored as if produced by some gaseous substance. The 
test was repeated with a pledget of cotton inserted in the tube be- 
low the paper to prevent the possibility of potassium hydroxide 
being mechanically carried to the litmus paper. The result was 
the same as in the previous test. A blank test was next made 
under exactly the same conditions, but with negative results. 
These experiments indicated the presence of a volatile base. Pro- 
fessor Tschirch thought the odor similar to pyrrol. I, therefore, 
repeated the test, placing in the top of the tube a pine shaving 
moistened with hydrochloric acid. This was rapidly colored red, 
thus strongly indicating, if not conclusively proving, the presence 
of pyrrol, or a pyrrol derivative. This was further confirmed by 
placing 5 grammes each of powdered potassium hydroxide and the 
gum-enzyme in a flask and distilling. The vapors were passed through 
a condenser connected with a dry flask, and this again connected 
with a second by means of a tube passing to the bottom of the flask 



Am j J u O ne;i90^ arm '} NltrOgCIl ill GlllHS. 2$J 

into a small quantity of water. At the end of the reaction the first 
flask contained a small quantity of colorless, strongly alkaline 
liquid, sparingly soluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol and 
ether. The solution was tested with the following results: 

On warming with hydrochloric acid and allowing to stand a short 
time a fine red precipitate separated. With sulphuric acid and 
quinone a green precipitate formed ; with phosphomolydic acid, 
first a yellow, then a blue precipitate ; with potassium ferrocyanide, 
dark green ; with quinone alone, violet red. The contents of the 
second flask was also alkaline. 

This proves conclusively that the gum contained nitrogen in 
some form, which is converted into pyrrol, or a pyrrol derivative, 
by heating with potassium hydroxide. 

ATTEMPTS TO SEPARATE THE GUM FROM THE ENZYME. 

Hikorokuro Yoshida states that by removing his so-called uru- 
shic acid with alcohol and extracting the residue with cold water, 
and then boiling the solution, a white precipitate is formed. He as- 
sumes that it is the enzyme, but does not prove it, except that the 
solution was active before boiling and inactive after boiling, and that 
the precipitate contained nitrogen. It may have been an inactive 
vegetable albumen, although he states that it contained less nitro- 
gen than these bodies usually contain. I have found, however, that 
a solution of the purified gum obtained by repeated precipitation 
with alcohol remained perfectly clear on boiling; yet, previous to 
boiling, the same solution was strongly active, rapidly changing 
tincture of guaiac to dark blue, and the clear brown resin from the 
lac to a hard, black insoluble substance. 

Solutions of the gum were treated with acetic, hydrochloric, nitric 
and sulphuric acids of various strengths and with varying degrees of 
heat, but each failed to separate the nitrogenous substance from the 
gum. In one experiment the solution was boiled for half an hour 
with a dilute sulphuric acid, precipitated with alcohol, dissolved in 
water and reprecipitated with alcohol, washed until free from sul- 
phuric acid, and dried in an exsiccator. This still gave the pyrrol 
reaction. Fractional precipitation was tried without apparent change 
in the relation of gum to nitrogen. Cold saturated solutions of mag- 
nesium sulphate, ammonium sulphate and sodium phosphate were tried 
in vain. Various modifications of Almen's solution of tannic acid were 
tried, but in no case was there any separation of nitrogenous from non- 



258 Nitrogen in Gums. 

nitrogenous substance. Numerous precipitates were obtained, but 
in every case the precipitate contained both gum and nitrogen in 
apparently the same proportion as before. The dry powdered gum 
was heated for two hours at temperatures varying from ioo° to 160 
C, and tested both by boiling alone and with acids, but no separa- 
tion occurred. 

EXAMINATION OF OTHER GUMS. 

A number of the following samples were prepared by students 
and kindly furnished by Professor Tschirch from his collection. The 



No. 


Gum From. 


Prepared By. 


Pyrrol 
Reaction. 


Ut 
mus 


Enzyme 


1 


Japanese lac 


Stevens 


Very strong 


Blue 


Immediately 


2 






Weak 


.< 


30- 60 minutes 


3 


" select . . 




Medium 




15- 60 " 


4 






H 




8- 13 


5 


Asafoetida 


« 


Strong 


„ 


1- 4 " 


6 


" select . 


'■ 


» 




1- 4 


7 
8 




Oscar Halbey 


Weak 




60-120 " 
60- 


9 




Knitl 


•• 




30- 


10 


Elemi 


Dr. Saal 


Strong 




30 seconds— 12 minutes 


11 




Bergmann 






15- minutes 


12 


Chickle 


Schereschewski 


Weak 




Inactive 


13 


Tragacanth, white . . 


Stevens 


Medium 






14 


" yellow . 










15 


" white 
Acids prepared from : 










16 




Halbey 


Medium 






17 




Knitl 


Weak 






18 




Stevens 


Medium 






19 






Strong 






20 













remainder were prepared by the writer. In the case of the gum- 
resins the resin was removed by extracting with alcohol, the gum 
dissolved in water and precipitated by alcohol, purified by repeated 
precipitation and dried in an exsiccator. The acids were prepared by 
the same method, with the exception that the solutions were acidu- 
lated with hydrochloric acid each time before precipitation, and the 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June, 1905. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



Nitrogen in Gums. 



259 



precipitate finally washed with alcohol until free from hydrochloric 
acid. Nos. 13 and 14 were prepared by dissolving the tragacanth 
in a warm solution of sodium hydroxide, precipitating with alcohol 
and dissolving in water, and reprecipitating with acidulated alcohol. 

Each sample prepared without heat was tested for enzyme, and 
all were tested by heating with potassium hydroxide and testing the 
vapor for alkalinity and by the pyrrol reaction. The enzyme's ac- 
tivity will be indicated by the time required from the addition of 
the tincture of guaiac to the first appearance of color and after- 
wards to time required to produce a given shade. 

Nos. 8, 9 and 1 1 did not become as dark as standard, even after 
standing twenty-four hours. Heat was used in the manufacture of 
No. 12, which would have destroyed the enzyme had it been present. 

As the acids prepared from active gums did not give the enzyme 
reaction, it is evident that the hydrochloric acid used in their prepa- 
ration destroyed the enzyme, but did not remove the nitrogen. 

The enzyme in a solution of the gum from Japanese lac was rap- 
idly destroyed by boiling, but the powder, after heating for two hours 
at 100° C, was still more active than any of the other gums exam- 
ined. The color with tincture of guaiac appeared at once, and in 
five minutes became dark blue. Another sample, when heated for 
two hours at 120° C, required ten minutes to produce the same deep 
blue shade. A third sample, heated for two hours at 140 C, re- 
quired ten minutes to produce any color, but became dark blue in 
thirty minutes. A fourth sample, after heating for two hours at 
160 C, was inactive. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

That all gums contain nitrogen, either in combination or in inti- 
mate association. 

That all true soluble gums possess in a greater or less degree the 
properties of enzymes. 

By comparing the strength of the pyrrol reaction with the activity 
of the enzyme, it appears that the activity of the enzyme in gums 
varies in proportion to the amount of nitrogen present. 

That if enzymes and gums are two distinct substances, there is 
at present no known method of separation. 

That since gums or the acids prepared from them cannot be ob- 
tained entirely free from nitrogen, it follows that previous elementary 



260 



Zinc Dust. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



analyses must be verified. It is possible that in some cases the 
amount of nitrogen present has been so small that it has not mate- 
rially affected the relation of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 

Further investigations upon this subject will be continued as time 
permits. 



ZINC DUST. 
By A. B. Stkvens. 

Before using zinc dust in some experiments upon the gum ob- 
tained from Japanese lac I wished to be sure that it was free from 
nitrogen ; I therefore subjected the zinc dust to the following tests, 
the results of which may be of interest to those who frequently use 
it in connection with organic substances : 

When heated with potassium hydroxide it formed ammonia. 
When heated alone it also gave off ammonia. This led to the belief 
that nitrogen in some form had been absorbed from the atmosphere, 
and might be removed by heat. A small quantity was therefore 
placed in a loosely covered crucible, and strongly heated for half an 
hour. When cold it was tested for nitrogen by heating with potas- 
sium hydroxide. Its vapors rapidly changed litmus paper from red 
to blue. Upon the suggestion of Professor Tschirch a sample was 
thoroughly washed with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, 
but this failed to completely remove the nitrogen. 

As zinc dust is manufactured by heating zinc oxide with coal, it 
was believed that part of the nitrogen might consist of condensation 
products from the coal. Therefore a sample was placed in a long 
tube and percolated with ether. The ether when evaporated left a 
yellow, non-saponifiable oil, with an odor and fluorescence similar to 
petroleum. The oil, when heated with dry potassium hydroxide, 
gave off alkaline vapors, and the zinc in the percolator was still 
found to contain nitrogen. The greater portion of the oil appeared 
to be removed with the first portion of ether, but after continued 
percolation the ether left a residue upon evaporation, and it was 
evident that a much larger amount of ether was necessary for com- 
plete exhaustion, therefore a smaller sample, from a can of zinc dust 
which had been in the laboratory for more than ten years, was 
treated with ether in the same manner, and the powder tested from 
time to time. After using a large amount of ether the zinc was 



Am 'j J u°ne;i P 9S5 arm -} ZijlC Dust. 26 1 

practically free from nitrogen, yet by taking a large amount of the 
zinc and heating with potassium hydroxide in a tube partially closed 
at the top so that all of the vapors came in contact with the litmus 
paper, the color was slightly changed, thus showing a mere trace of 
nitrogen. This sample was then allowed to stand in an open flask 
for a few days when it gave a decided ammonia reaction, thus show- 
ing that zinc dust rapidly absorbs nitrogen from the air. 

The fact that only a portion of the nitrogen in zinc dust is removed 
by heat indicates that the nitrogen is present in more than one form. 
This theory is also supported by the following experiments : 

A fresh sample of zinc dust was washed with water, the washings 
giving a decided ammonia test. The washing was continued as long 
as traces of nitrogen could be detected in the washings. It was 
then treated in the same manner with very dilute hydrochloric acid. 
By adding potassium hydroxide in excess to the acid solution and 
allowing to stand a few minutes until the precipitate settled, decant- 
ing the clear solution and boiling, the vapors gave the odor of 
ammonia and rapidly changed litmus from red to blue. Washing 
with acid was continued until the washings no longer gave a test for 
nitrogen. The zinc was then washed with water until free from acid, 
and rapidly dried in a drying oven, and at once extracted with ether, 
the ether evaporated and tested for nitrogen as above. Nitrogen 
was found to be present, though not in as large amounts as in the 
oil from the first sample examined, which was, however, directly 
treated with ether. 

Three samples were examined : one from a large closely covered can 
which has been in use in the laboratory as above stated ; another 
from a glass bottle which has been in the museum about fifteen 
years, and a third which was ordered by Professor Oesterle for these 
experiments. Practically the only difference found in the three 
samples was that the oil from the fresh sample was decidedly yellow, 
while that from the laboratory sample was somewhat lighter, and 
that from the museum sample was colorless. 

Dr. Victor Steger (" Metalldampfe in Zinkhiitten," Chemischer 
und Chemischtechnischer Vortrage) gives the results of several 
analyses of zinc dust, some of which contain considerable insoluble 
residue consisting principally of carbon. To determine to what 
extent this was present, a large amount of zinc dust was treated with 
hydrochloric acid. At first the reaction was rapid, but after a time 



262 Alkaloids of the Death Camas. {^^Iml^' 

ceased. The solution was decanted and fresh acid added, but as the 
reaction was very weak the mixture was heated. Even then a large 
amount remained undissolved. A few drops of copper sulphate 
solution were added and digested for several days, but a large amount 
remained insoluble. This was washed with water until free from 
acid, dried, and percolated with ether, which upon evaporation left 
a colorless oil. Upon removing the ether the zinc dissolved without 
difficulty in hydrochloric acid, conclusively proving that this sample 
contained no carbon, and that the insolubility was due to the pres- 
ence of the oil. 

Pharmaceutical Institute, Bern, 
April 18, 1905. 



SOME ALKALOIDS OF THE DEATH CAMAS. 
By Henry B. Si,ade. 

The death camas, the Wa-i-mas of the Nez Perce Indians, has 
long been known as a powerful drug, and has been the subject of a 
number of chemical and pharmacological investigations. At the 
suggestion of Prof. V. K. Chesnut, who had isolated a veratrine-like 
alkaloid from the leaves of Zygadernns venonosus while in charge of 
the investigation of poisonous plants in the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, an examination of the bulbs has been made and the 
results of a short study are here given in brief. 

Fifty grams of the air-dried powdered bulbs, representing some 
250 grams of fresh material, were extracted with ether, which 
yielded a crop of fine needle-like crystals along with yellow amor- 
phous matter. These crystals, with concentrated sulphuric acid, gave 
a fine violet coloration, developing from a yellow color. Their 
solubility in ether, separation in crystalline form and color reaction 
with sulphuric acid, suggest sabadine. The solution of crystals in 
ether, together with impurities, was shaken with a weak solution of 
tartaric acid in water, whereby the alkaloid was taken up in the 
water solution, while the fats, coloring matters and other impuri- 
ties were left in the ether. The solution of the alkaloid was acidu- 
lated with sulphuric acid to strong acid reaction, and the alkaloid 
precipitated with phospho-tungstic acid. The moist precipitate was 
mixed with sodium carbonate, which set free the alkaloid from its 
combination with the acid, and the alkaloid recovered by taking up 



A ^ J une;m rm '} Alkaloids of the Death Camas. 263 

with ether. The residue from the ether consisted of a small 
amount of crystals in tufts of needles, which, with strong sulphuric 
acid, passed through shades of lemon-yellow, orange, bright red, 
rose-red and violet. A further extraction of the material with ether 
yielded almost pure crystals, which gave the same color reaction 
with sulphuric acid. The reactions are those of sabadine. 

By further extraction of the ethereal residue after separating saba- 
dine, a crystalline compound giving a permanent blood-red color 
with sulphuric acid was obtained. The amount was too small for 
complete identification, but this reaction is characteristic of sabadi- 
nine. The alkaloid was obtained by treating the acidulated solu- 
tion with ether, rendering alkaline and again extracting with ether. 

The powdered material, after extraction with ether, was boiled 
with 80 per cent, alcohol containing tartaric acid in the proportion 
of 1 gram of acid to 100 grams of material. The alcoholic extract 
was diluted with water, again acidulated with tartaric acid and 
shaken with ether, which removed most of the impurities. The 
alkaloid was then set free with sodium carbonate, extracted with 
ether and further purified by repeating the treatment with acid and 
alkali. The residue from the ether was amorphous and gave a fine 
blood-red color with sulphuric acid, developing from lemon-yellow, 
which quickly passed to an orange-red and blood-red, with a green 
fluorescence. Heated with hydrochloric acid, the alkaloid gave a 
yellow color which, on continued boiling, passed to a bright red, and, 
after standing for a short time, to a rose-red. After exposure to the 
air for several hours, the color changed to violet. A larger amount 
of the alkaloid, boiled with strong hydrochloric acid, became cloudy 
and separated a precipitate which redissolved on further boiling 
with a dark red-brown color, which changed to an olive-green on 
diluting with water. On exposure to the air the dirty olive-green 
solution assumed a violet shade, and in the course of an hour be- 
came a magnificent purple. Some of the veratrine alkaloids, after 
long exposure to the air in the presence of moisture, develop a vio- 
let color with mineral acids, but I have been unable to find any de- 
scription of this particular reaction. With strong nitric acid the 
alkaloid yielded a fugitive rose color, changing immediately to a 
bright and permanent yellow. The alkaloid proved slightly soluble 
in water, and readily soluble in methyl, ethyl and amyl alcohol, ether, 
chloroiorm, benzol and acetone. The residues in every case, as 



264 Alkaloids of the Death Camas. { Am j J u Xi9o h 5? rm * 

also from the acids, proved amorphous under the microscope. In a 
capillary tube the alkaloid commenced to darken at 141 C. and to 
clear at 145 °. At 150 fusion was complete. With phospho-tung- 
stic acid, potassio- mercuric iodide and iodine in potassium iodide 
solution, the solution of the alkaloid sulphate gave flocculent pre- 
cipitates. 

The properties of this alkaloid agree with those o r veratralbine 
isolated by Wright and Luff from white hellebore Veratrum album. 
The melting-point of veratralbine is stated by these investigators 
to be 1 49 C. Salzberger considers veratralbine a decomposition 
product of his protoveratrine (Ing.-Diss., 1890). Veratralbine is the 
main constituent of the mixture obtained as also in Veratrum Call- 
fornicum } a brief study of which was made in connection with some 
work on the stock-poisoning plants of Idaho. The toxicity of the 
alkaloid is established by the fact that 1 milligram killed a frog in 
two minutes after subcutaneous injection. 

This preliminary study indicates the presence of at least three 

distinct alkaloids, sabadine, sabadinine and veratralbine, probably 

derived from protoveratrine. 

University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Tucson, Ariz. 



Prof. Charles Caspari, Jr , Dean of the Faculty of the School of Phar- 
macy of the University of Maryland, had conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Pharmacy, honoris causa, at the commencement of the University 
on May 13th. In conferring the degree Provost Bernard Carter said : ' 4 It is not 
the custom of the Maryland University to confer degrees honoris causa, but 
owing to the eminence which Professor Caspari has achieved in his profession, 
the Regents have deemed it wise to confer upon him, honoris causa, the degree 
of Doctor of Pharmacy." 

On the evening of May 12th the Alumni Association of the Maryland College 
of Pharmacy, presented Professor Caspari a handsome silver service of eight 
pieces, as a testimonial in honor of his completion of twenty-five years of ser- 
vice in the college. 

Dr. Wiley Merck, member of the firm of E. Merck, Darmstadt, had 
conferred upon him by the University of Halle, Germany, the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Medicine "in recognition of numerous meritorious contributions 
looking to the advancement of the therapeutic side of medicine." 



Am ju° n U e r ;i9ot rm *} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 265 

THE USE OF COPPER' IN DESTROYING TYPHOID ORGAN- 
ISMS AND THE EFFECTS OF COPPER ON MAN. 
By Henry Kraemer. 
It is said that " the life of a Londoner is worth ten to fifteen 
years' less purchase than that of the average provincial. This fact 
is due to many causes, but the chief among them is the quality of 
the water." The same could be said of the residents of many of 
our American cities. Yet the necessity for a pure-water supply has 
been recognized since ancient times, and enormous sums of money 
have been and are being spent in the control and purification of 
water supplies. Our failure to secure pure water has been largely 
due to ignorance on the one hand, in the past at least, and to mis- 
management on the other. It was only in 1873 that Balfour Stewart 1 
wrote : 

It is only very recently that we have begun to suspect a large number of our 
diseases to be caused by organic germs. Now, assuming that we are right in 
this, it must nevertheless be confessed that our ignorance about these germs is 
most complete. It is perhaps doubtful whether we ever saw one of these 
organisms, while it is certain that we are in profound ignorance of their proper- 
ties and habits. . . . We are at any rate intimately bound up with, and, 
so to speak, at the mercy of, a world of creatures, of which we know as little 
as of the inhabitants of the planet Mars. 

Yet, even here, with profound ignorance of the individual, we are not alto- 
gether unacquainted with some of the life habits of these powerful predatory 
communities. Thus we know that cholera is eminently a low-level disease, 
and that during its ravages we ought to pay particular attention to the water 
we drink. This is a general law of cholera, which is of the more importance 
to us because we cannot study the habits of the individual organisms that cause 
the disease. 

Could we but see these, and experiment upon them, we should soon acquire 
a much more extensive knowledge of their habits, and perhaps find out the 
means of extirpating the disease, and of preventing its recurrence. 

During the past thirty years, since Balfour Stewart wrote these 
lines, the whole subject of bacteriology has been developed and a 
distinct science has been created. In many industries bacteriologists 
are regularly employed to study the problems connected with them 
and to apply the results so obtained. In those industries which are 
in the hands of progressive private individuals and corporations, as 
of brewing, every scientific fact is considered on its merits and util- 
ized if found applicable. On the other hand, the purification of 



1 "The Conservation of Energy." Chapter I. (August, 1873.) 



266 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Aw 'An u e,\9oT rm ' 

water supplies being, for the most part, in the hands of municipali- 
ties, there are many factors which enter into the problem and which 
render progress very slow. In this connection, however, it is grati- 
fying to note that sufficient progress has been made, in New York 
City, for instance, to show that the problem is no longer to be 
considered a political or partisan one. In February of this year the 
newspapers 1 reported as follows: 

The spectacle of Mayor McClellan and his old-time rival, ex-Mayor Seth 
Low, appealing to the State Senate at Albany to-day in favor of the passage of 
the Mayor's bill to furnish New York City with a sufficiency of water, is a 
somewhat moving one. Mayor McClellan's argument in support of his own 
bill, according to reports, was no whit less earnest than that of Mr. Low. The 
non-partisan character of the Mayor's proposal was further attested by the fact 
that the measure was supported by members of the Low administration. 

The problem of the purification of water supplies in the United 
States, barring lor the time being the pollution caused by algae, 
may be said to consist essentially of a study of typhoid organisms 
and of devising measures for their eradication. 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF TYPHOID ORGANISMS. 

In the American edition of Nothnagel's Encyclopedia ot Prac- 
tical Medicine, in the volume on typhoid fever and typhus fever by 
Dr. H. Curschmann, edited with additions by William Osier, M.D., 
on page 38, it is stated : 

Under the most varied ordinary conditions (not induced experimentally) the 
typhoid bacillus is capable of surviving for days, weeks and months, and even 
for more than a year, and under favorable conditions, even throughout the 
winter. An additional conclusion is permissible, namely, that not alone the 
persistence of the germs, but also their dissemination through the media 
named is certain. If in this connection the liquid media in general predomi. 
nate, the dry media are not to be left out of consideration. It cannot be denied 
that the contagium attached to particles of dust may be disseminated through 
the air to a limited degree. 

We have, therefore, the highest authority for believing that, con- 
trary to the usual acceptation, the typhoid organism may persist for 
a considerable period of time, and that infection may occur in very 
many ways, as through drinking-water, food, and even through the 
air. In my own experiments 2 I have found that at the ordinary 



1 Public Ledger, February 22, 1905. 

1 Paper read at the general meeting of the American Philosophical Society, 
April 13, 1905. 



Am jJne, r *i9 P o5 arm *} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 267 

temperature the typhoid bacillus will live over four months in both 
tap and distilled water, although the organism loses some of its 
characteristics after two months in that bouillon cultures will not 
give the agglutinating test with blood of a typhoid patient. 

While the isolation of typhoid organisms from water is attended 
with considerable difficulty, still it has been supposed that when the 
water supplied a community is free from colon bacilli, it is likewise 
free from typhoid organisms ; that is, the absence of colon bacilli is 
considered to mean the absence of sewage or fecal organisms. 
Some recent investigations 1 would seem to indicate that colon bacilli 
are more widely distributed than formerly supposed and that their 
presence in water may not always indicate fecal contamination. 
However this may be the absence of this organism must still be 
considered one of the best indications of an unpolluted water. 

Next to water, milk is considered to be one of the most common 
sources of typhoid fever ; but where the matter has been investi- 
gated it has been found that the milk was contaminated with water 
containing sewage organisms. Chapin, in his book on " Municipal 
Sanitation in the United States," page 511, cites an instance of this 
kind in the tracing of an epidemic of typhoid fever in Springfield, 
Mass., some years ago. He says : 

The contents of the privy were spread on a lot near the well, and the men 
walked over this in going to the well, and their boots were rinsed off on the 
planking over the well and the water below. In this water Bacillus coli was 
found. The cans of milk were cooled in this well and it was found that the 
water leaked into the cans. Another chance for contamination was directly 
from the infected hands of convalescents. 

Oysters and shell-fish taken from beds near where sewage is dis- 
charged have also been lound to be a source of the disease. 

Recently it has been shown by Dr. Benjamin Lee, 2 of the Penn- 
sylvania State Board of Health, that water-cress may collect a suffi- 
cient amount of extraneous organic matter containing colon bacilli 
to be a source of infection. 

While it is usually conceded that typhoid organisms are chiefly 
disseminated through water and milk, yet the free use which is 
made of privy manure or night-soil in some localities as a fertilizer 



1 Erastus G. Smith. Note on the occurrence on grain of organisms resem- 
bling the Bacillus coli communis. Science, 12, No. 540, May 5, 1905, p. 710. 

2 Editorial comment in Amer. Medicine, November 26, 1904, p. 906. 



268 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Am j^ 19 F S arm - 

on truck farms renders it probable that fecal bacteria, including 
typhoid, are disseminated through the use of garden vegetables. In 
many instances this manure is allowed to stand in large pools, and 
by means of dippers is sprinkled over the soil. In August, during 
the heavy rains, I have seen low plants like lettuce and spinach 
completely washed with this more or less dilute liquid manure. 

The experiments of Dr. Lee show how difficult it is to wash out 
the organisms from cress, and the same would apply to vegetables 
like lettuce and celery, in the latter case the soil being sometimes 
heaped up around the plants to prepare them for the market. 
No doubt in many instances certain fruits, which are eaten in a raw 
condition, as tomatoes, apples, pears, etc., are sources of infection. 

In a recent paper Dr. Barringer 1 gives a number of observa- 
tions which tend to show that the dust from American rail- 
road beds, through the discharge of typhoid patients while travel- 
ing over the roads when in the infective stage, is a probable source 
of typhoid infection, which has not been generally appreciated. 

THE REMOVAL OR DESTRUCTION OF TYPHOID ORGANISMS IN FOOD 

AND WATER. 

Heretofore there have been two principal methods for the removal 
of typhoid organisms from drinking-water, namely: (i) Filtration 
on a large scale, and (2) filtration and boiling on a small scale. 
Many bio-chemical methods for the purification of water have been 
proposed, some of which may be enumerated : 

(1) Aqua regia followed by sodium carbonate. 

(2) Bleaching powder followed by sodium bicarbonate. 

(3) Various permanganates, as potassium, calcium, aluminum, or 
barium. 

(4) Perchloric acid. 

(5) Bromine followed by ammonia. 

(6) Iron chloride and sodium carbonate. 

(7) Sodium bisulphate. 

(8) Peroxide of chlorine. 
{9) Kerosene. 

(10) Silver salts. 

(11) The alum process has been used for purifying the water sup- 
plies of large cities. 



1 The Virginia Medical Semi- Monthly ; February 12, 1904, p. 501. 



Am ju° n U e r ;i P 905 arm "} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 269 

The use of electricity (12), as also of ozone (13) has been proposed. 

The use of copper (14) for the purification of water on a large 
scale was first proposed by Dr. Moore and Mr. Kellerman, in a bul- 
letin of the U. S. Department of Agriculture a year ago. In a sec- 
ond bulletin issued some weeks ago the authors have confirmed the 
efficiency of copper in the purification of water contaminated by 
algae. They also report in one instance the abatement of an epi- 
demic of typhoid fever in New Mexico, a'ter treatment of the water- 
supply with copper sulphate. At Columbus, O., the water was 
treated with copper sulphate during September, October, Novem- 
ber and December, when the number of typhoid cases was reduced 
to from four to sixteen per month. The treatment was discontinued 
and the number of typhoid cases rose from 91 to 376 per month 
during January, February and March. 

That copper has a marked toxic or oligodynamic action on fecal 
bacteria, including typhoid bacilli, has been known since the experi- 
ments of Israel and Klingmann 1 were reported in 1897, and their 
observations have been confirmed by Moore and Kellerman and by 
every one who has worked along these lines since. 2 I have found that 
when copper foil is allowed to remain in distilled water from one to 
five minutes sufficient copper is dissolved by the water to kill typhoid 
organisms within two hours. 

THE EFFECTS OF COPPER ON LOWER ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 

It is well known that the action of copper salts upon both plants 
and animals varies quite considerably. Seeds, for example, may be 
treated with quite concentrated solutions of copper sulphate with- 
out impairing their germinating activities. I have sprayed certain 
plants, as the common plantain and poison ivy, with 10 per cent, 
copper sulphate solutions without noticing any ill effects. Very 
many plants withstand spraying with solutions of copper sulphate 
containing as much as I part per 1,000. The effects vary greatly 
according to the conditions which surround the plant. Seedlings 
of pea and corn, for instance, are killed when placed in solutions of 
copper sulphate I part to 200,000 ; but when the seedlings are 

1 Virchow's Archiv, 147, 1897, pp. 293-340. 

2 See papers by M. E. Pennington, N. Gildersleeve and A. H. Stewart in 
American Journal of Medical Sciences, May, 1905, and by W. P. Mason } 
Science, April 28, 1905. 



270 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Am j^ne!"i£5 arm " 

placed in soil containing 1 part or even more of copper sulphate in 
2,000 parts of soil they remain uninjured. 

Nageli's 1 experiments, performed during the '8o's, showed that 
certain unicellular plants, as the algae, were killed by solutions con- 
taining exceedingly minute quantities of copper. His experiments 
have been repeatedly confirmed, and Israel and Klingmann observed 
a similar toxic action on other unicellular plants, notably some of 
the fecal bacteria and also on some of the unicellular animal 
organisms. 

While there are these experiments showing that certain plants 
and animals are killed by solutions containing as little as 1 part of 
copper to 1,000,000,000 of water, still there are other plants which 
are stimulated and under certain conditions even appear to be bene- 
fited by its presence. Frank and Krueger 2 have shown that if potato 
plants are properly supplied with copper, the plants are hardier, 
yield a larger crop, and live longer than they otherwise would. 

We may say in a general way that there are certain organisms 
which manifest a specific sensitiveness towards copper, including 
bacteria, one of the annelid worms, as well as other human para- 
sites, while others are unaffected or even stimulated by relatively 
large quantities of copper sulphate. The unicellular organisms are 
the ones which appear to be most sensitive to the action of copper. 

THE EFFECTS OF WATER TREATED WITH COPPER ON MAN. 

While it has been conclusively shown that exceedingly minute 
quantities of copper are toxic to typhoid organisms, still the ques- 
tion is raised by some as to the toxic effects on man when copper 
or its salts is used in the purification of drinking-water. In com- 
menting on a paper of mine on " The Efficiency of Copper Foil in 
Destroying Typhoid and Colon Bacilli in Water," a reviewer 3 writes 
as follows : " While recommending the use of copper foil for the 
purification of drinking-water, the writer adduces no proofs as to 
freedom from toxic effects when water so purified is taken into the 
system over a considerable period of time." My reason for not taking 



1 Ueber oligodynamische Erscheinungen in lebenden Zellen. Neue Denk- 
schriften der schweizerischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 33-34 (1893- 
1895). 

2 Ber. d. Deutsch. Bot. Ges., 12, 1894, p. 8. 

3 Medical Notes and Queries, 1, No. 3, March, 1905, p. 38. 



Am jine^9os aruJ '} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 271 

up the pharmacological phase of this question heretofore has been 
that my own experiments in the consumption of water treated with 
copper foil did not extend over a sufficient period of time to warrant 
me in making any statements in regard to the effects of water so 
treated. Then, too, I felt that the statements of pharmacologists 
and physiologists were conclusive as to the probable harmlessness 
to man of copper when used in the proportions necessary to purify 
water containing typhoid organisms. But since there seems to be 
some objection in certain communities to the drinking of water 
. treated with copper, I have deemed it advisable to give my own 
experience in connection with this subject. 

For over six months all of the drinking-water consumed in my 
home has been treated with copper. A strip of copper foil, or sheet 
copper, 9 inches square, is placed in a vessel containing from 3 to 
4 quarts of water and allowed to remain from four to eight hours. 
The foil is first cleaned with powdered pumice, and retains its lustre 
for weeks unless the water contains a considerable quantity of sedi- 
ment, and provided the quantity of water is renewed immediately 
each time upon drawing off the sterilized water. On account of the 
varying amounts of sediment we find it desirable to filter the water 
before treating it with the copper foil. Up to this time no ill effects 
have been noted from drinking the water so treated, and, in fact, 
our general health may perhaps be said to be better than usual, in 
that we have not had to consult a physician during this time. 
Another interesting observation is that the water being more pala- 
table than boiled water, we consume larger quantities, which possibly 
has some influence on the general bodily condition. 

Believing, as I have already indicated, that many vegetables may 
also be a source of infection, we take the precaution either to wash 
the vegetables to be eaten raw in copper-treated water or to place 
them, particularly in the case of lettuce and celery, in a vessel of 
water along with a strip of clean copper foil and allow them to 
remain from two to four hours with occasional agitation. 

The use of copper vessels would be more convenient, but of course 
is more expensive. I have also thought that water-pitchers and 
tumblers might be partly lined with pieces of copper foil. 

I may say in addition that I know of a number of families who 
have been using copper-treated water for even a longer period of 
time without any untoward effects. 



272 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Am j J U ne?iSS arm * 

THE ELIMINATION OF COPPER FROM WATER. 

Nageli 1 discovered during the course of his experiments that a 
solution of copper that was toxic to Spirogyra could be rendered 
harmless by the introduction of a number of more or less insoluble 
substances. Among those which he used for this purpose were the 
following : Sulphur (either roll or flowers), carbon (either graphite 
or soot), coke, coal, peat, black oxide of manganese, starch, cellu- 
lose (either as Swedish filter-paper, or cotton, linen or wood fiber), 
silk, wool, stearic acid, paraffin, gum, dextrin, egg albumin, glue. 
True and Oglevee 2 have studied the influence of insoluble sub- 
stances on the toxic action of poisons in solution, and have not 
only confirmed Nageli's observation, but have shown that sand and 
powdered glass have the property of reducing the toxicity of solu- 
tions of copper. Moore and Kellerman have shown in their recent 
bulletin the relative decrease of the toxicity of copper sulphate 
solutions according to the amount of organic matter present, 
the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the water, or the tempo- 
rary hardness of the water. 

In addition, the copper is absorbed by the organisms which are 
killed, and is thus eliminated. It is, therefore, apparent that there 
are a number of ways by which the copper is removed from solu- 
tion and the toxicity of solutions containing it lessened. 

In the case of reservoirs treated with copper it is likely that none 
or very little copper remains in solution for any considerable period 
of time. By a combination of factors, such as (a) absorption by the 
organisms that are killed as well as by other organic matter; {&) 
by the formation of insoluble compounds with various inorganic 
salts ; and (c) by adsorption by various insoluble materials, the 
copper is removed, so that by the time the water reaches the con- 
sumer there is probably no copper in solution, and the insoluble 
copper, if present, is necessarily more or less inert. Furthermore, I 
am of the opinion that there is more copper in solution in home- 
filtered water which has been treated with copper foil than in the 
water which reaches the consumer after treatment of a large 
reservoir with copper sulphate in the quantities proposed by Moore 
and Kellerman for the purpose. 



1 Loc. cit. 

2 Botanical Gazette, 39, 1905, pp. 1-21. 



Am jin U e^i9o h 5 arm '} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid, 273 

THE OCCURRENCE OF COPPER IN FOODS. 

Among the other inorganic constituents which occur normally in 
the animal organism is copper, and its occurrence is so constant as 
to be spoken of as " normal copper." It is not known, however, 
what part, if any, it plays in metabolism. The amount normally 
present varies with the food and with the individual. There is con- 
siderable data showing that the amount of copper in vegetables 
varies according to the amount of copper present in the soil, and 
owing to its wide distribution in soil, it is found in many plants. 
It is, therefore, naturally present in many foods, and may run as 
high as 0*560 gramme per kilogramme of dried substance, or even 
I part in 1,785 parts, in plants growing near copper works, as 
shown by Lehmann. 1 

In addition, copper is added to many foods to enhance their ap- 
pearance. The custom of greening vegetables has been followed in 
a commercial way for over fifty years, and laws are being enacted 
defining the limit of copper which is permissible in food materials. 
The Swiss and Italian Governments allow a quantity of metallic 
copper not to exceed 100 milligrammes per kilogramme (or 1 part 
in 10,000) in vegetable preserves. In France the question of 
re-greening vegetables by means of copper sulphate has received 
careful attention, and while the practice was prohibited by law in 
1853, this prohibitory law was repealed in 1889. According to 
Leach : " Examination of a large number of brands of canned vege- 
tables greened by copper, as bought in Massachusetts, showed that 
the amount used varied from a trace to 2-75 grammes per can, cal- 
culated as copper sulphate. . . . In the Massachusetts market 
labels like the following are not uncommon : * This package of 
French vegetables contains an equivalent of metallic copper not ex- 
ceeding ^ of a grain.' " In Pennsylvania the law " permits articles 
of vegetable food to contain as much as ^ of 1 per cent, of metallic 
copper," or I part to 5,000 parts of food. 

The following table shows the amount of copper found in various 
substances. A key to the literature quoted is afforded by the 
numbers in parentheses. 



1 " Hygienische Studieti iiber Kupfer IV," Arch./. Hygiene, 27, 1896. 



274 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Am jin"i905. ai 

TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF METALLIC COPPER IN MILLIGRAMS 
FOUND IN A KILOGRAM OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES EXCEPT 
WHERE OTHERWISE STATED. 

Almonds (15) 36*8 

" (15) 22-8 

" (15) 26-5 

Apricots (15) 1 

Bael, liquid extract (27) a 1 

Barley (25) 10-70 

Bean (8) . . . . b 2 

Belladonna (27) 4,200 

alcoholic extract (27) a 

Blood, cephalopods (6) b 

" crustaceans (6) b 

" gasteropods (6) b 

" ox (12) • 7 

" " (12) 5-6 

" " (12) -on 

" " (12) . , '029 

" " (12) -003 

" (12) 75 

" " (12) -6 

u " (12) 75 

Brandy, sample No. 1 (18) 5 

No. 2 (18) 1 

" No. 3(18) 4 

No. 4(18) 1 

" (17) — 5-8 

Buckwheat (25) 150-160 

Cannabis indica, alcoholic extract (27) a 

Carrots (8) b 

Cherries (15) 2-3 

Cinchona, liquid extract (27) a 

Chinois, green (15) 47 

" (15) 76-6 

" green (15) 11 

*' yellow (15) '. . *9 

" yellow (15) 56-1 

Cimicifuga, alcoholic extract (27) a 

Cocoa, pure, free from husk (18) 47 

" containing sugar and starch (18) 58 

" (18) 29 

Coffee (21) b 

Crabs, fresh-water (10) 20 

" salt-water (10) . 20 

Cucumbers (15) 45 

Currants (15) 8 

Duck, wild (11) 8 

Egg, yolk (11) 5*6 



Am jine?i905 arm '} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 275 

Egg, white (11) ' 7 2 

" yolk (11) 2 

" " (11) b 

" *' (11) • • • • -55 

Ergot, liquid extract (27) a 

Figs (15) i5*i 

" (15) • 19 

" (15) .......... 17 

Flesh, ox (22) 1 

Flour (19) -86 

" (19) • • • - i'i8 

Fucus vesiculosus, aqueous extract (27) a 

Gall, beef (11) . 3*4 

" " (11) -2 

Gentian, aqueous extract (27) a 

Glede, forked (whole bird) (12) 8 8 

Gooseberries (15) 4*2 

Grapes (Catawba) (19) i'oi 

(19) • 1-28 

" (Concord) sprayed with Bordeaux mixture (19) ... 2*40 

(19) . . . 6-23 

(19) I'29 

(19) • . i-3i 

" (Malaga) (19) no 

" (19) • i-ii 

" Pomace, 1 kilogramme (20) 5 

" Product, 1 " (20) *ooi 

Green gages (15) 18 

Guano, 1 kilogramme (26) 20 

Hazelnuts (15) 3*1 

Henbane (27) 3,600 

Ipecacuanha, aqueous extract (27) a 

Kidney, beef (12) 4 

" cat (12) ... 3 

dog (12) 5-4 

hog (12) . 8 

" mutton (12) 3-8 

ox (12) 3-8-8 

rabbit (12) 3 '8-8 

11 (12) 8 

" " half-grown (12) 3-4 

" (12) 22 

" sheep (12) 3-8-8 

Leaves of vines gathered near Pisa, Italy . -47-0-6 

Lees, 1 kilogramme (3) 92 

"1 " (3) • 81 

1 " (3) 49 

Lentils (25) 1 10-150 

Licorice, aqueous extract (27) a 

Liver, beef (12) 51 



276 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { 



Liver, beef (12) 22*5 

" (12) 28 

" " (") 34 

" " (19) 58-85 

" (19) • - 56-62 

" (12) 8-8 

" (19) 56-62-58-85 

" calf (12) 48 

" (12; 48 

" cat (12) 10 

" (12) 12 

" " young (12) 6*9 

" (12) 10-12 

" doe (venison) ( 12) 5*5 

" dog (12) n-2 

" (12) 10 

" (12) . 10-12 

" ox (12) 51 

" pigeon (12) 3-5 

" rabbit (12) 12 

" " half-grown (12) 3-9 

(12) 2-8 

" sheep (12) 18 

" (12) 18 

" (12) 6-4 

" (12) 33-6 

" (12) 18 

" " foetus (12) . 7 -5 

Medlars (15) 2*8 

Milk, cow (12) i-6 

" (12) -25 

" " (12) b 

" " (12) -027 

" (12) -03 

" (12) -003 

Molasses, baking (19) 4-82 

(19) • • 4'93 

Must from sprayed grapes (1) 7-2-6 

" 1 kilogramme (3) 12*80 

' ' 1 " (3) 11 

" I " (3) 10*40 

Mutton (11) 1 

Oatmeal (19) 4-27 

(19) 451 

Oats (25) 40-200 

Olive oil (2) v b 

Ox muscle (12) 1 

" " (12) 1 

Oysters, Portuguese (18) • • 294 

Whitstable (18) 181 



Am jJuerifo5. arm '} Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 277 

Oysters, Dutch (18) p . . . . 181 

Plymouth (18) 303 

" Green Falmouth (9), per oyster 0*4-1-4 

" - Marennes (9), per oyster . 0*400 

" from near Swansea (9) . , , 40 

" 1 kilogramme (4) ....... 2,000 

Pareira, aqueous extract (27) a 

Peaches (15) , 5 

Pears (15) 4*2 

Peas (25) 60-110 

" (15) • 25 

'■ American (14) 13 

Peas, French (7) ^ 59*4 

" canned, per pound (14) 967 

" preserved (18) 99*9 

" American (14) 66*8 

Pigeon, dressed (12) 2'8 

(12) 1 -05 

" (12) • i-38 

Piquette, 1 liter (3) *n 

Polycarpaea spirostylis (24) a 

Potatoes (5) 2*8 

Preserves, green, 1 kilogramme (15) • 26-76 

" fruits boiled in sugar, 1 kilogramme (15) 4-9 

Quassia, aqueous extracts (27) ............... a 

Quercus macrocarpa, per kilogramme of dry matter (13) . . 500 

Raisins, 1 kilogramme (3) ..... . , 3*50 

"1 " (3) 3 

"1 " (3) • • • 3 

Raspberries (15) 4*2 

Rye (25)- .' 10-30 

Syrup, New Orleans, No. 10 (19) . . 1*50 

('9) • • • • i'47 

Spleen, calf (12) 3*2 

hog (12) .... 7-2 

Strawberries (15) 8 

Tamarinds (28) . b 

Water, mineral spring, Gettysburg, copper bicarbonate, per 

gallon (16) '03 

" carbon springs, Hampshire Co., W. Va., per gal. (16) b 

" Bagneres de Ivuchon (L/aReim) (16) . b 

Wheat, summer, 1 kilogramme (25) 190-230 

" winter, 1 " (25) 200-800 

Wines, white, 1 liter (1) 1-1*3 

Whisky (18) . 4 

Wine, red (1) *i 

" 1 liter (3) ..... .... . . ... . .... . . -25 

." 1 " (3) . ; -2 3 

1 (a) Indicates high percentage of copper. 

2 (b) Indicates presence of copper (traces). 



278 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Am j? n u e ^iSg arm ' 

THE EFFECTS OF FOODS CONTAINING COPPER ON MAN. 

Being without any other reliable data as to the physiological effects 
of copper on man, save as a medicine, we naturally turn to the foods 
containing copper for evidence as to the effects of copper on man. 
The question has been repeatedly discussed before the courts, par. 
ticularly in England, and the studies of Lehmann and others in Ger- 
many have contributed materially to an elucidation of the problem. 

It is probable that the copper naturally occurring in plants is in a 
condition different from that found in food products which have been 
artificially treated with copper. That is, in the former case the 
copper is in a labile condition and therefore more assimilable, while 
in the latter case the compounds formed by the combination of the 
copper with the proteids and chlorophyl are less soluble and the 
copper is extracted only in part by acids of the strength of the gas- 
tric juice. According to Tschirch and Brandel 1 the copper in these 
more or less insoluble compounds is but slightly toxic. " From 
experiments with copper proteid Filehne concluded that an amount 
equivalent to 0-500 gramme of copper per day would produce no 
notable result in an adult." 2 

" Contrary to the earlier teachings, recent observations tend to the 
view that there is no chronic copper poisoning comparable with that 
of lead. According to this view the long-continued ingestion of 
minute doses of copper by the stomach and the exposure to absorp- 
tion in handling and working the metal, are not capable of producing 
systemic poisoning. This view is based largely upon the negative 
results obtained in feeding-experiments with man and the lower 
animals, and in the therapeutic use of copper salts." 2 

Galippe had all of the foods which were used in his family for 
fourteen months cooked in copper vessels, and reported that no 
trouble was experienced. Dr. Smith, 2 in discussing the use of copper 
utensils for cooking purposes, says : " It seems impossible that 
enough copper could be present in food which would be eaten at 
one time to produce serious acute poisoning as has been frequently 
supposed, especially as the presence of as much as y 2 a gramme of 
copper in 1 kilogramme of liquid food would produce a marked 
metallic taste." 



1 Quoted by Dr. Smith in Buck's " Handbook of Medical Sciences." 

2 Buck's "Handbook of Medical Sciences." 



Am jinef'i905 arm "} Use °f Copper in Destroying Typhoid. 279 

Pasteur 1 says : " In regard to the toxicity of copper salts, it may 
be said it is almost impossible to take a dose large enough to pro- 
duce death, both from their horrible taste and from the violent 
vomiting which they produce. In small quantities the taste is not 
perceptible, and the salts are not only tolerated but absorbed. 
Workers in copper are often completely saturated with the metal, 
but do not suffer from it. Experiments on animal and human sub- 
jects have never given a worse result than vomiting or a temporary 
fit of colic. Copper normally exists in the human body. It gains 
entrance from various foods and drinks in the absence of all adultera- 
tion. It accumulates to a certain extent, but injury from this 
accumulation is unknown. In the samples submitted, copper exists 
to an extent varying between 16 and 45 milligrammes per kilo- 
gramme. . . . The quantity found does not constitute a danger 
to health." 

CONCLUSIONS. 

(1) It is pretty well established that the typhoid organism is dis- 
seminated not only through water, but also through air and food, 
and may retain its vitality for a considerable period of time. 

(2) Typhoid organisms in water are eliminated by filtration, boil- 
ing and certain biochemical methods. Of the latter, the use of 
copper, as proposed by Moore and Kellerman, is probably the most 
efficient and at the same time most practicable. 

(3) While exceedingly minute quantities of copper in solution are 
toxic to certain unicellular organisms, as bacteria, it is safe to assume 
that the higher plants and animals, including man, are unaffected 
by solutions containing the same or even larger amounts of copper. 

(4) There being a number of factors which tend to eliminate 
copper from its solutions, it is hardly likely that there would be any 
copper in solution by the time the water from a reservoir reached 
the consumer if the treatment of the reservoir were in competent 
hands. 

(5) Many plants contain relatively large quantities of copper, and 
when these are used as food some of the copper is taken up by the 
animal organism, but there are no records of any ill effects from 
copper so consumed. 



1 Ann. d'Hyg.y publ. Par., 3d ser., v. 3, p. 204. Mars., 1880. 



280 Use of Copper in Destroying Typhoid. { Am jJS"i£&. arm 

literature clted in tables giving quantity of copper found in 
Various Substances. 

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tees par le sulfate de cuivre. Bull. Soc. nat. d'agric. de France, Par., t. 
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2. Braithwaite, J. Oldham. Note on a sample of green olive oil and a test 

for copper therein. Pharm. Jour, and Trans., Lond., 3d ser., v. 18, 
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3. Crolas and Raulin. Traitement de la vigne par les sels de cuivre contre le 

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Chem., Leipz., v. 88, No. — , pp. 446-447. 1863. Abstract of Compt. 
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Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



281 



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Bait, 44th meet., pp. 719-720. 1896. Abstract in Chem. Ztg., Cothen, 
20 J., No. 40, pp. 399-400. 

26. Wicke, Wilh. Ueber das allgemeine Vorkommen des Kupferoxyds im 

Boden und in den Pflanzen. Nachr. k. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. zu 
Gotting., No. 13, Aug. 10, 1864, pp. 269-275. 1865. 

27. Will, W. Watson. The purity of extracts. Pharm. Jour, and Trans. , 

Lond., v. 51, 3d ser., v. 22, No. 1131, pp. 701-702. Feb. 27, 1892. 

28. U. S' Dispensatory. Wood, Remington and Saitler. 18th ed. Aug., 1899, 

P- 1352. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING LITERA- 
TURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

BY M. I. WlLBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The most evident signs of progress in the healing art are to be 
found in the general interest that is being manifested in all matters 
relating to the education of future physicians and of future 
pharmacists. 

It is becoming more and more recognized that the safeguarding 
of human life and the preservation of the health of individual citi- 



282 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



zens is, after all, a matter of considerable importance, and is not to 
be entrusted, haphazardly, to ignorant or irresponsible individuals 
or to charlatans and quacks. 

That the part that is to be taken by future pharmacists, in this 
connection, is admittedly an important one is evidenced by the 
nature of the attempted, or enacted, legislation, and also by the 
trend and the tone of the discussions relating to the advanced 
standing and requirements of the future pharmacist. 

Prerequisite Law in Pennsylvania. — This law, recently signed by 
Governor Pennypacker (see A. J. P., 1905, page 182), probably con- 
stitutes the most important piece of legislation, from a pharmaceuti- 
cal point of view, that has been enacted since the passage of the 
first prerequisite law, in New York State, a little more than a year 
ago. The law itself, while not all that could or should be desired, 
certainly constitutes a step in the right direction, and will do much 
toward giving to pharmacists in this State the recognition they 
rightfully deserve as being possessed of duties and attainments 
apart from those as shopkeepers. On the other hand, this law also 
imposes on present-day pharmacists added obligations to justify the 
enactment of the law, and to warrant its being continued on the 
statute book of the Commonwealth. 

The evident shortcomings of the Pennsylvania law are to be found 
in the fact that it does not include provisions for some tangible 
evidence of the necessary preliminary education, and does not de- 
fine what is meant by " some reputable and properly chartered 
college of pharmacy." It is possible, of course, that these additional 
points may safely be left to the discretion of the members of the 
State Board of Pharmacy, but it would nevertheless be more satis- 
factory if they could be clearly defined, and, at some subsequent 
time, be embodied in the law itself. 

Pharmaceutical Education in Great Britain is still attracting con- 
siderable attention, and is a favorite- subject for discussion in 
pharmaceutical circles. At a recent dinner of past and present 
students of the School of Pharmacy of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Great Britain, Mr. Walter Hills, the treasurer of the society, said 
that, with the increase in the number of universities willing to in. 
elude a course in pharmacy, it was quite probable that the School 
of Pharmacy, so long and so well conducted by the Pharmaceutical 
Society, would not be able to continue. He himself thought it 



Am jin"'i905 arm '} Progress in Pharmacy. 283 

very desirable that pharmaceutical students should receive their 
scientific training, particularly in subjects such as chemistry and 
botany, side by side with students for other professions. {Pilar. 
Jour., March, 1905, page 336.) 

Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association. 
— The first annual conference of this Council was held in Chicago, 
April 20, 1905, and was attended by representatives of State and 
Territorial boards of examiners, and also by representatives of the 
American and Southern Medical College Associations and the 
Government medical services. 

The object of the Council is to bring together and to co-ordinate 
the different interests bearing on the education and regulation of 
prospective medical practitioners. 

The reports of the different sub-committees, particularly the re- 
port of the Committees on Preliminary Education and on Medical 
Curriculum, were exhaustive and suggested an outline of require- 
ments that, if adopted, will contribute very materially to elevate 
the standard and attainments ot future medical men. (Jour. Amer. 
Med. Assoc., May 6, 1905, p. 1470.) 

The Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical 
Association. — This Council, the objects and aims of which have been 
discussed in this Journal (A. J. P., 1905, p. 179), has been the subject of 
considerable comment in medical as well as pharmaceutical journals. 
Practically all of the journals that are not directly under the influence 
of proprietary houses of a questionable character have endorsed 
the objects of this Council. The Apothecary for April, in referring 
to the announcement of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, 
says that " it is fraught with vital interest to both the medical and the 
pharmaceutical professions of this country, and is, we sincerely be- 
lieve, the announcement of the beginning of a better order of things, 
when much that is unfair and dishonest and uncertain and unethi- 
cal in the practices of druggist, physician and manufacturer will be 
cleared away." 

Another interesting announcement in this same connection is the 
avowed intention of several manufacturers of so-called patent medi- 
cines to publish the formulae of their preparations on each package. 
While this is probably done to meet the requirements that will 
probably be made in Venezuela, Cuba and in New Zealand, it also 
evidences the trend of the times, the abolition of secrecy, and is 



284 Progress in Pharmacy. {^ m z*y?nZ'v^ m ' 

simply a forerunner of the general adoption of the same practice by 
all manufacturers. 

Proprietaries in Great Britain. — Peter MacEwan, F.C.S., pharma- 
ceutical chemist, in an address before the Western Chemists' Associa- 
tion, London, on the question — Are British pharmacists decadent? — 
in speaking of the dispensing of to-day, enumerated an analysis of a 
total of 1,728 prescriptions from twenty-eight different sources. Of 
these, 178, or a trifle over 10 per cent., included proprietary reme- 
dies. The lowest average was 2 per cent, and the highest 74 per 
cent. The latter was, however, exceptional, and the majority of the 
contributors expressed their satisfaction at the fact that the proprie- 
taries came out lower than they had expected. 

The comments and opinions of some of these correspondents are 
not alone interesting, but also instructive. Mr. E. Saville Peck, 
of Cambridge, says: " There appear to be fewer proprietary articles 
than usual. I maintain that when a physician who has acquired 
and retained the art of prescribing can rely upon the ability and the 
conscientiousness of the pharmacist, he is generally inclined towards 
official preparations. I believe that one of the main factors in the 
development of the custom to order " branded drugs " has been the 
inefficiency of many pharmacists, or rather I should say chemists or 
pseudo-chemists." 

Mr. Harold Wyatt, Liverpool, says: " The prescribing of special 
preparations, outside those of the Pharmacopoeia, is an evil which 
I firmly believe is to be laid at the door of the pharmacist 
himself rather than at that of the medical man. Where the 
pharmacist is ready to assist the doctor with useful and practical 
suggestions in which his acquaintance with pharmacopceial drugs, 
galenicals and methods is evident, it will be invariably seen that the 
doctor is ready and even anxious to order official preparations in- 
stead of secret compounds of hypothetical value." (Chem. and Drug. , 
March, 1905, p. 437.) 

Among the more interesting publications relating to pharmacy 
that have recently appeared, the General Index to Vols. I to L of the 
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association is by far the 
most interesting and most valuable. If, as has been frequently as- 
serted, the knowing how or where to obtain information is a fair 
alternative for the actual possession of the information, then this 
volume should certainly occupy a prominent place with the usual 
books of reference on the shelves of the up-to-date apothecary. 



Am june"'i9 P ol arm "} Progress in Pharmacy. 285 

The Immunity Unit for Standardizing Diphtheria Antitoxin is the 
title of Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 21, April, 1905. This 
bulletin, by Dr, M. J. Rosenau, the director of the laboratory, 
describes the principles that are involved and the methods that are 
employed for obtaining the immunity unit for measuring the 
strength of diphtheria antitoxin. 

The pamphlet contains a readily understood description of 
Ehrlich's side-chain theory of immunity, and for this reason alone 
should be carefully studied by all who are in any way interested in 
the production, sale or use of diphtheria antitoxin. 

This bulletin also contains the official text of the description of 
anti-diphtheritic serum, to be included in the forthcoming edition of 
the United States Pharmacopoeia. This description is interesting, 
as, in addition to indicating the general lines that will probably be 
followed in other descriptions, it constitutes practically the first 
official announcement that anti-diphtheritic serum is to be included 
among the official medicaments. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia, igoo. — According to a prelimi- 
nary announcement in Medical Book News for April, the forth- 
coming edition of the Pharmacopoeia will contain many changes and 
improvements. Assays have been introduced for alkaloidal drugs. 
The strengths of tinctures have been amended so as to reduce them 
practically to two classes — 10 per cent, for the more powerful 
preparations and 20 per cent, for the others. Purity rubrics have 
been inserted, which will tend to define the limits of innocuous 
foreign substances. Many obsolete drugs and preparations have 
been omitted. Reliable new synthetics have been introduced, and 
also average doses for the first time in the history of pharmacopceial 
revision in America. 

Morphine Centenary. — The one hundredth anniversary of the dis- 
covery of morphine by Sertlirner was celebrated on March 20, 1905, 
by the unveiling of a memorial tablet on the " Hochzeitshaus " in 
Hameln, in which the " Raths Apotheke," at one time owned by 
Sertiirner, was formerly located. The discovery of morphine itself 
was probably made in the Adler Apotheke, in Paderborn, where 
Sertlirner had served as an apprentice, and where, at the time of his 
discovery, he was employed as an assistant. 

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertiirner was born July 19, 1783, at 
Neuhaus, near Paderborn, where he was also educated. From 1799 



286 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am jime, r i905. arm ' 

to 1803 he served as apprentice in the Adler Apotheke at Pader- 
born, then owned by F. A. Cramer. Sertiirner remained here until 
the spring of 1806, when he entered as an assistant in the Rats- 
apotheke at Einbeck. In the fall of 1 809 he opened a second apotheke 
at Einbeck and it was here that he completed his study of morphine, 
in 181 5-1 6. On the death of the proprietor of the Ratsapotheke in 
Hameln, in December, 1 8 19, Sertiirner became his successor and 
remained until his death, February 23, 1841. 

A Canadian Compendium of Medicines. — A small pamphlet, con- 
taining formulas for preparations that are more or less extensively 
used by Canadian physicians, has been published under the auspices 
of the Ontario College of Pharmacy. 

The object of publishing this compendium is highly commend, 
able — the authorization and establishment of uniform and authori- 
tative standards for medicinal articles required by both professions. 
The use of alternative formulas, British Imperial and Metric weights 
and measures, is to be deplored, as it detracts materially from con- 
ciseness and is likely to lead to misunderstandings and mistakes. 

Administration of Antidiphtheritic Serum by Mouth. — A. M. Pilcher, 
while preparing to inject a patient with antidiphtheritic serum, broke 
his syringe and was in desperation induced to administer the intended 
dose by mouth. The prompt reaction that was obtained in this par- 
ticular case induced him to repeat the experiment with like results. 
Pilcher thinks that the reaction is quite as prompt as by injection 
and much less objectionable. {Apothek. Zeitg., 1905, page 156, from 
Brit. Med. Jour) 

The Sterilization of Water by Means of Nitro muriatic Acid — A. 
K. Federoff has duplicated the experiments that have been made 
by other investigators and finds that 0-o6 per cent, of nitro-muriatic 
acid reduces the number of micro-organisms in well-water from 
3,957 to 277 colonies in twenty minutes. In another experiment 
they were reduced from 1,734 to 70 in thirty minutes and from 
1,590 to 40 in forty-five minutes. 

The action on typhoid bacilli was determined by inoculating water 
with bouillon cultures of typhoid bacilli. Federoff finds that, from 
the point of view of the bacteriologist, nitro-muriatic acid is a useful 
and efficient means for sterilizing water ; whether or not it is objec- 
tionable from a hygienic point of view is to be determined. {Chem. 
Zeitg. Kept., 1905, page 108.) 



Am jS"i£S arni '} Progress in Pharmacy. 287 

Comparative Toxicity of Phenol and Cresols — Tollens has made a 
series of experiments on frogs, mice and ca c s to determine the 
toxicity of phenol and sodium phenate as compared to ortho, 
meta and para cresol. He finds that para cresol is more poisonous 
than phenol ; that ortho cresol is about equal in its toxicity to 
phenol, and that meta cresol is less powerful than either of the 
others. {Phar. Jour., March, 1905, page 405 ; from Arch. f. exper. 
Pathol) 

Urotropin, Helmitol and Neurolropin. — A. Nicolaier has made a 
series of experiments and finds that despite the fact that theoretically 
methylene-citric acid (Helmitol) and the methylene citric acid com- 
binations with hexamethylenetetramine (Neurotropic), should lib- 
erate larger quantities of formaldehyde than hexamethylenetetra- 
mine, these preparations, when given to dogs or men, appeared to 
have the reverse of the expected action. 

Hexamethylenetetramine is found to be the most active and the 
methylenecitric acid the least. {Phar. Jour., 1905, page 405 ; from 
Arch.f. Klin. Med) 

The Relations between Natural and Synthetical Glycero phosph oric 
Acid. — Frederick B. Power and Frank Tutin have experimentally 
confirmed the observations of Carre, that at temperatures above 
I io° the interaction between phosphoric acid and glycerole results 
in the production of varying amounts of diester accompanying the 
monoester or glycerophosphoric acid. They do not agree with 
Willstatter and Diideke that the natural and the synthetical glycero- 
phosphoric acid are not identical, but believe that the latter authors 
have been misled by the accompanying contamination of the glycero- 
phosphoric acid by the diester. (Chem. and Drug., March, 1905, 
page 394.) 

Guadeloupe Jaborandi. — Dr. G. Weigel has had an opportunity of 
examining a sample of Guadeloupe Jaborandi. The leaves are par- 
ticularly noticeable for their size, some of them being as much as 20 
centimetres long and 10 centimetres wide, the average leaf being 10 
centimetres long and half as wide. As a chief characteristic of 
Guadeloupe Jaborandi, Weigel points out that the midrib on the 
under side of the leaf is particularly prominent. An assay of the 
sample showed it to contain but 353 per cent, of alkaloids. {Phar. 
Centrh. y 1905, page 146.) 

Commercial Formaldehyde Solutions. — W. K. Schulz has examined 



288 



Prog?'ess in Pharmacy. 



< Am. Jour. Pharu . 
\ June, 1E05. 



a number of samples o' solution of formaldehyde, comparing them 
with the requirements of the new Russian Pharmacopoeia. He finds 
that solutions having a neutral or only slightly acid reaction are not 
to be had and believes that 0-23 per cent, of formic acid is permis- 
sible. Schulz was not able to find a sample containing 40 per cent, 
of formaldehyde, and believes that 35 per cent, would be a more 
reasonable requirement. All of the samples examined by him con- 
tained an appreciable amount of ash, in several cases as much as 
1-5 milligrammes in I c.c. of the solution. (Chem. Zeitg. Rept., 1905, 
page 105.) 

Lycopodium. — G. Weigel (Phar. Centrh., 1905, page 208) refers 
to several of the constantly recurring adulterations of lycopodium, 
and asserts that pine pollen is, in some parts of Europe, a well- 
established substitute for lycopodium. It is known as Austrian or 
Hungarian lycopodium, and is gathered and sold in considerable 
quantities. In addition to its sale as a distinctive commercial article, 
it has been used quite extensively as an adulterant of true lycopo- 
dium. Starch and talcum are also mentioned as having been found 
as adulterants in lycopodium. Weigel also mentions another, to 
him, novel adulterant that appears to have many of the physical 
characteristics of true lycopodium. This substance has been more 
carefully studied by Dr. Van Italie, who has discovered this adul- 
terant to be powdered amber, colored possibly with some coal-tar 
dye. The most satisfactory method for detecting this rather novel 
adulterant is by means of the microscope, which, owing to the want 
of structural detail in the powdered amber, readily differentiates 
between it and the characteristic shape and markings of the sporules 
of lycopodium. 

A New Reaction for Sugar of Milk. — If a solution of 0-5 gramme 
of sugar of milk in 10 c.c. of water of ammonia is carefully heated 
to such a point that ammonia is vaporized without boiling, the solu- 
tion will, in the course of fifteen or twenty minutes, become dark 
red. Solutions of different varieties of other sugars become yellow 
on heating with ammonia. {Phar. Centrh. } 1905, page 274.) 

Maximal dose of adrenalin and analogous preparations of the supra- 
renal capsules has been established by B. Muller, who recommends 
that doses of 0-00009 should not be exceeded. This quantity may 
be increased to 0-00015 in cases where the patient is under the influ- 
ence of an anaesthetic without producing untoward results. [Zeits. 
d. All. Oest. Apoth. Ver., 1905, page 325.) 



Progress in Pharmacy. 289 

Eserine Oil Solutions. — Emil Wild suggests the use of eserine in 
olive oil as a desirable substitute for aqueous solutions. The advan- 
tage of the oil solution is to be found in the fact that they are active, 
sterile, perfectly stable and non-irritating. The writer uses physos- 
tigmine salicylate, dried at ioo° C, and subsequently dissolved in 
olive oil at a somewhat higher temperature. (Phar. Zeitg., 1905, 
page 208.) 

Calomelol. — This is a white or grayish-white powder that is prac- 
tically odorless as well as tasteless. In 50 parts of cold water it is 
soluble or rather miscible to a permanent opalescent mixture. Calo- 
melol is also soluble in dilute solutions of sodium chloride, solution 
of albumen and in other similar solutions. It is insoluble in alcohol, 
ether or chloroform. 

Calomelol is said to consist of 75 per cent, of mercurous chloride 
and 25 per cent, of soluble albuminoids. It is used externally as a 
dusting powder and also in form of an ointment. (Apothek. Zeitg., 
1905, page 227.) 

Lentin. — This is said to be metaphenylendiamin hydrochlorate, 
and is recommended to be used in cases of acute dysentery. Dose, 
for adults, o- 1 to 0-3 gramme three times a day. (Apothek. Zeitg. f 
1905, page 156.) 

Neuronal. — This is diethyl brom acetamide, a white crystalline 
powder having a camphoraceous odor and a bitter, cooling taste. It 
melts at'66° to 67 C. Neuronal is soluble in about 120 parts of 
cold water, and is decomposed by boiling water ; it is freely soluble 
in alcohol, ether and the fatty oils. Hot or boiling solutions of an 
alkali decompose neuronal with the formation of hydrocyanic acid 
as one of the products of decomposition. 

This formation of hydrocyanic acid is said to take place, even at 
ordinary temperatures, and with dilute solutions of an alkali. (Phar. 
Centrk., 1905, page 68.) 

Perugen. — This is a trade name for a synthetic balsam of Peru 
made in Germany. Perugen is said to have the consistency of 
syrup, to be brownish red in color, and to have a specific gravity 
of 1-141. It is also said to have the agreeable characteristic odor 
of balsam of Peru, and to be soluble in all proportions in absolute 
alcohol and in chloroform, but not readily miscible with the fatty oils. 
Alcoholic solutions give an acid reaction with litmus paper. Peru- 
gen conforms very closely to the German Pharmacopoeia require- 
ments for balsam of Peru. (Phar. Zeitg., 1905, page 307.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 3905. 



290 



Progress in Pharmacy . 



Am. Jour Pharni. 
June, 1905. 



Quinine Glycerophosphate occurs in well-defined crystalline needles. 
Carre finds that glycerophosphoric acid furnishes two salts of 
quinine — a basic and a neutral salt. The pure basic salt can be ob- 
tained by mixing alcoholic solutions in the proportion of I mole- 
cule of the glycerophosphoric acid and 2 molecules of quinine. 
Operating with absolute alcohol an anhydrous salt is obtained, while 
with 8o per cent, alcohol a hydrated salt results. The salt is pre- 
cipitated from the alcohol by the addition of ether, and finally 
crystallized from warm alcohol. {Chem. and Drug., September, 
1904, page 466, from Bull. Soc. Chem. de Parish) 

Rexotan is a new astringent prepared by Aufrecht by the con- 
densation of tannic acid and urea by means of formic aldehyde. It 
has the chemical formula C 10 H 14 N 2 O 10 . {Chem. and Drug., Septem- 
ber, 1904, page 546.) 

Sodium Perborate y NaBO s , may be made by dissolving 100 
grammes of borax in 900 c.c. of water with the addition of 285 
grammes of sodium hydrate. To this solution is added 1,350 c.c, of 
a purified solution of hydrogen dioxide. After about one hour in 
the cold, crystals of NaB0 3 begin to separate. 

The dried perborate maybe kept indefinitely without change, and 
contains 10-3 per cent, of available oxygen. At 17 C. water will 
dissolve 117 per cent, of the perborate, corresponding to a solution 
of 26 per cent, of hydrogen dioxide. The solution of perborate 
has an alkaline reaction, due probably to the partial decomposition 
of the NaB0 3 to hydrogen dioxide and sodium metaborate. {Chem. 
Zeitg. Rept. y 1905, page 99.) 

Stovaine. — Dr. F. Zernik has submitted stovaine to an extensive 
critical study, and defines it as a tertiary amino alcohol, chemically 
the chlorhydrate of benzoyl ethyl dimethyl amino propanol. Sto- 
vaine is readily soluble in water, alcohol or acetic ether. It has 
been recommended as a substitute for cocaine, used in the same way 
and in about the same doses. {Apoth. Zeitg., 1905, p. 174.) 

Stovaine, Untozvard Effect of. — Dr. D. A. Sinclair, at a meeting 
of the Clinical Society of the New York Polyclinic School and Hos- 
pital, reported the use of stovaine in four cases with very unsatisfac- 
tory results. In his hands it proved less efficacious, in anaesthetic 
effect, than cocaines, and gangrene followed its use in three of the 
patients. A 2 per cent, solution was used. {The Drug Circ. y 1905, 
p. 152) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



Correspondence. 



2QI 



Polychloral {Polymerized Chloral). — This substance is obtained by 
the action of dehydrating agents on chloral. Polychloral occurs in 
white crystalline tasteless masses, slightly soluble in cold water or in 
cold alcohol ; readily soluble in hot water or in hot alcohol, forming 
with the former chloral hydrate, and with the latter chloral alcohol- 
ate. Heated gradually, polychloral is vaporized without melting. 
It melts at 153 to 1 5 5 C. 

Polychloral has been suggested as an efficient hypnotic. It may 
be given in doses from 0-75 to 2*00 grammes three times a day. 

Viferral is a trade name for a product chemically identical with 
polychloral, but made under a patented process, using pyridine as 
the dehydrating agent. (Vier. Jahrs.f. Prak. Pilar., 1905, p. 26.) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Pfof. Henry Kraemer, Editor American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Dear Professor Kraemer: — It affords me pleasure to inform you 
that the Fifty Years' Index of the Proceedings is now ready for de- 
livery, and on behalf of the officers and members of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association I beg to ask that you give the fact ex- 
tended publicity in your valued Journal, with the view of furthering 
the use of the book. 

I am enclosing herewith a copy of the preface of the index for 
your guidance, and beg to add that all orders for the book should 
be addressed to this office. 

Thanking you in advance for the favor, 

Very truly yours, 

Chas. Caspari, Jr. 

preface to the fifty years' index of the proceedings of the 
american pharmaceutical association. 

On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the organization of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1902, the preparation of 
a collective index of the first fifty volumes of Proceedings, 185 1 to 
1902, inclusive (none having been issued in i86i),was agreed upon. 
The manuscript of the Collective Index was prepired under the di- 
rection of the General Secretary and presented at the meeting held 



292 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -ji™\\^ rm 

at Mackinac Island in 1903. Its immediate publication was made 
possible by the kind assistance of the publishers of the Druggists' 
Circular, the American Druggist, the Bulletin of Pharmacy, Merck's 
Report and the Pharmaceutical Era, who generously offered to share 
equally the cost of production of a work thought to be desirable for 
the use of all interested in the progress of pharmacy and cognate 
sciences, the American Pharmaceutical Association agreeing to reim- 
burse the publishers of the above-named journals from the sale of 
the book as the same progresses. 

The index, which contains over 55,000 titles and nearly 70,000 
references, has been arranged with a view to economy of time in 
searching for the names of authors or subjects, and in this respect 
differs materially from the indices issued in 1884 and 1 891. The 
subject-matter has been printed in brevier type, and instead of 
roman numerals, large heavy figures have been used for the volume 
numbers, while the page numbers have been set in smaller light 
figures. The names of authors and deceased members appear in 
italics. 

Unfortunately, while the work of publication was in progress, a 
large part of the manuscript and all the printed forms were destroyed 
in the disastrous fire which visited the city of Baltimore in Febru- 
ary, 1904, and an unavoidable delay of nearly twelve months oc- 
curred in the issue of the book, although, the same being insured, 
no financial loss was sustained. 

By vote of the Association the price of the Collective Index has 
been fixed at five ($5) dollars per volume, and it is hoped that the 
book as arranged will prove acceptable to all members, and be freely 
used by them and by all students interested in the work of the 
A. Ph. A. during the first fifty years of its existence. 

The Committee on Publication. 

February, 1905. 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

THE EIGHTY-FOURTH ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT. 
The eighty-fourth annual commencement of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held in the American Academy of Music, 
Thursday evening, May 1 8th. After prayer by the Rev. John R. 
Davies, D.D., the degrees were conferred by the president of the 
College, Howard B. French. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



293 



The degree of Master in Pharmacy (Ph.M.) was conferred honofis 
causa upon Frank Xavier Moerk, Ph.G., and in comse upon Charles 
Herbert La Wall, Ph.G. 

The following are the names of those receiving the degree of 
Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.), together with the subjects of their 
theses : 



I\ame. 

AcufF, Raymond Albauus, 
Althouse, Joseph Landis, 
Anspach, Irvin Milton, 
Baer, Clyde Kreider, 
Bauder, Walter Westbrook, 
Becker, Raymond Clyde, 
Beringer, George M., Jr., 

Boesser, Lewis Edmund, 
Bonner, John Edward, 
Bonta, Clarence LaRue, 

Bosch, Karl Leander, 
Bowersox, Benjamin F., 
Butler, Walter Taggart, 
Buzby, William Dubois, 
Carhart, Clarence Cathers, 
Cast, Frank William, 
Cohen, Arthur, 
Cott, William Jasper, 
Crawford, Dean Burton, 
Crothers, Howell Guy, 
Davidowitch, K. M. (Miss) 
Davies, George Bertram, 
Diller, Charles Marclay, 
Dodds, William Howard, 
Duncan, Chester A., P.C., 
Dundore, Harry Wilson, 
Eckhardt, Harry F., 
Ehrenfeld, William King, 
Eisenhardt, Harry, 
Elliot, Francis Theodore, 

Eves, Charles Palm, 
Fernandez, Juan Diego, 
Freeman, Leslie Steckle, 
Garton, Frank M., 
Gerhardt, John Isaac, 
Gilliland, Ray Dill, 



Subject of Thesis. State. 

Epinephrin, Pennsylvania. 

Opium, Pennsylvania. 

Ergot, Pennsylvania. 

Aloes, Pennsylvania. 

Uric Acid, Pennsylvania. 

Solution and its Theory, Pennsylvania. 
The Pharmacognosy and Pharmacy 

of Galega Officinalis, New Jersey. 
Olive Oil and its Adulterations, Pennsylvania. 

Unguentum Zinci Oxidi, Pennsylvania. 
Advertising ; or " A Made-to-Order 

Reputation," Indiana. 

Strophanthus, Pennsylvania. 

Cascara Sagrada, Pennsylvania. 

Granular Effervescent Salts, Pennsylvania. 

Suppositories, New Jersey. 

Ergot, Pennsylvania. 

Dry Distillation of Wood, New Jersey. 

Resin of Podophyllum, Pennsylvania. 

Pharmacopceial Tinctures, Pennsylvania. 

Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide, New York. 

Chloral Hydrate, Maryland. 

Olive Oil, Pennsylvania. 

Eucalyptus Globulus, Pennsylvania. 

Aloes, Pennsylvania. 

Milk as a Food, Kentucky. 

Acetic Acid, Pennsylvania. 

Ptomaines, Pennsylvania. 

Wild Cherry, California. 

Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Pennsylvania. 

Cinchona, Pennsylvania. 
Estimation of Lime in Syrupus 

Calcis, Pennsylvania. 

Oleum Ricini, Pennsylvania. 

Snake Weed of Mexico, Mexico. 

Coffee, Pennsylvania. 

Pepsin and its Preparations, Pennsylvania. 

Glucose, Pennsylvania. 

Diphtheria Antitoxin, Pennsylvania. 



294 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



Name. 
Given, Horace Ware, 
Glenn, Joseph Anthony, 
Glenn, William Andrew, 
Goulden, Frank Ellwood, 
Gravell, Thomas Lawrence, 
Gross, John Henry, 
Hain, Landis R., 
Hampton, Powell, 
Hand, Wilson Howe, P.C., 

Hassman, David Morris, 

Hathaway, Edwin Cowee, 
Hausmann, Lewis H., Jr., 
Hodge, Mary M. (Miss), 
Hohmeier, Frank, 
Holroyd, Eugene Mark, 
Holzschuh, Frank H., 
Houk, Joseph Howard, 
Hughes, Leonard, 
Hunt, Robert Joseph, 
Joerg, Walter Hamilton, 
Johnson, Charles Herbert, 
Karns, Harry Clifford, 
Kennedy, William, 
Kern, Samuel Benjamin, 
Krause, John Phaon, 
Kurtzman, LeRoy William, 
Lehman, John Christopher, 
LeNoir, Philip M. Hutchins. 
Littlefield, Eugene Ricker, 
Mc En tire, Harry D., 
McLaughlin, Charles H., 
McNess, Frederick Wm., 
Maier, Charles, 
March, Gilbert, 
Mathis, Wilbert, 
Miller, George Washington, 
Mohler, Edwin Royer, 
Nevins, George Lohman, 
Newcomb, Edwin Leigh, 

Newcomer, Samuel Snyder, 
Oellig, John Bayer, 
Ottmann, Richard Henry, 
Owens, David, 
Palmer, Lloyd Preston, 
Phillips, William J., 



Subject of Thesis. State. 

American-Grown Belladonna, New Jersey. 

Nutgall, New Jersey. 

Belladonna, Pennsylvania. 

Phosphorus, Pennsylvania. 

Eucalyptus, Delaware. 

Asbestos, • Pennsylvania. 

Drug Store Economy, Pennsylvania. 

Copaiba, Pennsylvania. 

The Bettendorf Test for Arsenic in 

Bismuth, Oklahoma T. 

Borax and the Analysis of Com- 
mercial Samples, Pennsylvania. 

Methyl Alcohol, Massachusetts. 

Picraena Excelsa, Pennsylvania. 

Camphor, Pennsylvania. 

Vaccine Virus, New Jersey. 

Cocainae Hydrochloras, Illinois. 

Liquid Air a Preservative, Pennsylvania. 

Unguentum Aquae Rosae, Pennsylvania. 

Suppositories, Pennsylvania. 

The Drug Clerk, Nebraska. 

Scaled Salts of Iron, Pennsylvania. 

Alcohol, New Jersey. 

Substitution and Adulteration, Pennsylvania. 

Antitoxin Vaccine, Pennsylvania. 

Strophanthus, Pennsylvania. 

Practical Education in Pharmacy, Pennsylvania. 

Commercial Malt Extract, Pennsylvania. 

Immunity, Pennsylvania. 

Curare, New Jersey. 

Milk, Maine. 

Thermometers, Pennsylvania. 

Retail Pharmacy Commodities, Pennsylvania. 

Ferrum Reductum, Ohio. 

Gossypium Purificatum, . New Jersey. 

Sinapis, Pennsylvania. 

Pepsinum, New Jersey. 

The Aniline Dyes, Pennsylvania. 

Benzoinum, Pennsylvania. 

Cascara Sagrada, Pennsylvania. 

Specimen Case : Herbarium : Puri- 
fication of Water, New Jersey. 

Honey, Pennsylvania. 

Extractum Sennae Fluidum, Pennsylvania. 

Uva Ursi, South Dakota. 

Gentiana, Pennsylvania. 

Formaldehyde in Witch Hazel, Georgia. 

Soluble Tar, Pennsylvania. 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
June, 1905. 



Philadelphia 



College 



of Pharmacy 



295 



Name. 

Plum, Harry Freeman, 
Reahard, Ralph McDonnell, 
Remington, Joseph Percy, 
Renfrew, Clarence Hull, 
Retzer, George Henry, 
Rhoads, Wilmer Beaver, 
Richards, Hervey Taylor, 
Rippetoe, John Ross, 

Roan, Patrick Aloysius, 
Saurman, John Shelley, 
Schimpf, Frederick Wm., 
Schlitzer, Henry Joseph, 
Schmidt, Carl Emil, 
Schrader, George Ralph, 
Scott, Walter Edward, 
Shiffer, Samuel Arthur, 
Shugars, William Styres, 
Sibila, Clement Jerome, 
Slifer, Hannah W. (Miss), 
Smith, Jay Fisk, 
Smith, Stanley Gloninger, 
Snyder, Frederick Maurice, 
Sollenberger, Maude (Miss), 

Spalding, Andrew Eaton, 
States, Franklin Pierce, Jr., 
Stevenson, Nellie J. (Miss), 
Sweeney, John Edward, 
Sylvester, Howard George, 
Van Antwerp, James C, 

Wade, Joseph Louis, 
Warnick, Cauby Paul, 
Weiser, Clinton Robert, 
Welch, Louis J. F., 
Whitney, Harry Nason, 
Wipf, Eugene James, 
Witmer, Paul DeLaucey, 



Woodland, Edward Elias, 
Yeakel, Nelson Lewis, 



Subject of Thesis. 
Cod Liver Oil, 
Tincture of Iodine, 
Iodoform, 
Acacia, 
Tannin, 

Acidum Salicylicum, 
Cerium Oxalate, 

The Purification of Water for Phar- 
maceutical and Other Purposes, 
Aloes, 
Abstracts, 
Methyl Alcohol, 
Opium, 

Ceratum Resinse Compositum, 
Kaolin, 

U.S. P. Preparations of Opium, 

Strophanthus, 

Syrup of Hydriodic Acid, 

Lemon Syrup, 

Iron, 

Casein and Some of its Uses, 
Adulterations of Spiritus Frumenti, 
Cola (Kola) 

A Polariscopic Study of Reserve 

Starch Grains, 
Acidum Salicylicum, 
Gossypium, 
Strophanthus, 
Acacia, 

Acidum Tannicum, 

An Inferior Grade of White 

Mustard, 
Incompatibilities of Ichthyol, 
Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis, 
Nux Vomica and its Alkaloids, 
Ulmus, 

Cinchona and its Alkaloids, 
Wood Alcohol, 

The Differentiation of Datura Stra- 
monium, Hyoscyamus Niger and 
Atropa Belladonna, 

Mezquite Gum, 

Zizania Aquatica, 



State. 

Ohio. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Washington. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Virginia. 
Pennsylvania . 
Massachusetts. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania . 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Arkansas. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 

Alabama. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Maine. 

Pennsylvania. 



Pennsylvania. 
Texas. 

Pennsylvania, 



The following are the names of those receiving the degree of 
Pharmaceutical Chemist (P.C.), together with the subjects of their 
theses : 



296 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 
June, 1905. 



Name. 



Subject of Thesis. 



State. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



Bardwell, Seth Arden, 
Fekula, Joseph Harry, 
Kahnweiler, Bertram, 



Kola, 

Drug Abuses, 

Design of a Prescription Depart- 



Sweeney, John Francis, 



ment. 
Antitoxin, 



Montana. 
New Jersey. 



The following members of the class were awarded the certificate 
of Proficiency in Chemistry : 



There were one hundred and twenty-six members of the graduat- 
ing class, coming from the various States and Mexico, as follows : 
Alabama, I ; Arkansas, I ; California, 1 ; Delaware, I ; Georgia, I ; 
Illinois, 1 ; Indiana, I ; Kentucky, 1 ; Maine, 2 ; Maryland, 1 ; Mas- 
sachusetts, 2 ; Mexico, 1 ; Montana, 1 ; Nebraska, I ; New Jersey, 
12; New York, 1; Ohio, 6; Oklahoma, 1; Pennsylvania, 85; 
South Dakota, 1 ; Texas, 2 ; Virginia, 1 ; and Washington, 1. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Dean of the Faculty, announced that 
beginning with January I, 1906, no one will be permitted to come 
up before the Pennsylvania State Board of Pharmacy for examina- 
tion as a licensed pharmacist unless he or she is a graduate of some 
reputable and properly chartered college of pharmacy. (See this 
Journal, p. 182). 

Hon. A. K. McClure made the valedictory address. 



The dean announced that the following members of the class 
received the grade of distinguished : George Mahlon Beringer, Jr., 
Frederick William McNess, Lloyd Preston Palmer, and Ralph 
McDonnell Reahard ; and the following that of meritorious : 
Irvin Milton Anspach, Joseph Harry Fekula, George Washington 
Miller, Edwin Royer Mohler, Richard Henry Ottmann, Joseph Percy 
Remington, John Ross Rippetoe, John Shelley Saurman, Maude 
Sollenberger, Nellie Jane Stevenson and Edward Elias Woodland. 

The Procter Prize, a gold medal and certificate, for the highest 
general average of the class, with a meritorious thesis, was awarded 
to Lloyd Preston Palmer, President French making the presentation. 

The William B. Webb]Memorial Prize, a gold medal and cer- 
tificate, offered for the highest general average in the branches of 
committee, operative pharmacy and specimens, was awarded to John 



Name. 



State. 



Chisholm, Jesse Connor, P.D 
Eckman, Joshua Evans . . 
French, Charles Dunning . 



Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 



AWARD OF PRIZES. 



Am J J u n U e?wo5 arm •} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 297 

Shelley Saurman, the presentation being made by the treasurer of 
the College, James T. Shinn. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Joseph Harry Fekula, 
Harry Clifford Karns, Richard Henry Ottmann, Lloyd Preston Palmer, 
Maude Sollenberger and Joseph Louis Wade. 

The Chemistry Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 
for knowledge of chemical quantitative analysis, was awarded to 
Joseph Percy Remington. The following graduates received honor- 
able mention in connection therewith : Frederick William McNess 
and Ralph McDonnell Reahard. 

The Pharmacognosy Prize, a Zentmayer microscope, offered by 
Prof. Henry Kraemer, for original research in pharmacognosy, was 
awarded to John Ross Rippetoe. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : George Mahlon Ber- 
inger, Jr., Juan Diego Fernandez, Edwin Leigh Newcomb, Richard 
Henry Ottmann, Clement Jerome Sibila, James Callanan Van Ant- 
werp and Edward Elias Woodland. 

The Materia Medica Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe, for the best examination in materia medica and in the recog- 
nition of materia medica specimens, with a meritorious thesis, was 
awarded to Joseph Percy Remington. The following graduates 
received honorable mention in connection therewith : Irvin Milton 
Anspach, George Mahlon Beringer, Jr., Edwin Leigh Newcomb, 
John Ross Rippetoe, James Callanan Van Antwerp and Edward 
Elias Woodland. 

The Analtyical Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Frank X. 
Moerk, for the best work in qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
was awarded to Ralph McDonnell Reahard. The following gradu- 
ates received honorable mention in connection therewith : Irvin Mil- 
ton Anspach, George Mahlon Beringer, Jr., Frederick William 
McNess, George Washington Miller, Lloyd Preston Palmer and John 
Ross Rippetoe. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in operative phar- 
macy, was awarded to Maude Sollenberger. The following gradu- 
ates deserved honorable mention in connection therewith : Charles 
Marclay Diller, Harry Freeman Eckhardt, Harry Clifford Karns, 
John Phaon Krause, John Christopher Lehman, Harry Lawrence 
McEntire, Charles Henry McLaughlin, Richard Henry Ottmann, 



298 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am jiXi905 arm ' 

Lloyd Preston Palmer, Ralph McDonnell Reahard, John Shelley 
Saurman, Samuel Arthur Shifter, William Styres Shugars, Clement 
Jerome Sibila and Joseph Louis Wade. 

The Maisch Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Mr. Jacob H. Red- 
secker, of Lebanon, Pa., for histological knowledge of drugs, was 
awarded to John Ross Rippetoe, the presentation being made by 
Professor Kraemer. The following graduates deserved honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Irvin Milton Anspach, George 
Mahlon Beringer, Jr., Juan Diego Fernandez, Horace Ware Given, 
George Washington Miller, Richard Henry Ottmann, Joseph Percy 
Remington, John Shelley Saurman, William Styres Shugars, Clem- 
ent Jerome Sibila and Edward Elias Woodland. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner agate prescrip- 
tion balance, offered by Mr. Mahlon N. Kline, for the best examina- 
tion in theory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to George 
Mahlon Beringer, Jr. The following graduates deserved honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Frederick William McNess, 
Lloyd Preston Palmer, Ralph McDonnell Reahard and Edward Elias 
Woodland. 

The Commercial Training Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, to the graduate who passed the best exami- 
nation in commercial training at the final examination for the degree, 
was awarded to Clarence LaRue Bonta, the presentation being made 
by Dr. Adolph W. Miller. The following graduates deserved honor- 
able mention in connection therewith : Irvin Milton Anspach, George 
Mahlon Beringer, Jr., Frank William Cast, Katie Minerva Davido- 
witch, Francis Theodore Elliot, Frank Morton Garton, John Henry 
Gross, Powell Hampton, Frank Herman Holzschuh, Charles Herbert 
Johnson, Bertram Kahnweiler, Frederick William McNess, Charles 
Maier, George Washington Miller, Edwin Royer Mohler, George 
Lohman Nevins, Edwin Leigh Newcomb, Lloyd Preston Palmer, 
Ralph McDonnell Reahard, Joseph Percy Remington, John Ross 
Rippetoe, Patrick Aloysius Roan, Samuel Arthur Shiffer, Stanley 
Gloninger Smith, Frederick Maurice Snyder, Maude Sollenberger, 
Franklin Pierce States, Jr., Nellie Jane Stevenson, James Callanan 
Van Antwerp, Clinton Robert Weiser and Edward Elias Woodland. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the Instructors of the 
College, for the highest term average in the branches of pharmacy, 
chemistry and materia medica, was awarded to George Mahlon 



Am j"i n u e'-i9Sf rm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 299 

Beringer, Jr., the presentation being made by Freeman P. Stroup. 
The following graduates deserved honorable mention in connection 
therewith : Frederick William McNess and Lloyd Preston Palmer. 

The Pharmacy Quiz Prize, one year's membership in the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Charles H. LaWall, 
for the best term work in theory and practice of pharmacy, was 
awarded to George Mahlon Beringer, Jr. The following graduates 
deserved honorable mention in connection therewith : Frederick 
William McNess, George Washington Miller and Edward Elias 
Woodland. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, $20 in gold, offered by the 
Eta Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making 
the highest general average during the three years' course at the 
College, was awarded to Lloyd Preston Palmer, the presentation 
being made by Professor Sadtler. The following graduates deserved 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Irvin Milton Anspach, 
George Mahlon Beringer, Jr., Frederick William McNess, Ralph 
McDonnell Reahard and James Shelley Saurman. 



complimentary supper given by the faculty. 

On Wednesday evening, May 17th, a complimentary supper was 
tendered the graduating class by the members of the Faculty. The 
supper was given in the Museum of the College, and among the 
invited guests were some of the officers and members of the College. 
Professor Remington acted as toastmaster, and short speeches were 
made by members of the Faculty, the Instructors, officers of the 
College, and by a number of the graduating class. 

BACCALAUREATE sermon. 

Baccalaureate services were held in the Church of St. Luke and 
the Epiphany, the sermon being delivered by the rector, the Rev, 
David M. Steele. 

ALUMNI association. 

The annual reunion and banquet of the Alumni Association was 
held at the Lulu Temple on Tuesday evening, May 16th. There 
was a large number of members in attendance, and remarks were 
made by representatives of the several classes dating back to 1854. 



300 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^S^m™™' 

The forty-first annual meeting of the Alumni Association was 
held in Alumni Hall, Monday afternoon, May 15th, at 2.30 p.m., 
with the President, Walter A. Rumsey, in the chair. After the 
annual address of the President, reports from the other officers and 
standing committees were received. The annual election was then 
held, and resulted in the choice of the following officers: President, 
Freeman P. Stroup ; Vice-Presidents, John D. Burg and Charles H. 
La Wall ; Recording Secretary, Joseph W.England; Corresponding 
Secretary, E. Fullerton Cook; Treasurer, C. Carroll Meyer ; Board 
of Directors, for three years, Jacob M. Baer, William H. Gano, 
David J. Reese and William E. Ridenour. 

The annual reception given by the association to the members of 
the graduating class was held the evening of the same day, in the 
College Museum, with President Rumsey in the chair. After the 
roll call of new members elected during 1904-05, an address was 
made by Dr. Henry Beates, Jr., President of the Pennsylvania State 
Board of Medical Examiners. 

The prizes offered by the association were awarded as follows : 

The Alumni Gold Medal for the best general average for the 
year was awarded to Lloyd Preston Palmer, and presented by Free- 
man P. Stroup. 

The Alumni Prize Certificates, offered for the highest general 
average in Pharmacy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Committee, Op- 
erative Pharmacy, Analytical Chemistry and Specimens were respec- 
tively awarded as follows, Mahlon N. Kline, chairman of the Board 
of Trustees, making the presentation: George Mahlon Beringer, Jr., 
Richard Henry Ottmann, Joseph Percy Remington, George Mahlon 
Beringer, Jr., Miss Maude Sollenberger, Irvin Milton Anspach and 
Lloyd Preston Palmer. 

The Alumni Silver Medal was awarded to Miss Nino Berta 
Whaland for the best general average in the second year examina- 
tion, John D. Burg making the presentation. 

The Alumni Bronze Medal was awarded to Eli Lilly for the best 
general average in the first year examination, and was presented by 
Charles H. LaWall. 

The Class Oration was delivered by Clarence LaRue Bonta ; the 
Class Poem by Clement Jerome Sibila ; the Class History by Edwin 
Royer Mohler ; and the Horoscope oi the Class by William J. 
Phillips. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



rULY t 1905. 



A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VARIOUS FRUIT AND 
VEGETABLE COLORS. 1 
By Charges H. LaWai^i,, Ph.M, 

A comparative study of various coloring materials is desirable at 
the present time on account of the frequency with which questions 
arise concerning the authenticity of given samples of fruit syrups 
and fruit juices, and in consequence of legislative attempts which 
have recently been made to legalize the use of certain harmless 
colors of vegetable origin where conditions arise in which the origi- 
nal fruit colors are not permanent. 

There is no intention whatever to discuss the physiological effect 
of the vegetable colors as contrasted with the so-called coal-tar or 
aniline colors (which might be more appropriately referred to as 
the synthetic colors). 

There is no doubt that the synthetic colors as made at the pres- 
ent time are free from the dangerous metallic impurities, such as 
arsenic, which were formerly associated with these colors on account 
ot the then existing methods of manufacture ; and at the present 
time the feeling against the coal-tar colors seems to be based upon 
theoretical grounds due to their pronounced tinctorial affinity for 
animal tissues, rather than upon any observations of the ill effects 
following the administration of such colors as a class. 

Many specific laws have been passed in various European coun- 
tries regulating the use of coloring matters in foodstuffs, and in 
some cases attempts have been made to legalize the use of certain 
colors, which have been proved to be harmless, regardless of their 
origin. 

X A thesis presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy for the degree 
of Master in Pharmacy, Ph,M,, in course, May, 1905. 

(301) 



302 Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. { Am j^i 9 p | arm - 

The list compiled by the National Confectioners' Association of 
the United States includes several hundred colors of animal, vege- 
table, mineral and synthetic origin, and is largely based upon 
the investigations of Weyl and Koenig and the lists of permitted 
colors published in Switzerland and in France. 

The recent legislative attempts in Pennsylvania to limit the use 
of added colors to a comparatively small list of well-known vege- 
table colors seems to call for some special investigation in this direc- 
tion, particularly as the work which has previously been done in 
this connection by investigators, such as Robin and Leeds, has not 
included all of the vegetable and fruit colors which are available 
and of practical use, while, on the other hand, the tabulated investi- 
gations of the coal-tar colors are both numerous and complete, as 
may be seen by referring to the work of such authorities as Witt, 
Weingartner and Rota, the scheme of the latter authority being 
probably the best known and the most widely used at the present 
time. 

The authenticity of the samples which are employed in making 
the observations in work of this kind is of the highest importance, 
and in the work upon this subject which is here presented, the 
identity of every sample which has been used has been assured by 
personal investigation and by the use of only such canned or pre- 
served fruits or fruit-wines as have been prepared in the author's 
own family under perfectly normal conditions, using no added ma- 
terial except sugar. 

The blackberry color was first obtained by using a specimen of 
blackberry wine, and was afterward verified from a sample of pre- 
served blackberries. 

The black and red cherry colors were both obtained from the 
canned fruit. 

The cranberry color was prepared from the fresh fruit. 

The currant color was obtained from the wine, and was afterward 
verified by using the jelly. 

The elderberry color was first obtained from the jelly, and was 
subsequently verified by using the wine. 

The grape color was obtained both from the jelly and the unfer- 
mented juice. 

The huckleberry color was obtained from the canned fruit. 
The plum color was obtained from the preserved fruit. 



Am jSy!^o5. amj '} Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. 303 

The raspberry color was obtained from the wine, and was verified 
by using the preserved fruit. 

The strawberry color was obtained from the fresh fruit, and was 
verified from the preserved fruit. 

The beet juice was prepared from the fresh vegetable. 

Such dyestuffs and drugs as are commonly used as sources of 
color, and which were deemed worthy of consideration in this con- 
nection, were obtained in the unground or whole condition, through 
the kindness of Mr. F. P. Sher, of Smith, Kline & French Company, 
and were prepared for use by the author himself. 

In considering the best and most effective method oi making a 
comparison of so many different colors it was deemed advisable to 
reduce all of the solutions to a uniform color density, rather than to 
base the comparisons upon the solutions made up to a certain uni- 
form weight in volume strength, owing to the very great differences 
existing in the tinctorial power of the various fruits and dyestuffs 
when prepared in the lorm of aqueous infusions or decoctions, as was 
done in the present work. 

The solutions were prepared as follows : In the cases of fruits 
where jellies or canned fruits or fruit preserves were used, the pulpy 
material was separated by straining and the liquid reduced to a 
given color density by dilution with water and comparison with an 
arbitrary standard which had previously been prepared for this 
purpose. 

Such drugs as logwood, safffower, saffron, etc., were prepared by 
making a decoction and digesting it at 1 00° C. until the coloring 
matter of the drug appeared to have been thoroughly extracted, 
then filtering and diluting to the standard color density as before. 

A few examples of coal tar or synthetic colors (four in all), taken 
from samples of materials found to be in actual use by manufac- 
turers in simulating fruit colors, are also included for better com- 
parison. 

The liquids having been thus prepared the first comparison was 
made by observing the color of 5 c.c. of the original liquid, con- 
tained in a 5 inch, § inch test tube, provided with a foot, and then 
noting the change which was produced by the addition of 5 c.c. 
of 31-9 per cent, hydrochloric acid to one sample, and 0-5 c.c. of 10 
per cent, ammonium hydroxide solution to another sample of the 
same quantity each contained in a similar test tube. 



304 Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. { Am j J u ^i£S arm - 

The tubes were placed side by side upon a sheet of white paper 
and observations noted of any change in color resulting from the 
addition of either the acid or the alkali or both. 

This series of comparisons resulted as follows : 



Fruit Colors. 


Original Color. 


Hydrochloric Acid. 


Ammonia Water. 


Blackberry 


deep red 


bright red 


olive green 


Cherry (black) 


bright red 


no change 


bright green 


Cherry (red) 


purple 


bright red 


bright green 


Cranberry 


bright red 


no change 


olive green 


Currant 


bright red 


no change 


olive green 


Klderberry 


purple 


bright red 


bright green 


Grape 


purplish red 


bright red 


bright green 


Huckleberry 


deep red 


no change 


deep green 


Plum 


bright red 


no change 


bright green 


Raspberry 


bright red 


no change 


olive green 


Strawberry 


bright red 


no change 


deep red 



Other Vegetable 
Colors. 


Original Color. . 


Hydrochloric Acid. 


• Ammonia Water. 


Annatto 


orange red 


deep red 


no change 


Beet Juice 


red 


no change 


olive green 


Brazilwood 


orange red 


slightly lighter 


rose purple 


^Cochineal 


deep red 


bright red 


purple 


Cudbear 


deep red 


no change 


purple 


Fustic 


yellow 


light yellow 


dark yellow 


Litmus 


blue 


red 


no change 


Logwood 


purplish red 


yellowish red 


purple 


Madder 


red 


light red 


deep red 


Marigold 


yellow 


no change 


slightly darker 


Red Saunders 


light red 


no change 


olive green 


Safflower 


bright yellow 


no change 


deep yellow 


Saffron 


bright yellow 


no change 


no change 


Turmeric 


canary yellow 


no change 


reddish brown 


Commercial Coal 








Tar Colors. 








One 


bright red 


deep red 


deep red 


Two 


deep red 


no change 


no change 


Three 


bright red 


no change 


no change 


Four 


reddish yellow 


no change 


deep yellow 



*Cochineal is classed with the vegetable colors in these tables. 



Am -^ 1 u y r ;i905 arm "} Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. 305 

In observing the changes recorded in the above table it will at 
once be noticed that with the single exception of strawberry, all of 
the fruit colors change to either olive green or bright green upon 
the addition of the ammonium hydroxide solution ; and, that with the 
exception of beet juice and red saunders, none of the other vege- 
table reds showed this distinctive change, the characteristic change 
of the other vegetable red colors being mainly to purple or blue 
upon the addition of the alkali. It will also be seen that in the 
instances of the synthetic colors, none showed either of these marked 
changes upon the addition of the alkali, nor have any other coal-tar 
colors which are in common use been observed by the author in 
which any marked change occurs upon the addition of ammonium 
hydroxide solution. 

The chief point of difference between the synthetic colors and 
the natural vegetable colors is found in the fact that the synthetic 
colors may be deposited upon fat-free woolen goods, by a test known 
as the dyeing test, without the use of a mordant, while the vegetable 
colors with one or two marked exceptions will not be so deposited 
unless a mordant be previously used upon the fabric. 

While this distinctive difference is so sharply marked as to make 
the recognition of the presence of a synthetic color a very easy task, 
there are certain characteristic effects observable even when the 
vegetable colors are employed in this test, consequently a compari- 
son in this respect was considered to be of great, importance. 

The dyeing test was performed by adding 5 c.c. of 10 per cent, 
hydrochloric acid solution to IQO c.c. of the liquid prepared as in 
the first comparison, then immersing a piece of fat-free nun's veil- 
ing, 1x4 inches, and heating at 100° C. for one hour. The wool 
was then removed and washed thoroughly in plain water and dried,. 

In cases where an appreciable amount of coloring matter was 
deposited upon the wool by the first dyeing, a second dyeing test 
was performed by immersing the piece of dyed wool in a dilute 
solution of ammonium hydroxide to dissolve the deposited color, 
removing the piece of wool after the color had been extracted from 
it, acidulating the liquid slightly with 10 per cent, hydrochloric acid 
solution, inserting a fresh piece of fat-free wool and again dyeing 
for one hour at 100° C. 

The following table shows the results of this test when applied to 
the various colors which have been selected for examination and 
comparison : 



306 



Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm 
X July, 1905. 



RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS WITH DYEING TEST. 

Blackberry. — Dyes wool a dull pink on first dyeing, color changes 
to green upon applying ammonia. No second dyeing can be ob- 
tained. 

Cherry {black). — Same as blackberry. 

Cherry (red). — Dyes wool a very light pink on first dyeing, color 
changes to green upon applying ammonia. No second dyeing can 
be obtained. 

Cranberry. — No appreciable color on first dyeing. 

Currant. — Same as cherry (red). 

Elderberry. — Same as cherry (red). 

Grape. — Same as blackberry. 

Huckleberry. — Same as blackberry. 

Plum. — Same as cherry (red). 

Raspberry. — No appreciable color on first dyeing. 

Strawberry. —Dyes wool very faint pink on first dyeing. Ammonia 
produces no change. No second dyeing can be obtained. 

Annatto. — Dyes wool yellow in first dyeing. Ammonia produces 
no change. Second dyeing very much lighter. 

Beet Juice. — No appreciable color on first dyeing. 

Brazilwood. — Dyes wool yellow 6n first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to rose purple. Second dyeing very faintly yellow. 

Cochineal. — Dyes wool bright red on first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to deep purple. Second dyeing very light pink. 

Cudbear. — Dyes wool dull red on first dyeing. Ammonia changes 
to deep purple. Second dyeing slightly lighter than the first. 

Fustic. — Dyes wool dirty yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to brown. Second dyeing very light yellow. 

Litmus. — Dyes wool light pink on first dyeing. Ammonia changes 
to bright blue. Second dyeing very faintly pink. 

Logwood. — Dyes wool dirty yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to deep purple. Second dyeing very much lighter. 

Madder. — Dyes wool orange yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to red. Second dyeing very much lighter. 

Marigold. — Dyes wool pale yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
produces no change. Second dyeing little or no color. 

Red Saunders. — Dyes wool a dirty pink on first dyeing. Am. 
monia changes to greenish. Second dyeing little or no color. 



Am 7u°iyy"iS)5f rm '} Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. 307 

Sajfloiver. — Dyes wool bright yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to brown. Second dyeing very much lighter. 

Saffron. — Dyes wool bright yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
produces no change. Second dyeing very much lighter. 

Turmeric. — Dyes wool bright yellow on first dyeing. Ammonia 
changes to reddish brown. Second dyeing very much lighter. 

Coal Tar Color (7). — Dyes wool bright red on first dyeing. 
Ammonia produces no change. Second dyeing practically the same 
as the first. 

Coal Tar Color (2). — Same as (1). 

Coal Tar Color ( j). — Same as (1). 

Coal Tar Color (^). — Dyes wool orange yellow on first dyeing* 
No change produced by ammonia. Second dyeing as bright as the 
first. HC1 produces deep red color on dyed wool. 

It will be seen upon looking over the foregoing results, that in 
none of the cases of pure fruit colors could results be obtained by a 
second dyeing test, and in most cases but a faint pink color, usually 
a dirty or muddy pink, was obtained in the first dyeing. The appli- 
cation of ammonium hydroxide solution to the wool faintly colored 
by the pure fruits produced a faint greenish tint in every case but 
that of strawberry, where no change was observable. 

The other vegetable colors were not uniform in this respect. 
Some of them dyed the wool a pronounced characteristic shade on 
the first dyeing, but with the exception of cudbear none of them 
produced any appreciable results upon the second dyeing. 

In all of these cases the application of ammonium hydroxide solu- 
tion to the reddened wool produced a characteristic change to pur- 
ple, which affords a certain means of distinguishing these colors 
from the coal-tar colors with which they might be confused. 

The yellow colors, such as safflower, saffron, turmeric, etc., exhib- 
ited no uniformity whatever. It will be observed that Brazilwood 
dyes wool a faint yellow shade upon the first dyeing, which might 
be mistaken for one of the other vegetable yellows, but the appli- 
cation of the ammonium hydroxide solution to the Brazilwood dyed 
piece of wool produces a characteristic change to rose-purple, while 
in the other cases there is either no change at all, or, at most, a 
slight darkening. 

The synthetic colors will be observed to have dyed with as much 
intensity upon the second dyeing as upon the first, and no change 



3 o8 



Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



was produced upon the addition of ammonium hydroxide solution 
to the dyed wool. 

These differences, when carefully studied, will be found to afford 
a means of differentiating many of the vegetable colors and of abso- 
lutely proving the presence of synthetic colors. 

Fuller's earth, kaolin and kindred earthy materials have been 
observed to have the property of removing certain colors from their 
aqueous solutions, and one of the tests for the presence of caramel 
is based upon this color-absorbing property of fuller's earth. 

A sample of kaolin was obtained which gave excellent results 
when used in the caramel test, and a test was made upon each of 
the color solutions and the effect noted. 

Twenty-five cubic centimeters of the color solution were agitated 
for five minutes with 10 grammes of the kaolin, the mixture was 
poured upon a dry plaited filter and the filtrate collected in a dry 
Nessler's tube. The color of this filtrate was then compared with 
the color of an equal bulk of the original liquid contained in a sim- 
ilar tube. 

These results were as follows: 



KAOLIN TEST. 



Fruit Colors. 



Effect Produced, 
slightly lighter 



Blackberry 

Cherry (black) 

Cherry (red) 

Cranberry 

Currant 

Elderberry 

Grape 

Huckleberry 
Plum 
Raspberry 
Strawberry 



decolorizes 



decolorizes 
no change 
decolorizes 



slightly lighter 
decolorizes 



slightly lighter 



< < 



KAOLIN TEST. 



Other Vegetable Colors. 



Effect Produced. 



Annatto 

Beet Juice 

Brazilwood 

Cochineal 

Cudbear 

Fustic 

Litmus 



decolorizes 
no change 



slightly lighter 
no change 
much lighter 
much lighter 
decolorizes 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
July, 1905. 



'•} Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. 



309 



Turmeric 



Safflower 
Saffron 



Red Saunders 



Logwood 

Madder 

Marigold 



much lighter 
much lighter 
slightly lighter 
decolorizes 
no change 
slightly lighter 
decolorizes 



Commercial Coal Tar Colors. 



One 
Two 
Three 
Four 



no change 
no change 
no change 
no change 



While no uniformity can be observed in the decolorizing or modi- 
fying effect of the kaolin upon the vegetable colors as a group, it 
will be seen that an additional factor is afforded for the differentia- 
tion and identification of some of the vegetable and fruit colors. 

For instance, if beet juice had been added to strawberry syrup 
the color would not be entirely removed by filtration through kaolin 
and the addition of ammonium hydroxide solution to this filtrate 
would produce a greenish color, while, if only the natural color of 
the strawberry were present, complete decolorization would occur. 

The reducing effect of nascent hydrogen produced by the action 
of hydrochloric acid upon metallic zinc, and of solution of stannous 
chloride, which plays such an important part in the various schemes 
for the identification of the synthetic colors, was then tried with the 
view of ascertaining what, if any, effect such reagents would have 
upon vegetable colors. 

The zinc and hydrochloric acid reaction was produced by adding 
I c.c. of 31-9 per cent, hydrochloric acid to 5 c.c. of the color solu- 
tion contained in a test tube similar to that previously described, 
and then adding about 0-5 grammes of metallic granulated zinc and 
allowing the reaction to continue for at least thirty minutes before 
making any observations. 

The solution of stannous chloride was made by dissolving 5 
grammes of pure tin foil in 30 grammes of 31-9 per cent, hydro- 
chloric acid and afterward diluting the solution with water to make 
50 grammes. One cubic centimeter of this solution was added to 5 
c.c. of the color solution in a test tube similar to the one described 
previously, and any changes were noted after the mixture had been 
allowed to stand for five minutes. 



3io 



Study of Fruit and Vegetable Colors. 



| A.m. . 



July, 1905. 



The following results were obtained : 

Tests with reducing agents. The following fruit colors produce 
no change in zinc and hydrochloric acid or in a solution stannous 
chloride : Blackberry, cherry (black), cherry (red), cranberry, cur- 
rant, elderberry, grape, huckleberry, plum, raspberry, strawberry. 



TESTS WITH REDUCING AGENTS. 



Other Vegetable Colors. 



Zinc and Hydrochloric Acid. 



Solution Stannous Chloride. 



Annatto 


no change 


no change 


Beet Juice 


slightly lighter 


no change 


Brazilwood 


much lighter 


no change 


Cochineal 


no change 


no change 


Cudbear 


decolorizes 


decolorizes 


Fustic 


decolorizes 


no change 


Litmus 


decolorizes 


decolorizes 


Logwood 


slightly lighter 


no change 


Madder 


no change 


no change 


Marigold 


decolorizes 


no change 


Red Saunders 


no change 


no change 


Safflower 


no change 


no change 


Saffron 


decolorizes 


no change 


Turmeric 


decolorizes 


no change 


lmercial Coal Tar Colors. 






One 


decolorizes 


decolorizes 


Two 


decolorizes 


decolorizes 


Three 


decolorizes 


decolorizes 


Four 


decolorizes 


decolorizes 



In glancing over the preceding table it will be seen that none of 
the pure fruit colors are affected by either of these reducing agents, 
while some of the other vegetable colors are either considerably 
modified or completely destroyed, and in the cases of every one of 
the synthetic colors examined complete decolorization took place, 
although it must be said in explanation that there are some non- 
reducible synthetic colors in use at the present time. 

It will also be seen that of all of the vegetable colors only cud- 
bear and litmus are affected by the stannous chloride solution, 
which adds another factor to the ease of their identification. 

In view of the fact that chlorophyll, which is often used as a 
source of commercial green colors, shows certain easily recognizable 
characteristics when observed through the spectroscope, this method 
of examination was applied to every one of the foregoing colors 
without any distinctive results whatever. 



Am, juiy.f9o.5. rm "} Dr. Christopher Witt. 311 

Solution of sodium hypochlorite added to the acidulated color 
solution produced immediate decolorization in every instance, re- 
gardless of the origin of the color. 

In summarizing the results of these investigations, which have 
been conducted during a period of about a year, the author would 
state that in his opinion, the presence of a coal tar color can be pos- 
itively detected and that the authenticity of any given sample of 
fruit juice or fruit syrup may be absolutely proved. 

The recognition of many of the other vegetable colors which may 
be added is facilitated by the application of several of the tests here- 
in recorded and reference to the appropriate table in each case. 

Certain well known identity tests for such colors as turmeric and 
logwood were not included in the foregoing work, as they are well 
established and need no further investigation. 

It has been the intention of the author to contribute these data, 
most of which are new, with a view of clearing up many of the diffi- 
culties which constantly arise, and to aid the solution of the numer- 
ous problems which are called upon to be solved in consequence of 
the enforcement of the laws against food adulteration, and, as the 
collecting of these data has been of great value to him, he submits 
them in the hope that others may profit in an equal degree. 



DR. CHRISTOPHER WITT. 

AN EARLY AMERICAN BOTANIST AND A MAN OF MANY AND VARIED 

ATTAINMENTS. 

BY M. I. WlLBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

In the year 16 14 there was published at Ratisbon, in Germany, 
a book that purported to contain the true history of the Rosicrucian 
Society. According to this history, a German, Christian Rosen- 
kreuz by name, had visited the Orient in 1378, and was there 
initiated into the most profound secrets of occult philosophy and 
entrusted with the true knowledge of the philosopher's stone and 
the elixir of life. 

On his return to Germany, Rosenkreuz is said to have gathered 
about him a number of disciples and to have founded the fraternity 
of the Rosicrucians, or followers of Rosenkreuz. Three of these 



312 Dr. Christopher Witt. { Am * j J u °iy' i9ol arm ' 

disciples were entrusted with the great secrets, and they in turn 
agreed among themselves that they would not practise any profes- 
sion in public but that of medicine; that they would not wear a 
distinctive garb or uniform ; that they would meet at least once a 
year at a regularly appointed spot or place ; that they would en- 
deavor to interest such intelligent laymen as would be likely to be 
interested, and who could subsequently be entrusted with their 
secrets; and, in conclusion, that they would endeavor to keep the 
existence of the society secret for one hundred years. 

Whether the history, as narrated in this book, was based on fact 
or whether, as is sometimes asserted, the book itself was written to 
ridicule the " Societas Physicorum " of the previous century, and the 
questionable practices and theosophical teachings of the followers 
of Paracelsus, need not be discussed in this connection ; certain it is 
that, after the publication of this " Fama Fraternitatis," as it was 
called, the professed adherents of the society became quite numer- 
ous, and, in addition to this, a number of more or less allied societies 
were founded in several of the different countries of Europe. It 
should be added, however, that many of these co-related societies 
were not directly connected with what were usually supposed to be 
the true followers of Rosenkreuz. Thus the " Collegium Rosianum," 
also frequently referred to as Rosicrucian, which existed during a 
portion of the seventeenth century, particularly in France, was 
founded by one Christian Rose, and was quite distinct, in origin at 
least, from the Rosicrucians of Germany. This Collegium Rosi- 
anum spread rapidly, and soon had branches at The Hague, 
Amsterdam, Nurnberg, Danzig, and also in England. 

Among the earlier Rosicrucians in England was one Robert 
Flood, born in Kent in 1574. Flood is said to have been a noted 
physician in London, and to have been an expert student of the 
occult sciences. Another of the English leaders of this cult was 
Sir Kenelm Digby, a natural philosopher of some repute, a royalist 
and at one time chancellor to Queen Henrietta Maria. He was 
born on June nth, and died on the same day of the same month 
in 1665. 

During the second half of the seventeenth century, following 
what was at first a purely religious movement to revive the declin- 
ing piety among the more educated people of Germany, there 
originated a number of societies that became known as " Collegia 



Am, iuiy r ;i9o h 5 arn1 '} Dr. Christopher Witt. 313 

Pietatis," and subsequently as true Rosicrucians. The originator of 
this, at its inception purely religious movement, was Philip Jacob 
Spener, a Lutheran clergyman, born at Rappoltsweiler in Alsace, 
January 13, 1635, an< ^ died in Berlin, Februarys, 1705. 

Spener himsel r , it would appear, was as yet not quite free from 
the religious and speculative mysticism that prevailed in Europe 

Concern ctfTJ&fc ffftf 

U, tfc Province fety-'*™?:. 

//U (fare «nc(<r nam&t) a fa/-<^ raf/t ** 




6y & 



« /nor* perf*? S)j/c<?vvy <f6(e J&Wc/tn c a <</ej 
flu** jfccu/f & ItnccnwwttQJ^ 

in fa almcnphrct^n of ft* /fa^c<«v,ynfa 



Vxxrco 



/A fe*/*Wejire Ma/ fuaty & r*p<*/jf U2 ^ ltm 

Certificate of Medical Proficiency granted by Dr. Christopher Witt. 

during the seventeenth century, for as early as 1680 he formulated 
the dogma that only persons inspired by the Holy Ghost could 
understand the Scriptures. It need not surprise us, therefore, that 
at an early date these Pietists were confounded with the Rosicru- 
cians of an earlier period, and that many of them really simulated 
the practices of the Rosicrucians to such an extent that it would be 
difficult indeed to determine, through the atmosphere of secrecy, 



314 



Dr. Christopher Witt. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



theosophy, magic and alchemy with which they were surrounded, 
whether religious convictions or theosophic vagaries really prevailed. 

One chapter at least of this Collegia Pietatis has had a peculiar 
and permanent influence on the development of the medical and 
pharmaceutical sciences in these United States, and may, therefore, 
be discussed at greater length. 

About 1690 there was founded in the city of Erfurth, in Thur- 
ingia, a chapter of the Collegia Pietatis under the patronage or 
leadership of the Rev. August Hermann Francke, then the assistant 
pastor of a Lutheran church at that place. The secret meetings of 
this organization soon attracted the attention of the government 
authorities, and, after some investigation, resulted in the promulga- 
tion of an edict suppressing the chapter and excommunicating 
Francke from the State Church. Francke, who was thus com- 
pelled to leave Erfurt, subsequently went to Halle, where he founded 
the now world-renowned orphan asylum, generally known as " Das 
Hallische Waisenhaus." From a pharmaceutic point of view, the 
method of securing funds for building and sustaining this institution, 
is quite interesting. It appears that among the earlier members 
of the Erfurth chapter of the Collegia Pietatis was an alchemist or 
chemist, Burgstaller by name, who, at his death, bequeathed to 
Francke the receipts for compounding certain medicines. These 
medicines were subsequently made and sold for the benefit of the 
orphanage in Halle. They were supplied through a regular sys- 
tem of agencies, and sold in every country of the world to which 
Lutheran missionaries had access. The most popular among these 
nostrums was the " Gold Tincture," also known as golden drops, 
" Mutter Tropfen " and " Goldendur " in this country. Large 
quantities of this gold tincture were sent to this country, particu- 
larly to the province of Pennsylvania, and even at the present time 
an imitation of this nostrum constitutes a popular household remedy 
in some sections of Pennsylvania. After the edict for the suppres- 
sion of the chapter of Pietists, at Erfurth, was put in force a number 
of the members under the leadership of Johann Jacob Zimmermann 
decided to emigrate to the then newly founded province of Penn- 
sylvania, where, under a more liberal form of government, they 
might follow their mysterious practices without being molested, 
and where they might properly prepare themselves for the coming 
of the millennium, which was thought to be close at hand. Zimmer- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



Dr. Christopher Witt. 



315 



mann, the original leader, died at Rotterdam, in 1693, on the eve 
of his embarkation for America, and Johannes Kelpius, who had 
been second in command, was selected to succeed him. 

Johannes Kelpius, the son of a Lutheran clergyman, had received 
a thorough scientific as well as religious training. He was born in 
1673, and was therefore only 20 years of age when^selected magis- 
ter. Under the leadership of this young and in many respects in- 
experienced leader, this chapter of Pietists finally undertook and 
safely accomplished its journey to the New World. 

Here they established themselves on the banks of the beautiful 
and romantic Wissahickon, just outside of the German town in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia. 

A large number of interesting facts relating to the history of this 
colony of Pietists in the wilderness have been gathered together by 
Mr. Julius Sachse, and constitute a large volume entitled "The 
German Pietists of Pennsylvania." 

After they had established themselves in their new home the Piet- 
ists were not content to wait listlessly for the end of the world to come, 
but devoted their time to agriculture and horticulture, the growing 
of medicinal plants and herbs, the study of astronomy and the prac- 
tice of alchemy or the black art. In their experiments in the 
latter, which were conducted only at such times as the stars were 
favorable, they were assisted by several of the early settlers of the 
adjoining German town, Philadelphia and Burlington, These early 
alchemists, who appear to have been quite numerous, would consti- 
tute an interesting chapter in the story of the development of chem- 
istry in this country, if the necessarily scattered material could be 
brought together. 

It is quite probable, also, that the first herb garden on this West- 
ern Hemisphere was instituted, in connection with this colony of 
Pietists, in the vicinity of their main building or tabernacle. In 
1704 there arrived at this colony on the Wissahickon, a man who 
was destined to have considerable influence on the development and 
spread of knowledge in this country, but who, in turn, was not de- 
signed to have the recognition that is sometimes accorded to true 
worth or achievement. This man, a physician, Christopher Witt, or 
DeWitt, by name, was born in Wiltshire, England, in 1675, and was 
therefore nearly 30 years of age when he arrived at the tabernacle 
in the wilderness. Of his earlier life and achievements little or 



316 



Dr. Christopher Witt. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



nothing is known, and the same may be said of his life in the Pietist 
colony. After the death of the magister, Johannes Kelpius, in 1708, 
a number of his followers left the colony and established themselves 
elsewhere. Among these early dissenters were Christopher Witt 
and his companion, Daniel Geissler, who removed to Germantown, 
where the former entered on the practice of medicine and the latter 
attended to the more homely duties about the house and garden. 
This garden was soon widely known as containing not alone a vari- 
ety of medicinal herbs and plants, used by the Doctor in the practice 
of his profession, but also a large and varied collection of indigenous 
as well as foreign plants and shrubs. The garden itself appears to 
have been quite extensive, and to have covered considerable ground. 
Unfortunately, practically all of the information that we have of this 
garden and its founder is contained in the still existing correspond- 
ence between Peter Collinson and John Bartram. From these let- 
ters it would appear that for a number of years prior to 1734, the 
date of the first of these letters, Doctor Witt had been a regular 
correspondent of Peter Collinson, and had supplied him and others 
with interesting specimens of American plants and seeds. 

Advancing years had evidently made the Doctor somewhat er- 
ratic, and it was to secure a more regular supply of novelties, roots 
and seeds that Collinson began his correspondence with John Bart- 
ram, who was then just attracting attention for his knowledge of 
botany and his faculty for observation. Of the correspondence that 
passed between Christopher Witt and others, nothing has been pre- 
served so far as known. There can be no doubt, however, that Witt 
had supplied a number ot English botanists with plants and seeds. 
Peter Collinson himself was closely associated with Dr. Dillenius, 
the professor of botany at Oxford ; Peter Miller, the gardener in 
charge of the Society of Apothecaries' garden at Chelsea; Dr. John 
Fothergill, of London, and a number of others more or less inter- 
ested in flowers and plants. 

There can be no doubt, too, that this botanical garden established 
by Doctor Witt at Germantown, antedates that established by John 
Bartram at Kingsessing by at least twenty years, and was, if any- 
thing, more extensive and more varied. 

That Witt was a skilled botanist, and had in addition an intuitive 
sense of what would appeal to his correspondents in Europe is evi- 
dent from some of the expressions found in Collinson's letters to 



Am, juiy r . - i9o h 5? rm '} Dr. Christopher Witt. 317 

John Bartram, where the latter is not infrequently chided for not 
sending as interesting or as novel shipments as Dr. Witt. As a 
direct outcome of this correspondence, John Bartram was induced 
to cultivate the acquaintance of Dr. Witt, and the two botanists are 
known to have exchanged visits quite frequently. The account of 
one of these visits, made by Bartram to Germantown, contains so 
much to illustrate the varied interests of Doctor Witt than it may 
well be reproduced verbatim in this connection. 

"June it, 1743. 

Friend Peter: — I have lately been to visit our friend Doctor 
Witt, where I spent four or five hours very agreeably — sometimes 
in his garden where I viewed every kind of plant that I believe that 
grew therein, which afforded me a convenient opportunity of asking 
him whether he ever observed any kind of wild rose that was double. 
He said he could not remember that ever he did. So, being satisfied 
with this amusement, we went into his study which was furnished 
with books containing different kinds of learning — as philosophy, 
natural magic, divinity, nay, even mystic divinity — all of which were 
the subject of our discourse within doors, which alternately gave 
way to botany every time we walked in the garden. I could have 
wished thee the enjoyment of so much diversion as to have heard 
our discourse, provided thee had been well swathed from hips to 
armpits. But it happened a little of our spiritual discourse was 
interrupted by a material object within doors, for the Doctor had 
lately purchased of a great traveller in Spain and Italy a sample of 
what was imposed upon him for snake stones. Besides laughing at 
him it took me a little time to convince the Doctor that they were 
nothing but calcined old horse bones. 

" Indeed, to give the Doctor his due, he is very pleasant, facetious 
and plaint, and will exchange as many freedoms as most men of his 
years, with those he respects. His understanding and judgment 
thee art not unacquainted with, having had so long and frequent 
intercourse with him by letters. 

" When we are upon the topic of astrology, magic and mystic 
divinity I am apt to be a little troublesome, by inquiring into the 
foundation and reasonableness of these notions which thee, knows 
will not bear to be searched and examined into ; though I handle 
these fancies with more tenderness with him than I should with 



3'8 



Dr. Christopher Witt. 



f A.ai. Jonr. Pharrn. 
I July. 1905. 



many others that are so superstitiously inclined, because I respect 
the man. He hath a considerable share of good in him. 

" The Doctor's famous Lychnis, which thee has dignified so 
highly, is, I think, unworthy of that character. Our swamps and 
low grounds are full of them. I had so contemptible an opinion of 
it, as not to think it worth sending, nor afford it room in my garden ; 
but I suppose by thy account, your climate agreeth so well that it 
is much improved. The other, which I brought from Virginia, 
grows with me about 5 feet high, bearing large spikes of different 
coloured flowers, for three or four months in the year, exceeding 
beautiful. I have another wild one, finely speckled and striped with 
red upon a white ground, and a red eye in the middle, the only one 
I ever saw. 

" Our worthy friend Colden wrote me he had received a new 
edition of ' Linnaeus's Characteres Plantarum,' lately printed. He 
advised me to desire Gronovius to send it to me. I should be very 
glad to see it. The first I saw was at the Doctor's (Witt), and 
chiefly by it he hath attained to the greatest knowledge in botany 
of any I have discoursed with. 

" John Bartram." 
The reference in this letter to the common occurrence of a certain 
plant probably illustrates better than anything else the difference in 
the methods followed by Witt and by Bartram. The latter fre- 
quently made long trips to gather seeds of plants that were to him 
uncommon, while the former sent such seeds and plants as he 
thought would be interesting to his correspondents. The reference 
is in answer to a paragraph contained in a letter from Peter Collin, 
son, dated June 16, 1742, in which he says : " I have a Lychnis from 
Doctor Witt different from any yet that I have seen. It seems 
to be king of that tribe. Its stalk is near as thick as my little 
finger (which is but small for a man). It is now about 2 feet high, 
and yet no flowers appear. The stalk is most finely spotted, which 
is very distinguishing from all the rest that I have ever seen." 

Dr. Witt evidently had a good classical education as well as a 
thorough training in the medical sciences of that time. He is said 
to have had a number of students in languages, the classics and also 
in medicine. In Dr. Packard's " History of Medicine in the United 
States " will be found a reproduction of a certificate of medical pro- 
ficiency granted by Dr. Christopher Witt to one John Kaighin, of 



Am "j u °]y;i^ rm '} Dr. Christopher Witt. 319 

Hathfield, in the Province of West New Jersey, which bears witness 
to the fact that this particular student or disciple having had instruc- 
tion " in the arts of chemistry, physics, and the astral sciences 
whereby to make a more perfect discovery of the hidden causes of 
more occult and uncommon diseases, not so easily to be discovered 
by the vulgar practice," is deserving of the confidence that may be 
reposed in him. 

Of his student, Jacob Philadelphia, Mr. Sachse has given an 
interesting account in a paper read before the American Jewish 
Historical Society in 1897. 

Among other friends or students, Christopher Sauer, the German- 
town printer, and his son Christopher, are said to have spent some 
time with Dr. Witt on their return to Germantown from the Cones- 
toga. Dr. Witt also had quite a reputation as an astronomer and a 
mathematician. His description of the comet of 1743 is said to be 
the most complete of any known description of that phenomenon. 
The Doctor was, in addition, also an expert mechanic, as well as 
something of an architect ; he is said to have built the first three- 
story house in Germantown, and to have built it so well that it stood 
for more than a hundred years after the death of its builder. He 
is also known to have been an expert clockmaker and is said to have 
built the first tower clock ever made in the province. One of his 
own clocks, retained by himself, is said tp have struck the hours and 
quarter hours — quite a feat for that time. He also built for himself 
a pipe organ and is said to have been quite proficient as a musician. 
That he was also somewhat of an artist is evidenced by the portrait 
of Johannes Kelpius, the Magister of the Pietists on the Wissahickon, 
which is now in the archives of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

In his own day this diversity of occupation was not, however, 
compatible with a desirable local reputation. It was chiefly, no 
doubt, largely due to this diversity of attainments that he was gen- 
erally considered, by the more simple and superstitious inhabitants 
of Germantown, as being in league with the evil one, and was popu- 
larly known as the Hexenmeister, or master of the witches. 

This popular opinion of the true source of Dr. Witts' abilities 
was still further confirmed when the latter returned from one of his 
periodical visits to Philadelphia with a negro slave. With the pass- 
ing years his old friend and associate, Daniel Geissler, had become 
unable to attend to the many and varied duties about the house and 



320 



Dr. Christopher Witt. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
July, 1905. 



garden, the older members of the Warmer family, with whom they 
had been on intimate terms, had died and the two old men probably 
thought that some younger, reliable help was needed or desirable. 
The introduction of a mulatto servant into a superstitious German 
community, in connection with the well-known practices and attain- 
ments of the Doctor, naturally suggested the idea, then, that the 
Hexenmeister had made a new compact with the evil one and that 
the latter had allowed one of his assistants to come to earth and 
attend the now ageing man. At all events, the Doctor and his 
famulus were generally referred to as the " Hexenmeister and his 
Teufelsbursche." 

It should be remembered, however, that the Germantown of the 
eighteenth century also contained men of more than average learn- 
ing and ability. Among these Francis Daniel Pastorious, a friend 
and student of Philip Jacob Spener, the originator of the " Collegia 
Pietatis," settled in Germantown in 1683, and was, no doubt, the 
direct cause of attracting Kelpius and his follower to the Province of 
Pennsylvania. The life and achievements of this early scholar have 
been immortalized by Whittier in the " The Pennsylvania Pilgrim." 
Pastorius, it is said, was also interested in botany, and furnished 
plants and seeds to correspondents in Europe, particularly in Ger- 
many. The gardens belonging to Pastorius and Dr. Witt adjoined, 
and as they were also friends in addition to being neighbors, there 
is considerable probability that they vied with each other in obtain- 
ing the most numerous and the most varied collection of plants. 

Another of the well educated inhabitants of Germantown, and 
also a close friend of Dr. Witt, was Christian Lehman, a man of 
varied accomplishments, who is said to have been conversant with 
the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German and English languages, and to 
have cultivated the higher mathematics, astronomy and chemistry 
with great success. Christian Lehman came to America with his 
father in 173 1. He, too, appears to have been interested in botany, 
and it is said that he was the first to introduce English walnut trees 
into this country. An advertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette for 
August 4, 1763, announces that Christian Lehman, in Germantown, 
has for sale "An assortment of English double hyacinth roots of a 
variety of colors, as well as sundry other sorts of flower roots of 
various prices. He also keeps constantly for sale some of the best 
English walnut trees, as well as other fruit and flowering trees of 
a size fit to plant out." 



Am *juiy r ;i^oo arm '} Christopher Witt. 321 

Watson, in his ''Annals of Philadelphia," says that Christian Leh- 
man, a notary public, surveyor and gentleman, was also able to cast 
nativities. He had been a student of Dr. Christopher Witt, and was 
as expert as his master. He cast them for all of his nine children, 
but never for hire. 

One of these nine children, a son, William Lehman, engaged in 
business as an apothecary on South Second Street, in Philadelphia, 
where he was succeeded by his son, William, who was prominently 
identified with the organization of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, was its second president, and responsible for its present title. 
Peter Lehman, who is usually spoken of as the originator of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, was a cousin of William Lehman, 
and served his apprenticeship in the same store. This particular 
connection, of course, suggests the question as to how much of their 
early training these and others of the early members of this college 
owe, indirectly, of course, to Dr. Witt and his associates. 

Daniel Geissler, the early companion of Dr. Witt, died in 1745, 
and was buried in a plot of ground set apart by Dr. Witt and the 
Warmer family as a burial plot. The now aged and lonely Doctor 
continued to live alone in the large stone house, attended only by 
his mulatto servant. 

In 1759 Dr. "Witt, now in his 85th year, was stricken with an 
affection of his eyes and gradually became blind. Despite this af- 
fliction he still appears to have, been a very active man, and on sev- 
eral occasions undertook long trips to gather seeds and plants or to 
visit his friends. In 1761, when 86 years of age, he visited John 
Bartram at his house in Kingsessing, although, as the latter says in 
a letter to Peter Collinson, " He was so blind that he could not dis- 
tinguish a leaf from a flower." 

When we consider the distance from Germantown to Kingsessing, 
the necessarily poor roads and the primitive methods of convey- 
ance, this was indeed quite a feat for a man of his years and afflic- 
tion to accomplish. 

Peter Collinson, writing in 1759, says: " I am concerned to hear 
poor Dr. Witt, my old friend, is blind. A well-spent life, I doubt 
not, will give him consolation and illuminate his darkness." 

Of the remaining years of Dr. Witt but little is known. It is 
probable, however, that he lived contented and well looked after by 
his negro slave and the descendants of his old friend Warmer. Dr. 



322 



Dr. Christopher Witt. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
July, 1905. 



Witt died in January, 1765. The Pennsylvania Gazette for February 
7, 1765, contains the following obituary notice of him: "Last week 
died at Germantown, Dr. Christopher DeWitt, a gentleman long 
and well known throughout this and the neighboring provinces for 
his great services and abilities in his profession of a physician." 

Dr. Witt was buried in the little graveyard with his friends, 
Warmer, Geissler and a number of others, who had been interested 
in the Pietist colony on the Wissahickon. This little graveyard 
was at that time generally referred to as Spook Hill. This name 
had been given it by the superstitious inhabitants of Germantown 
from the fact that Daniel Geissler and several of the other original 
members of the theosophical society had been buried there with the 
peculiar rites of the Rosicrucian Brotherhood, performed over them 
by Dr. Witt. After the burial of Dr. Witt the place was more 
than ever shunned, particularly after nightfall. 

For many years it was asserted by those who claimed to know 
that the spirits of the bodies buried in this plot were not at rest, 
and that they frequently visited the plot at night. It was also 
asserted that for weeks after the burial of Dr. Witt blue flames 
were seen to hover over his grave at night. How long these un- 
canny things appeared no one is willing to assert ; they have long 
since passed into tradition, for a Christian church now occupies the 
plot, and covers all that was mortal of Dr. Witt, his friend Geissler 
and his mulatto servant, Robert Claymore. The last will and testa- 
ment of Dr. Witt should be mentioned, however, as it illustrates as 
well as anything can his kindly feelings and his true Christian 
charity. To his servant, Robert Claymore, in addition to securing 
him his liberty, he bequeathed a plot of ground, the house on it 
and all the furnishings it contained; also all of the tools, instru- 
ments and utensils appertaining to the making of clocks. Also the 
" great clock which strikes the quarters." To the Pennsylvania 
Hospital, then a comparatively young and poor institution, he 
bequeathed the sum of £60 in cash. After making several addi- 
tional minor bequests, he gave his residuary estate to the descen- 
dants of his friend Warmer, who had befriended him on his arrival 
in the German town. 

So lived and died Christopher Witt, physician, naturalist, astrono- 
mer, mechanician, artist, musician, alchemist, theosophist and 
mystic. He was indeed an interesting and strange combination of 



Am, juiy r ;i9£! rm '} Training of British Pharmacists. 323 

scientist and charlatan, religious ascetic and successful business 
man, scholar and dreamer. Partially forgotten and lost as he is 
through want of authentic information, and surrounded by a halo of 
strange tales and traditions, he constitutes a peculiarly attractive 
link between the scientific theories and practices of to-day and the 
romantic dreams and mysterious doings of the long ago. 



THE TRAINING OF BRITISH PHARMACISTS. 
By F. A. Upsher Smith, Pharmaceutical Chemist. 
Prof. Carl G. Hinrichs recently referred 1 to the training of phar- 
macists in Great Britain in a paper which suggests further notes on 
the same subject, and incidentally a few corrections. Professor Hin- 
richs states that " any one may be examined for a degree before 
their universities, whether he studied in England or not." But in 
England, as regards university examinations, this applies only to 
the London University; at Oxford, Cambridge and the other uni- 
versities residence for a certain number of terms is necessary. The 
examinations of the Pharmaceutical Society, however, may be taken 
by a student without having studied at any school or college. In 
England a few students do not give up business for a time to attend 
school or college, but devote certain evenings during the winter to 
attendance at local classes in botany, physics and chemistry, and in 
this way prepare themselves cheaply and slowly for the qualifying 
examination, the Minor. This, however, is an arduous method of 
preparing for the examination, and nowadays few adopt it. The 
majority of students enter a school or college for a six or nine 
months' course, at the end of which they sit for the Minor. The 
School of Pharmacy of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
familiarly known as " The Square," is the leading school, and in a 
few provincial university colleges a special course is arranged lor 
pharmaceutical students. In these institutions the course for the 
Minor extends over a whole session, about nine months. In addi- 
tion there are a number of private schools where the Minor course 
is completed in three or six months, and where the tuition follows 
more closely the exact lines of the syllabus. It should be noted 
that the great majority of candidates for the Minor are trained in 



1 Ante, page 75. 



324 Training of British Pharmacists. { Am ju^i9 P o£ arm * 

these private schools, chiefly on account of the shorter time taken 
to get through the course. Another point of importance in study- 
ing the training of the British pharmacist is the fact that the major- 
ity of students are, unfortunately, content with the Minor, which is 
the legal qualification to open a shop for the sale of poisons, and 
confers the title of " Chemist and Druggist." 

Another point raised by Prof. Hinrichs is the preliminary training 
of apprentices. It is not obligatory for a youth to pass an examina- 
tion in the liberal arts prior to his entering a pharmacy as an 
apprentice, but such an examination must be passed before entering 
for the Minor. Probably the majority of youths do pass a recog- 
nized examination in these subjects before leaving school, and it is 
much the best for them to do so, as they are then better able to 
devote themselves to a study of their new avocation. Apprentice- 
ships in Great Britain were of seven years' duration in the early 
part of the last century, but a period of three or four years is the 
usual time at the present day. It is interesting to note that appren- 
tices are now very scarce in pharmacy. A few years ago premiums of 
IOO guineas or pounds were often obtained with an apprentice, and 
other varying sums down to £50 were quite the rule. In addition, 
the parents or guardians had to find clothing, books, pocket-money 
and other personal expenses, as the English pharmaceutical appren- 
tice, as a rule, receives from his master only board, lodging and 
medical attendance when required. There are many pharmacies in 
England to-day where apprentices would be taken eagerly without 
premium, so scarce are they. In Scotland the conditions of appren- 
ticeship are rather different. Many apprentices there live at home 
and may receive some remuneration during their pupilage. Many 
reasons are advanced to account for the dearth of apprentices in 
England, of which the most likely is that a lad who is sufficiently well 
educated at school to pass a preliminary examination which would 
be accepted by the Pharmaceutical Society would also be eligible to 
enter the more professional callings, e. g., medicine or the law. 
When the whole cost of training in pharmacy is added to the cost 
of a business the total would usually exceed the cost of entering a 
profession. It is well known that in Great Britain the earning power 
of a retail pharmacist is small, and the well-paid posts in pharmacy 
are few in number, comparing unfavorably with the professions 
named. But whatever the reason, the fact remains that apprentices 



\ 



Am 'ju°iy i ;'i905 arm '} Training of British Pharmacists. 325 

to-day are scarce ; consequently assistants are becoming scarce, and 
if there is no adjustment of the balance the result will be to the ulti- 
mate advantage of those who do enter the calling. 

In comparing the relative ages of American and English students 
in schools of pharmacy, Professor Hinrichs comments on the more 
mature appearance of the latter; this difference is easily explained. 
Candidates for the Minor must be twenty-one years of age, and, as 
the course of instruction at a school does not extend over more than 
nine months, it follows that prospective candidates remain in busi- 
ness until about the age of twenty. The usual age for leaving 
school is sixteen, and if the apprenticeship is over before the age of 
twenty is reached, a post is readily obtained in the interval as an 
unqualified assistant in a pharmacy. The " Minor " examination 
itself is usually regarded with awe by candidates. This is owing to 
the fact that the examination is partly practical and partly oral.' 
Hence a nervous candidate is placed at a disadvantage throughout 
the whole examination. There is no valid reason why written 
papers should not be set in theoretical chemistry, physics, botany, 
pharmacy, prescription-reading and materia medica, supplemented 
by a certain amount of viva voce examination in some or all of these 
subjects. But at present there is no written paper and the nervous 
man suffers accordingly. Many absurd instances are quoted of 
nervousness in this examination. One candidate, during an exami- 
nation in practical pharmacy, was told to help himself to an apparatus 
for coating pills in the far corner of the dispensing- room. He re- 
turned after a time with a lemon-squeezer! I have known students, 
the best of their year, misname such familiar drugs as gentian root 
and senna leaves. Alterations in the Major Examination which 
confers the title of " Pharmaceutical Chemist " are at present under 
the consideration of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society. It 
has been recently proposed 1 by the Board of Examiners, that in 
future the subjects of the Major Examination shall be : (a) chemistry 
and physics ; (b) materia medica and pharmaceutics ; (c\ botany. 
Of these subjects it is proposed that (b) should be obligatory on all 
candidates, together with either (a) or (c). The advantages claimed 
for this suggested reform are : ( I ) Th it a larger number of candidates 
may be expected to present themselves for the Major Examination. 



1 Pharmaceutical Journal, May 6, 1905. 



326 



Notes on Pharmaceutical Subjects. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
July, 1905. 



(2) Encouragement will be given to candidates to specialize on the 
physical or biological side. (3) The increased importance given to 
materia medica and pharmaceutics by the extension of the time 
devoted to them in the examination will encourage the teaching of 
these subjects, and induce more students to become expert in what 
should be regarded as the most important branches of the art of 
pharmacy. (4) The inclusion of pharmaceutics with materia medica 
on a suitable syllabus will insure that a candidate who takes the 
biological side will be sufficiently examined in applied chemistry to 
avoid any diminution of the real value of the title of " Pharmaceuti- 
cal Chemist." One member of the Board, Professor Trail, suggested 
that in the case of candidates taking the biological side, zoology 
might with advantage be added to the subjects for the Major Ex- 
amination. The Boards, while regarding the suggestion as worthy 
of consideration, do not at present press the point. The scheme 
has only just been published, and so far there has been no time for 
correspondence in the pharmaceutical journals. It would seem to 
be a wise departure. There are many pharmacists who would find 
it useful to have a wider knowledge of chemistry than is obtainable 
in the present Major course of instruction, owing to the time devoted 
to botany. And, vice versa, those who wish to devote themselves 
more to biological studies would, under this scheme, be allowed to 
drop part of the course in chemistry. The need is great for attract- 
ing more candidates to the Major examination. For pharmacists to 
hold their own with the medical men with whom they come in daily 
contact it is very desirable that their training in pharmacy should 
be as thorough as possible. It is to be hoped that a trial may be 
given to this scheme of specialization. 



PRACTICAL NOTES ON PHARMACEUTICAL SUBJECTS. 
By Thos. S. Wikgand. 

It may seem strange to come before the pharmaceutical meeting 
with the simple subjects which my paper treats of ; but recent con- 
versation with some who have had good opportunities to learn 
convinces me that it is well to reinforce the lessons they have 
received from far more able teachers. 

First the subject of percentage solutions, which seems so plain to 
most pharmacists, is still a stumbling-block to some who should 



Am 7u°i^'wo5f rm *} Notes on Pharmaceutical Subjects. 327 

know what they are and how to prepare them. A description of 
such simple apparatus as is needed will perhaps be the best and 
easiest way to make the subject plain to those who fail at first to 
understand the matter. 

Thus a i-per cent, solution of cocaine hydrochlorate is readily 
made by mixing 10 grains of the salt with a small quantity of dis- 
tilled water and pouring it into a vial previously counterpoised on a 
scale, and then adding distilled water until it balances 1,000-grain 
weight. To save trouble in making subsequent lots, a mark may 
be made on the vessel, and the salt weighed mixed as before with a 
small quantity of distilled water, and the required quantity of dis- 
tilled water added to make the measure of 1,000 grains. 

It has been found very convenient and a great saving of time to 
keep a solution of strychnine sulphate, which is often prescribed, in 
mixtures of such strength that 2 fluid drachms will contain I grain 
of the salt, so that by using 1 fluid drachm of the solution when 
y 2 grain of the salt is prescribed much time is saved and the thor- 
ough mixture of the salt is secured. 

A mixture of arsenious acid and sugar of milk is also found to be 
useful, I grain of the acid being triturated with 1 5 grains of dry granu- 
lated sugar of milk until an impalpable powder is obtained ; if 
y 2 grain of the acid is prescribed, 8 grains of the mixture will be 
required. 

Triturates of arsenious acid, strychnia, corrosive sublimate, calo- 
mel, morphine and several other active remedies are found very use- 
ful, and render dispensing them safer and much easier. 

Phosphorus is sometimes prescribed in pilular form, and many 
dispensers have found it quite troublesome to make such pills and 
to be certain that the exact quantity is in every pill. A method 
that has proven satisfactory is to weigh a given quantity of the 
phosphorus, place it in a test-tube and add sufficient pure carbon 
bisulphide to dissolve it ; then butter of cocoa is added in small 
portions until fifteen times its weight has been added. The test-tube 
should be first fitted with a cork and the mixture shaken after each 
addition of the cOcoa butter, and when all has been added the test- 
tube should be placed in warm water and shaken until thoroughly 
mixed. Of course, each 16 grains of this mixture will contain I 
grain of phosphorus, and in this way the phosphorus can be easily 
made into pills with the other articles directed in the prescription. 



328 Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. { Am ju°iy!'iSSf rm * 

While manipulating it, a few drops of chloroform may be put into 
the mortar to exclude air and prevent any likelihood of oxidation; 
the pills when finished may be coated with a little mucilage of gum 
arabic, or ethereal extract of tolu,and rolled in finely powdered sugar. 

Pills containing essential oils are often a trouble to the dispenser, 
particularly if more than a drop is directed in each pill ; this is 
especially the case when resinous substances are directed with it. 
This trouble is readily obviated by a small quantity of powdered 
castile soap. 

Camphor also is troublesome to make into pills, as they have so 
little coherence. This annoyance is easily obviated by adding a 
small quantity of powdered resin to the camphor; a quite coherent 
mass is thus obtained. It is not desirable to use it if the pills are to 
be long kept, as they will become quite soft. 

Nitrate of silver is frequently prescribed in pilular form, and the 
great tendency of this salt to be decomposed in the presence of 
organic matter renders it proper to seek a substance free from this 
objection. It is best found in pure kaolin, or precipitated silica, the 
salt being first reduced to powder, and a sufficiency of the clay or 
silica made ductile by a very small quantity of glycerite of traga- 
canth (2 parts of the gum to 100 parts of glycerin) ; the mass then 
well mixed and divided, observing to refrain from the use of steel 
spatulas in dividing it. 

Permanganate of potassium is also troublesome material to form 
into pills, as it is so powerful an oxidizing agent. In this case the 
salt is to be powdered, and then incorporated with butter of cocoa, 
which, having no solvent power over it, makes a satisfactory vehi- 
cle ; if the weather be very warm, a little white wax may be melted 
with the butter of cocoa before making the mass. 



ON THE SERUM TREATMENT OF HAY FEVER. 1 
By Dr. A. Luebbert. 
A number of investigations on the etiology and specific therapy 
of hay fever, which have been conducted in this institute, have been 

1 Abstract of a paper prepared at the suggestion of Prof. Oscar Liebreich, by 
Dr. Luebbert, of the State Hygienic Institute of Hamburg, of which Prof. 
Dunbar is director, and published in the Therapeutische Monatshefte for 
December, 1904. 



Am j J u°"im Mm '} Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. 329 

reported by Dunbar and his students. To these should be added 
the experiences acquired last summer. The object of this paper, 
written at the request of Professor Liebreich, is to discuss briefly the 
question of the serum treatment of hay fever. 

The conception that hay fever is caused in persons disposed to it 
by pollen is found in the older literature on the subject, especially in 
the English. The proof, however, has been brought by Dunbar's 
exact experiments for the pollen of a considerable number of plants. 
These experiments have been verified by numerous investigators, 
both in the Old and the New World. The following is a list of 
plants the pollen of which are the cause of hay fever: Syringa vul- 
garis, Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Hordeum sativum, Avena flaves- 
scens, Oryza sativa, Calamagrostis larceolota, Calamagrostis mon- 
tana, Calamagrostis Halleriana, Dactylis glomerata, Poa pratensis, 
Anthoxanthum odoratum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Cynosurus cris- 
tatus, Phalaris arundinacea, Lolium perenne, Holcus lanatus 
Alopecurus pratensis, Aira caespitosa, Brachypodium silvaticum, 
Agropyrum repens, Festuca elatior, Festuca gigantea, Triticum 
sativum, Bromus mollis, Lonicera caprifolium, Convallaria majalis, 
Polygonatum multiflorum, Oenothera biennis, Brassica Napus, Car- 
duus acanthoides, Leucanthemum vulgare, Solidago odora, Solidago 
nemoralis, Solidago canadensis, Centaurea Cyanus, Chrysanthemum, 
Aster, Zea Mays, Carex vulgaris, Carex intermedia, Carex arenaria, 
Carex paniculata, Carex glauca, Carex alba, Carex verna, Atrip- 
lex hortense, Ambrosia trifida, Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, Ambrosia 
elatior, Ambrosia maritima, Xanthium macrocarpum, Iva xanthifolia, 
Spinacia oleracea. 

In connection with this list, and to the completion of which work 
is unceasingly continued, it may be observed that the hay fever of 
Europe and the June cold of North America is principally produced 
by the pollen of grasses, the widely spread and dreaded Autumnal 
cold of North America is caused by the pollen of ragweed (Ambro- 
sia) and of goldenrod (Solidago), also of asters and chrysanthe- 
mums. Right here it may be stated that in this paper we shall not 
be able to go into further details concerning the autumnal cold of 
America. 

From the pure active pollens a protein-like substance has been 
isolated according to Dunbar's directions by precipitation with salt 
and alcohol. This substance is highly toxic when applied to patients 



330 



Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



susceptible to hay fever, but indifferent in its action to persons not 
predisposed to the same. This poison has been examined chemic- 
ally by Kammann, who arrived at the following conclusions: 

(1) The hay fever poison belongs to the toxalbumins. 

(2) It is thermostable. 

(3) The toxin is stable toward acids, but very sensitive toward 
alkalis. 

(4) Enzymes, such as pepsin and trypsin, do not destroy it 
entirely. 

(5) By the complete saturation of its solutions with ammonium 
sulphate it is precipitated. 

According to more recent investigations of Kammann, soon to 
be published, the antitoxin is (combined) quantitatively bound 
with the serum globines. 

The symptoms produced by the toxin in hay- fever patients will 
vary according to the place of application. With conjunctival ap- 
plication of the poison, there have been observed itching, lachryma- 
tion, photophobia, injection into limbus and conjunctiva even to 
chemosis. Applied to the nose it caused sneezing, profuse secretion, 
reddening and swelling of the mucous membrane to the extent of 
rendering discharge impossible. Aspiration of the toxine, when 
brought about accidentally while weighing the substance, produced 
a desire to cough with a difficulty to breathe out, and stridor. 
When rubbed into the skin intense itching resulted, accompanied 
by local erythema and rash. Injected subcutaneously, all of the 
above-mentioned symptoms were produced ; sternutation, nasal 
hypersecretion, asthma, urticaria over the entire body, accompanied 
by a temporary light to medium disturbance of heart activity, 
namely, palpitation of the heart, a rapid and very feeble pulse, dys- 
pnea and marked cyanosis. The poison, therefore, appears to excite 
primarily the vasodilatory and secretory nerve fibres. These phe- 
nomena caused Alberts to regard hay fever merely as a sympathetic 
neurosis. 

Sensitiveness to the poison varies with different individuals within 
wide limits. 

Among those who were the subjects of this investigation the 
most sensitive ones showed a decided condition of local irritation, 
both objectively and subjectively, after the instillation of ^i^- milli- 
gram of the proteid of rye pollen into the conjunctival sac. In the 



Am ju ( i?, r 'i9 > o5 ariri "} Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. 331 

most of the cases which were under observation the average effect- 
ive dose was from 3 i Q Q to 2~oVo °^ a m i m g ram - 

Sensitiveness to the toxin, as proven by our tests, is almost uni- 
formly constant for the same individual. 

Two cases may be cited which bear upon this point, one of them 
has received more than a thousand applications of the toxin to his 
eyes and his nasal mucous membrane during the last fifteen months, 
and the other several hundred during the same period. 

The reaction in these two cases is as prompt and almost as intense 
as it was at first, the dosage remaining constantly the same. This 
point is emphasized in order to show that there is no noteworthy 
active immunity to the toxin, notwithstanding the fact that this 
might have been anticipated in accordance with Romer's experi- 
ments in producing immunity in rabbits by the instillation of Abrin 
into the conjunctival sac. These investigations have shown that 
the victims of hay fever have a particular sensitiveness to the pollen 
of certain plants, and especially to that of the graminaceae. The de- 
termination of the etiology of this disease may, therefore, be regarded 
as accomplished, particularly since Liefman has demonstrated, in addi- 
tion to the facts previously established, that the appearance of the 
pollen of the graminaceae is parallel with that of the appearance 
and severity of the hay fever. In the meantime the extensive inves- 
tigations relating to the preparation of an antitoxin, which had been 
undertaken as soon as the origin of the disease had been definitely 
determined, had reached a preliminary conclusion. 

By the inoculation of rabbits, goats and horses, serum was ob- 
tained which neutralized the pollen toxin in vitro, and, in practice, 
protected those who were susceptible to hay fever from its attacks. 

The manufacture of the serum, which was undertaken by Schim- 
mel & Co., of Militz, in the Spring of 1904, consists in injecting the 
poison subcutaneously in gradually increased doses into horses which 
had proven sensitive to a preliminary inoculation. As a rule the 
formation of the antitoxin begins after two or three months of treat- 
ment and increases from week to week. At first the increase is 
rapid; it then gradually becomes less rapid, until finally the maxi- 
mum appears to have been reached. With regularly withdrawn 
samples of blood a systematic titration of the antitoxin upon the 
hay-fever patient is accomplished in the following manner: 

First. — The weakest concentration, for example of a solution of 



332 Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. { Am * juiy r ;i905 arm ' 

the rye pollen protein is determined, of which one drop instilled into 
the conjunctival sac will just cause, within a few minutes, a subjective 
and objective reaction. This may be termed the maximum dosage. 
Then a series of toxin and antitoxin mixtures is so arranged that 
equal volumes of diluted serum are added to definite quantities of 
a doubly concentrated solution of toxine. The mixture, which just 
evades irritating the patient's eyes, is designated the neutral mixture. 

The effectiveness of the serum is therefore determined by the de- 
gree of dilution which is required to neutralize the plain toxin solu- 
tion. 

This determination following the very numerous tests, is not 
affected by errors exceeding 10 per cent. 

Now, from the horse, which has proven its high value, a suitable 
quantity of blood is withdrawn — at least ten days after the last in- 
oculation — and worked for its serum properties. 

The horses which are used for this purpose, being under the con- 
stant care of a veterinary surgeon, all manipulations are made under 
the strictest aseptic precautions. The antitoxin contained in the 
serum is under constant surveillance, and hence it is possible to 
obtain an absolute harmless preparation and one constant in its 
effectiveness. Now with regard to the method of using the serum, 
it was emphasized from the beginning that this medium was not in- 
tended for subcutaneous use, but only for external application at the 
site of the disease. Neither has the time yet arrived when the sub- 
cutaneous method of treatment can be recommended; for even 
though favorable results have been obtained in very bad cases, such 
results persist not more than two or three days at the most and even 
then but a partial immunity is obtained. Besides, the disagreeable 
feature of subcutaneous injection would, for most people, outweigh 
their advantages. On the other hand, the local treatment, which 
consists in the direct application of the serum to the afflicted mucous 
membrane of the eyes, nose, or pharynx, has proven efficacious. 

The serum is used either in the fluid form or in the form of a pow- 
der which has been dried in a vacuum. 

If the fluid form is used, the addition of a suitable preservative 
must not be omitted. Carbolic acid may be added for this purpose 
in the proportion of I to 400. 

In a comparative test of various suitable mediums for preserving 
the serum and which would not be irritating to the mucous mem- 



Am '/u iy?i9^ rm *} Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. 333 

brane, carbolic acid was found to be the most desirable. It had the 
advantage of producing the most efficient antiseptic as well as the 
additional one of a passing slight anaesthetic action. In spite of 
this addition, however, a bottle of the serum which is carried about 
in the warm coat or waistcoat pocket, and is frequently opened for 
use, remains no longer sterile. There are certain varieties of bac- 
teria found in the air and in the mucus from the nasal mucous 
membrane which can thrive even in serum containing carbolic acid 
the proportion of 1 to 400. The presence of such a growth of bac- 
teria signifies the decomposition of the serum and is announced by 
the uniform cloudiness of the fluid and occasionally by an offensive 
odor. In order to check the decomposition of serum in a bottle 
which has once been opened, it is recommended that small quanti- 
ties of the fluid be poured from the serum container into the small 
bottle, attached to which is a pipette, and that such and the pipette 
be sterilized as frequently as possible. The method of using the 
serum is as follows : 

(1) Pour about a third of the contents of the serum-phial into the 
accompanying empty glass-phial, provided with a dropping pipette. 
The phial with dropper is sent out in a small wooden case, and 
should be carried in the pocket as nearly as possible in the upright 
position. 

(2) The method to employ in using liquid pollantin is as follows: 
(a) For the eye. — Bring, by means of the pipette, one drop to the 

outer angle of the eye, and drawing down the lower lid with the 
finger, allow the drop to come into contact with the mucous mem- 
brane. A pleasantly cool sensation felt in the eye shows that the 
instillation has been properly carried out. 

{b) For the nose. — With the head bent somewhat backwards, in- 
sert the point of the pipette about half an inch into each nostril and 
express one or two drops of pollantin into each. Care must be 
taken to keep the pipette squeezed so long as it is within the nose, 
otherwise the pollantin will be drawn back into the pipette again. 
Alter pollantin has been introduced into one nostril, the other must 
be kept closed while the serum is snuffed up from the one treated, 
tapping the while on the outside of that nostril with the finger. 

(3) The pipette, together with its india-rubber head, should be 
thoroughly cleaned at least once daily, and kept for one minute in 
boiling water. 



334 



Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



(4) Hay-fever patients ought to sleep with closed windows during 
the hay-fever season. 

(5) Pollantin should be used, both for eyes and nose, regularly 
every morning a few minutes before rising. Should it cause sneez- 
ing or reddening of the mucous membrane of the eye, the prepara- 
tion should be again used after the lapse of one or two minutes, and 
if the sneezing or the reddening of the eye does not then disappear, 
the instillation should be repeated a third or even a fourth time. 

By this morning treatment the patient will generally find himself 
insensitive to the hay-fever poison for several hours, often indeed 
for the whole day. 

(6) Those patients who are unable to keep themselves completely 
free from attacks — even when they begin serum treatment before 
the commencement of the hay-fever season, always sleep with win- 
dows closed, and regularly carry out the above-described morning 
treatment — are recommended .to carry pollantin always about with 
them. They should use the serum during the course of the day 
whenever there is the slightest sign of irritation, and not wait until 
a sharp nasal attack sets in, when the nose becomes so swollen and 
blocked that pollantin cannot be efficiently applied nor properly ab- 
sorbed from the altered mucous membrane. 

(7) If the use of pollantin at the correct time, as described, has 
been neglected, the serum may sometimes still be used with benefit 
in the early stages of an attack, stopping the burning in the eyes, 
the excessive flow of tears and the sneezing. Should, however, the 
hay-fever poison have entered the body in such amount that the 
eyes have become strongly inflamed and the nose swollen and 
blocked with secretion, or that asthma has appeared, then the 
patient should retire to rooms with doors and windows closed and 
remain there until all these symptoms have disappeared. By using 
instillations of pollantin, at first every ten minutes and later at 
longer intervals, this process can be accelerated. When the patient's 
condition is once more restored to the normal, he should endeavor 
to prevent any further attacks by the careful use of the serum as 
above described. 

Although for certain purposes the fluid pollantin cannot be well 
dispensed with, it yet suffers from many disadvantages, notably: in- 
convenience in handling, limited stability and the at times, to the 
very sensitive patient, so distressing carbol feature. 



Am 7u a ivy , i9 P oS. arm '} Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. 335 

Compared to same the powdered form represents a decided prog- 
ress. This preparation is obtained by completely drying the serum 
in vacuo at 45 C, and mixing it with sterilized sugar of milk; it 
represents a very fine yellowish and almost odorless powder. 

This should be snuffed into the nostrils or blown in with an in- 
sufflator, and can be dusted upon the conjunctiva with a camel's 
hair brush. 

According to the reports which have thus far been received, the 
pollantin in powder form is preferred by most patients on account 
of its manifest advantages. True, some patients have stated that 
repeated use of the powder in the eyes produces unpleasant irrita- 
tion of the conjunctiva, and that consequently they prefer to use 
the fluid pollantin for the eyes, though they continue to give the 
powder the preference in the treatment of the nasal symptoms. 

In fact, this plan is probably the most appropriate for cases in 
which the eyes require frequent treatment. On the other hand, 
the application of a small quantity of the powder once or twice 
daily will cause no plaint and afford sufficient protection. 

In a large number of cases in which the treatment was limited 
almost exclusively to the nasal mucous membrane, there was relief 
to all the symptoms, even including those which pertained to the 
eyes. 

The somewhat forcible snuffing of the powder into the nostrils 
caused a disagreeable irritation in some cases, but this was remedied 
when it was insufflated with a powder blower. (The one mentioned 
by Dr. Goldstein, of St. Louis, is a handy and suitable one.) The 
snuffing of the powder into the nostrils is not always effective in the 
treatment of the annoying irritation of the throat and palate, and 
for this symptom the use of the powder blower is recommended. 

One patient was accustomed to apply the pollantin powder to her 
palate with her finger, thus quickly succeeding in relieving the irri- 
tation. 

The method of using the pulverized serum includes the following 
particulars : 

(1) A portion of the pulverized pollantin, as large as a lentil, is 
dropped into the little scoop attached to the stopper of the pollantin 
bottle. The scoop is then held under one of the nostrils, the other 
nostril being compressed and occluded by the finger. The powder 
is then snuffed into the open nostril, the snuffing being repeated 



336 Serum Treatment of Hay Fever. { ^ n Yub-^9 P 05 arm ' 

several times, and during the same the ala of the nostril is lightly 
tapped with the ringer to distribute the powder over as much of 
the mucous membrane as possible. 

(2) If the powder is also to be used for the eyes, the accompany- 
ing camel's hair brush is lightly dipped into it, the brush being 
then gently applied to the inner surface of the attached lower lid, or 
a small quantity of the powder may be shaken upon it from the 
brush. With each new bottle of the powder a new brush should 
also be brought into use. 

The additional points for the application are covered by the 
directions given for treatment with the liquid pollantin. 

Whether the serum is used in its fluid or powdered form, the 
method of using it should be strictly in conformity with the direc- 
tions given. 

In addition to the use of the serum, rational prophylactic meas- 
ures should also be observed during the hay-fever season, for only 
in this way can good results be obtained. 

The first measure of prophylaxis consists in properly protecting 
the body during the hours of sleep, when the reflexa which are ex- 
cited by pollen (sneezing, coughing and lachrymation) are more or 
less quiescent, from the invasion of the pollen influence. The win- 
dows and doors of the sleeping-room must remain closed, as far as 
possible, during the hay-fever season; also the windows on the 
windward side of the house. The washed garments which have 
been bleached upon the lawn should be thoroughly beaten before 
they are used, and the clothing should be carefully brushed before 
the house is entered. 

Self-understood, no flowering plants whose pollen may induce 
hay fever, must be suffered to remain in the house. 

The pollen should be applied to the mucous membrane as early 
in the day as possible, preferably on awakening, even though there 
may be no immediate evidence of irritation. The application should 
be repeated several times during the day, and always in anticipation 
of the causes for the expectant severer attack. 

Therefore, before walking in the open, riding or wheeling, and 
above all at appearance of the slightest irritating indications. 

The latest application for the day should not be immediately be- 
fore retiring, but an hour or two previous, for otherwise the serum 
may form a sticky crust upon the mucous membrane. As a rule, 



Am j u""iSs. arm * } Re^t Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 337 

from three to five applications per day will suffice to keep one free 
from discomfort. 

Many patients have now and then observed that immediately 
following the use of the serum an increased irritation was manifested, 
and believed such at first as due to its use. 

In these cases the nose had been previously irritated, and it be- 
came necessary to apply the serum not only once, but several times 
in quick succession before the irritation was removed. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

SOME NEW ESSENTIAL OILS. 

Messrs. Schimmel & Co., in their semi-annual report for April- 
May, 1905, pp. 82-86, give the results of their examinations of the 
following oils : 

Oil from Fagara octandra L. (Rutaceae). The oil obtained from 
the wood of the tree originates from Mexico, and has a bright-yellow 
color and a linalool-like odor ; d 15Q 922 ; a D 4- 2° 30' ; ester num- 
ber 6-09; soluble in 0*5 volumes 90 per cent, alcohol, when more 
than 1*5 volume alcohol is added, cloudiness occurs. 

Oil from Inula graveolens L. Desf. This composite, which is dis- 
tributed largely in the countries of the Mediterranean, yields on 
steam distillation a brown oil with a greenish fluorescence; d 15Q 
°'9754J a D — 36 40'; acid number 8-45; ester number 161-3; 
ester number after acetylation 239-38; soluble in 3 to 3 5 and more 
volumes 70 per cent, alcohol, with large separation of paraffin. 
Judging from the odor the oil contains bornyl acetate. 

From London we received a distillate originating from Australia 
of the Myrtacea Backhousia citriodora F. v. Mull., which is there in. 
digenous. Years ago 1 we examined a similar oil and described it 
briefly ; the present sample agrees well with the former one. The 
bright yellow oil has an aroma like lemongrass oil, but finer ; its 
specific gravity is O 8972 at 1 5 ; a D ± 0° ; about 95 percent, alde- 
hyde, probably exclusively citral ; soluble in r8 and more volumes 
70 per cent, alcohol. 



1 Report April, 1888, 20; Comp. also Gildemeister and Hoffmann, "The 
Volatile Oils," p. 538. 



338 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am jBiy'il^f rm " 

A sample received from the South of France, of oil of the leaves 
of Cupressus Lambettiana, a tree which is often found in the gardens 
on the Riviera, differs essentially from ordinary cypress oil. The 
odor of the yellowish green oil has a melissa character which is 
probably due to the presence of citronellal. When extracted with 
sodium bisulphite, aldehydic constituents could actually be detected, 
but their quantity was too small to identify them ; the odor pointed 
to citronellal or a fatty aldehyde. The non-aldehydic portions had 
a pepper-like odor, and may possibly contain cymene. The other 
properties of the oil were the following: d 150 8656; a D + 31 53'; 
acid number 1-5 ; ester number 13-9; ester number after acetylation 
50-82; forms a cloudy solution with 9 to 10 volumes 80 per cent, 
alcohol, and a clear solution with 0-5 per cent, and more volumes 
90 per cent, alcohol. The yield of oil was about 0.1 per cent. 

From the same source originated an oil from the leaves of Laurus 
Camphora. The oil, obtained from the leaves of a tree growing in 
a garden at Cannes, is in so far specially interesting, that it has a 
pronounced cardamom-like odor, and, as was shown by the exam- 
ination, is also closely allied in its composition to the cardamom 
oils. The oil has little resemblance to previously examined 2 distil- 
lates from the leaves of Laurus camphora L. It is an open question 
to what cause these differences must be attributed. The oil, ob- 
tained in a yield of about 0-52 per cent., was colorless and behaved 
as follows: d 150 0-9058; a D — 26 12'; acid number 0-34; ester 
number 8-82; ester number after acetylation 46-9; soluble in 1 and 
more volumes 80 per cent, alcohol. The oil boils at 4 mm. between 
35 and 95 °. In the lowest boiling portions we detected pinene 
(melting point of the nitrolbenzylamine 123 ) ; the presence of cam- 
phene is probable, but it could not be proved with certainty (by 
conversion into isoborneol). The oil further contains large quanti- 
ties of cineol (melting point of the iodol-compound 1 12°). 

From the oil-portions passing over above 76 at 4 mm., there 
was obtained by fractionating in vacuo repeated several times, a prin- 
cipal fraction (a D — 58 23') boiling between 85 and 86° (5 mm.), 
which represented about 10 per cent, of the oil employed, and, as 
the further examination showed, consisted of 1-terpineol, which was 
more closely identified by its phenyl urethane (melting point 1 12°). 



2 Comp. Gildemeister aud Hoffmann, "The Volatile Oils," p. 571. 



Am ' jui^y.'wo^ 1 ^' j Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 339 

By inoculating the fraction (of which the temperature had been much 
reduced) with solid terpineol, and letting it stand in the cold for a 
prolonged time, terpineol of the melting point 35 was obtained. 

Oil from Amomum mala. An oil very similar to the one just 
described was received by us from the Biologico-agricultural Insti- 
tute of Amani (German East Africa). The brownish-yellow oil ob- 
tained in a yield of about 076 per cent., is a distillate from the 
pulverized fruit (seed and peel) of Amomum mala, a Zingiberacea 
very widely distributed in the forests of German East Africa. This 
oil is also closely allied in its properties and composition to the car- 
damom oils which (contrary to the preceding oil) is explained by its 
botanical origin. A preliminary examination showed that this oil 
also contains much cineol (melting point of the iodol-compound 
112°), and also terpineol. The oil distilled over at 7 mm. between 
51 and 100°; d 15Q 0-9016; a D — 10° 54'; acid number 3-5 ; ester 
number 1-7 ; ester number after acetylation 67-05 ; makes a cloudy 
solution with 1 to 1-5 and more volumes 80 per cent, alcohol. 

Oil from an African species of Labiatse. An oil also originating 
from German East Africa, from a species of Labiatae growing there 
wild concerning which we have not yet had any further information. 
The red-brown oil had an odor like thymoquinone ; d 150 09594; 
saponification number 42 67 ; ester number after acetylation 164-6; 
soluble in 1-5 and more volume 80 per cent, alcohol; from the dilute 
solution flakes (paraffin ?) separate off after some time. 

The cultivation of andropogon grasses has also been tried at 
Amani. We recived from there the following two oils : 

Vetiver oil. The oil distilled from fresh roots has a bright yellow 
color; d 150 1-0023 ; a D -j- 33 42', acid number 16-06; ester number 
12- 16; ester number after acetylation 142-35 ; soluble in 1 and more 
volume 80 per cent, alcohol. 

The oil corresponds to the distillates produced in Reunion, and is 
a normal product serviceable for the purposes of the perfumery 
trade. The differences between this oil and the oils distilled in Ger- 
many may be explained by the different character of the distillation 
material. 

Less favorable are the results of the experiments made with the 
cultivation of Andropogon citratus D. C, at least the sample of 

Lemongrass oil obtained from fresh plants, which has been sent 
to us, cannot be considered a competing product, as the following 



340 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am, / U ° 1 "' 1 f h 5 arm ' 

constants will show: d 15Q 0-9123; a D — 0° 15'; aldehyde-content 
about 60 per cent. The oil dissolves in o 8 volume 80 per cent, 
alcohol, but when further diluted heavy cloudiness occurs ; the be- 
havior towards 90 per cent, alcohol is the same. The last-named 
property also belongs to the West Indian distillates, and the those 
obtained in the Cameroons. 1 

We would finally mention the oil from Hardwickia binata Roxb, 
(Oil of ennaikulavd) which has been sent to us from London. The 
tree which is found in British India belongs to the Leguminosae- 
The balsam has a red-brown color, green when in a very thin film, 
and shows a green fluorescence. The odor is peculiar, and not ex- 
actly pleasant; d 150 1-0021 ; acid number 96-15 ; ester number 12-31 ; 
insoluble in 10 volumes 80 per cent, alcohol. On steam-distillation 
about 44 per cent, of a colorless fairly mobile oil passed over, whilst 
a brittle green resin remained behind. The distillate had the fol- 
lowing constants : 

d 150 0-9062 ; <z D — 7 42' ; acid number o 85 ; ester number 2 88 \ 
soluble in about 5 and more volumes 95 per cent, alcohol. 

Of oils distilled by ourselves we mention the following novelties r 

Oil from bay berries from the Bermuda Islands. The yellow 
brown oil has an aromatic odor which, however, clearly differs from 
that of the ordinary bay oil. The yield of oil amounted to 3 66 per 
cent; d 15D 1-0170; a D — 7° 3'; phenol-content 73 per cent.; sol- 
uble in 15 volumes 70 per cent, alcohol, cloudiness when more than 
about 4 volumes were added; soluble in 5 and more volumes 80 
per cent, alcohol. 

The phenols consist of eugenol (melting point of the benzoyl- 
compound about 70 ). The non-phenols contain abundant quanti- 
ties of 1-phellandrene (melting point of the nitrite recrystallized from 
acetic ether 103 to 104 ); myrcene, however, does not appear to 
be present in the oil. 

Oil of Artemisia annua L. (Composite). The oil obtained in a 
yield of 0-29 per cent, from the green herb cultivated by ourselves, 
has a lemon-yellow color and a pleasant, refreshing odor, reminding 
distantly of sweet basil. The specific gravity was 08912 at 15°, 



1 Comp. Reports October, 1902, 50; April, 1903,49; October, 1903* 
46 ; October, 1904, 53. 



Aru. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



Correspondence. 



341 



the optical rotation a D — 1° 1 8'; acid number 3-8; ester number 
19-2 ; ester number after acetylation 44-5 ; the oil dissolved in I to 
1-5 volumes 80 per cent, alcohol, but when more alcohol was added 
opalescence or cloudiness occurred owing to a large separation of 
paraffin, 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA. 

The fifth annual meeting of the Board of Trustees of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia Convention was held at the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, May 13th. The members present were: Dr.J. H. 
Beal, Scio, O. ; Mr. Albert E. Ebert, Chicago ; Prof. Joseph P. Rem- 
ington, Philadelphia ; Mr. S. A. D. Sheppard, Boston ; Dr. H. M. 
Whelpley, St. Louis ; Dr. H. C. Wood, Philadelphia. In the ab- 
sence of Chairman Charles E. Dohme, who is in Europe, Vice- 
Chairman Beal called the meeting to order. 

The minutes of the fourth annual meeting and the intervening 
correspondence of the board were read and approved. 

It was decided that a sample page or pages of new books in 
which it is desired to use some of the text of the Pharmacopoeia 
shall be submitted to the chairman or acting chairman for approval 
before permission to use pharmacopceial text be given. 

Professor Remington, chairman of the Committee on Revision, 
made a detailed report of the progress of the work, and stated that 
the new Pharmacopoeia would be out before the end of June. The 
action of the chairman in fixing August I, 1905, as the date from 
which the new revision will be official, was approved. One hundred 
unbound copies will be distributed simultaneously to pharmaceuti- 
cal and medical journals for review purposes. 

All books paying for the use of pharmacopceial text will be re- 
quired to print upon the obverse of the title page the following 
words in full-face or black-letter type: " Authority to use for com- 
ment the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America, Eighth 
Decennial Revision, in this volume, has been granted by the Board 
of Trustees of the United States Pharmacopceial Convention, which 
Board of Trustees is in no way responsible or the accuracy of any 



342 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
J uly, 1905. 



translations of the official weights and measures or for any state- 
ments as to strength of official preparations." 

The subject of a Spanish edition of the Pharmacopoeia was re- 
ported upon by President Wood. He was instructed to continue 
his investigations and again report to the board. Dr. Wood finds 
considerable demand for a Spanish edition of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia in Cuba, Mexico, Costa Rica and Porto Rico. 

The Rice Memorial Fund Committee made a final report. Mr. 
S. A. D. Sheppard was appointed a special committee of one to 
take charge of this fund and deposit the same in the name of the 
Board of Trustees of the U. S. P. Convention. 

It was decided that as soon as sufficient moneys shall have been 
received after paying present indebtedness and current bills that 
the sum of $200 be paid to each member of the Committee on 
Revision, excepting the chairman (Prof. J. P. Remington), to whom 
shall be paid $2,000 ; to the secretary of trustees (Dr. Murray G. 
Motter) $500, and the treasurer of the convention (Dr. George W. 
Cook) $200. The secretary of the board reported progress on the 
Abstract of Proceedings of the Board of Trustees, and further action 
was postponed. 

The following officers and standing committees were elected for 
the ensuing year : Chairman, Charles E. Dohme, Baltimore, Md. ; 
Secretary, Dr. Murray G. Motter, Washington, D. C. ; Executive 
Committee, Dr. J. H. Beal, Scio, O. (chairman); Dr. H. C. Wood 
and Charles E. Dohme ; Auditing Committee, Dr. H. M. Whelpley, 
St. Louis, Mo. (chairman); Dr. A. E. Ebert, Chicago, and S. A. D. 
Sheppard, Boston, Mass. H. M. Whelpley, 

Secretary, U. S. P. Convention. 

St. Louis, Mo., May 30, 05. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A Course in Qualitative Inorganic Chemistry. By Arthur L. 
Green and Chas. E. Vanderkleed. 

This little book of 158 pages seems to be very acceptable. It is 
particularly strong in introducing and leading up to the subject of 
qualitative analysis, so that the student does not learn the mechani- 
cal work of analysis without thoroughly understanding the funda- 
mental principles and reactions. 



A,u 'ju O iy!'i905 arm "} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 343 

There seems to be a special feature of nomenclature and defini- 
tions. Stress is also put on the writing of equations, for which the 
rules seem to be particularly clear and comprehensive. 

The brief mention of the ionization in solutions is an excellent 
example of the way in which the book is brought up to date. 

The scheme is simple and only modified from well tried forms in 
ways that inspire every confidence, rather than otherwise. 

The whole treatment is very systematic and thorough without 
being too lengthy, and the mechanical work makes it very easy for 
reference. 

To show the arrangement of the book, the sections treated there, 
in are as follows : Definitions, nomenclature and notation ; equa- 
tions ; reagents; rules leading to the analysis of metals; the detec- 
tion of metals (including scheme of analysis); table of precipitation; 
rules leading to the analysis of acids ; the detection of acids (in- 
cluding scheme) ; special tests for acids, and directions for teachers. 

S. S. Sadtler. 



Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
the Fifty-second Annual Meeting. Held at Kansas City, Mo., 
September, IQ04. Also the Roll of the Members. Baltimore: 
Published by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1904. 

Volume LTI of the proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association comes to us with a number of radical, but more or less 
desirable, changes. The most evident of these changes is to be 
found in the report of the discussions on papers and motions ; these 
discussions are for the first time in many years reported in abstract, 
in place of reproducing them verbatim, as on previous occasions. 
This single innovation has resulted in the saving of at least IOO 
pages of printed matter and, in addition, gives the book a much more 
presentable appearance. In addition to this, much of the stereotyped 
material that has been published annually for many years has been 
omitted, and the duplicate list of members has been condensed into 
a single list. 

More than one-half of this volume of more than 1,000 pages, or a 
total of 531 pages, is devoted to the report on the progress of phar- 
macy. This report, as on former occasions, constitutes practically a 
year-book or review of all the literature relating to pharmacy, and 
is by far the most important feature of the book. Altogether it 



344 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am, ju°iy?i& h 5 arm * 

may be said that this book constitutes one of the most valuable, 
most interesting and most readable volumes of the proceedings of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association so far published. The 
index, comprising some sixteen double-column pages, is still incom- 
plete, and might readily be improved on ; this is, however, a minor 
defect, and will undoubtedly be remedied in future volumes of the 
proceedings. M. I. Wilbert. 



AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The following is the provisional programme for the Atlantic City- 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association : 

Monday, September 4th, 10 a.m. — Meeting of the Council; 3 p.m. 
— First General Session; 8.30 p.m. — Reception. 

Tuesday, September 5th, 10 a.m. — Second General Session ; 3 p.m. 
—Section on Commercial Interests ; 8 p.m. — Section on Education 
and Legislation. 

Wednesday, September 6th, 10 am. — Section on Education and 
Legislation; 3 p.m. — Section on Historical Pharmacy; 8 p.m. — Sec- 
tion on Scientific Papers. 

Thursday, September 7th, 10 a.m. — Section on Scientific Papers ; 
3 p.m. — Meeting of Conference of Teaching Faculties, meeting of 
Association of Boards of Pharmacy ; 8 p.m. — Lecture on Radium by- 
Prof. Charles Baskerville. * 

Friday, September 8th, 10 a.m. — Section on Practical Pharmacy 
and Dispensing ; 3 p.m. — Section on Practical Pharmacy and Dis- 
pensing ; 8 p.m. — Installation of new officers. 

Saturday, September 9th, 10 a.m. — Last General Session. 

COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. 

To the Members of the A. Ph. A. : 

The Committee on Scientific Papers invite contributions of scien- 
tific interest for presentation at the forthcoming meeting at Atlantic 
City. 

The committee will endeavor to arrange the programme so that 
every paper submitted will receive consideration. Contributors will 
aid the committee if they will send their papers to the chairman as 
early as possible. 

The attention of members is called to the change in Article IV, 
Chapter 14, of the By-Laws, adopted at the Kansas City meeting 



Am ju°i^i906 a,m "} Delaware Phamaceutical Society. 345 

last year, which provides that " Any person desiring to submit a 
paper to the Association shall present to the chairman of the par- 
ticular section to which it refers at least ten days prior to the 
meeting an abstract of said paper, indicative of its contents, and 
consisting of not less than fifty nor more than 200 words. This 
abstract shall be printed as a part of the programme. The paper 
itself must be submitted to the officers of the section previous to the 
first session." 

The committee take pleasure in announcing that Dr. Charles 
Baskerville, Professor of Chemistry in the College of the City of 
New York, has consented to deliver a popular lecture on " Radium 
and Radio-activity," on the evening of Friday, September 8th. The 
lecture will be experimentally illustrated. 

Contributors are requested to send their papers to the chairman 
by July 20th. Eustace H. Gane, chairman, 91 Fulton Street, New 
York ; Daniel Base, associate ; Charles E. Caspari, Secretary. 

June, 1903. 

THE HISTORY OF THE PHARMACY OF THE CIVIL WAR. 

The Committee on Historical Pharmacy of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association has undertaken to collate data bearing on the 
military and naval pharmacy of the Civil War, and has issued an 
appeal for aid from all who have any knowledge of the subject. 
The men who participated in that struggle are fast passing away, 
and it is to be hoped that the committee will be successful in its 
effort. The committee requests all who are in a position to furnish 
information on the subject, or who can suggest possible sources of 
information, to communicate with any of the officers of the section 
as follows: Albert E. Ebert, chairman, 426 State Street, Chicago, 
111 ; Prof. Edward Kremers, historian, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. ; Caswell A. Mayo, secretary, 66 West Broadway, 
New York 



DELAWARE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY. 

The nineteenth annual meeting of the Delaware Pharmaceutical 
Society was held in Wilmington on Thursday, June 8, 1905. The 
business session opened at 1 1 a.m. and lasted three hours. John F. 
Hancock, of Baltimore, made an address eulogizing the late Prof. 
William Procter, Jr., recounting what had been done in the way of 



346 Missouri Pharmaceutical Association. { Am '/uT/,'i905! raJ ' 

establishing a suitable memorial, and closing his address by making 
a strong plea for subscriptions towards defraying the expenses of 
such memorial. He was followed by N. B. Danforth, who referred 
to his acquaintance with Professor Procter and rejoiced in the knowl- 
edge that Procter's name is on his diploma. On motion a Commit- 
tee on Procter Memorial Fund was appointed. 

The Philadelphia representative of the N. A. R. D., gave a 
report of what the Association has accomplished, and pointed out 
how the work of the Association may be made of more value to the 
retailer by the retailer giving information of all violations of the 
contract plan which come to his knowledge. 

Resolutions were adopted endorsing the work of the N.A.R.D., 
re-endorsing the text of the Mann Bill, and urging the reduction of 
the internal revenue tax on alcohol. 

At 2 p.m the meeting adjourned to the Hotel Wilmington for din- 
ner, after which, by means of carriages, the members were conveyed 
through the historic Brandywine Park, giving a fitting ending to a 
very pleasant occasion. F. P. Stroup. 



MISSOURI PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Missouri Pharmaceutical Association held its twenty-seventh 
annual meeting at Pertle Springs, Warrensburg, June 13—16, 1905. 
It was the eighth meeting at this summer resort. 

Thirty-five new members were elected and thirteen dropped for 
non-payment of dues, leaving a total of 314 on the roll. The follow- 
ing papers, talks and demonstrations were presented : 

(1) The Second Missouri Pharmaceutical Association Meeting, by 
H. M. Whelpley. 

(2) The Malay Medicine Man, by J. F. Llewellyn. 

(3) Prescription and Dispensing Chips, by Francis Hemm. 

(4) The First Weekly Drug Journal in Missouri, by H. M. 
Whelpley. 

(5) Some Laws of Direct Interest to Us, by Francis Hemm. 

(6) Official Chemicals — Digest of Examinations, by Charles E. 
Caspari. 

(7) The First Drug Periodical in Missouri, by H. M. Whelpley. 

(8) Addenda to Second Missouri Pharmaceutical Association 
Meeting, by H. M. Pettit. 



Am 'juiy r .'i905 arm '} Missouri Pharmaceutical Association. 347 

(9) Timely Topics, by H. M. Whelpley. 

( 10) Microscopy and the New Pharmacopoeia, by H. M. Whelpley. 
(n) Anilin Colors, by William Mittelbach. 

(12) Leisure Moments Turned into Days of Profit, by Charles L. 
Wright. 

(13) Report on Adulteration of Drugs, by Ambrose Mueller. 

(14) Proposed Changes in the Missouri Pharmacy Law, by Charles 
L. Wright. 

(15) The Druggist, by F. R. Dimmitt. 

(16) Pharmacy in 1880 and Now, by Paul Schweitzer. 

The Board of Pharmacy reported that 86 had registered on di- 
ploma, 42 by examination and 144 failed during the year. A meeting 
of the Board was held at Pertle Springs June 12th, and 14 of the 35 
examined were registered. Charles Gietner, of St. Louis, and G. W. 
Carmack, of Plattsburg, were endorsed as candidates for a vacancy 
on the Board which occurs July 1st. 

Charles L. Wright is chairman of a committee to adapt the Beal 
Model Pharmacy Law to Missouri conditions and report at the 1906 
meeting. 

The N.A.R.D. was voted $50. 

The Council was empowered to elect new members between the 
dates of annual meetings. The following officers were elected: 
President, J. F. Llewellyn, Mexico ; Vice-Presidents, Charles D. Mor- 
row, St. Louis ; W. R. Ashbrook, Jamesport, and Louis Grother, 
Cole Camp ; Treasurer, William Mittelbach, Boonville ; Permanent 
Secretary, H. M. Whelpley, St. Louis ; Assistant Secretary, R. C. 
Wesner; Local Secretary, J. V. Murray, Warrensburg ; Council: 
Ed. G. Orear, chairman, Maryville; Paul L. Hess, vice-chairman, 
Kansas City ; Dr. Otto F. Claus, secretary, St. Louis ; William H. 
Lamont, St. Louis , W. E. Bard, Sedalia. 

Delegates : A. Ph. A., Dr. Otto F. Claus, St. Louis ; N. A. R. D., 
Charles L. Wright, Webb City, 111. ; Ph. A., Dr. H. M. Whelpley, 
St. Louis. 

President Llewellyn announced the following chairmen of com- 
mittees : Deceased Members, John P. Dow, Sedalia ; Drug Adul- 
teration, Dr. Charles E. Caspari, St. Louis ; Exhibits, Fred Pierce, 
Nevada ; Entertainment, Lorenz A. Seitz, St. Louis ; Ladies' Auxili- 
ary Entertainment, Mrs. H. M. Whelpley, St. Louis ; Legislation, 
Charles L. Wright, Webb City ; National Formulary, Mrs. D. V. 



348 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X July, 1905. 



Whitney, Kansas City; Membership and Attendance, William H. 
Lamont, St. Louis ; Papers and Queries, Prof. Francis Hemm, St. 
Louis; Trade Interest, H. D. Faxon, Kansas City; Transportation, 
Aug. T. Fleishmann, Kansas City ; United States Pharmacopoeia, 
William Mittelbach, Boonville. 

A special committee on Fire Insurance was appointed in response 
to a communication from the Ohio Valley Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion. 

The meeting was one of the most enthusiastic and enjoyable in 
the history of the Association. The 1906 meeting will be held at 
Pertle Springs, June 1 2th— 1 5th. 

H. M. Whelpley. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The closing Pharmaceutical Meeting of the series for 1904-05 of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held Tuesday afternoon, 
May 1 6th, with E. M. Boring, a member of the Board of Trustees, 
in the chair. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Ph.M., who has been librarian of the College 
for some years past, read a paper entitled " Practical Notes on Phar- 
maceutical Subjects " (see page 326), and exhibited in connection 
therewith some apparatus. He said : 

" It may be well to exhibit a few vessels that render the methods 
just noted for percentage solutions of easy execution. For the solu- 
tion of corrosive sublimate, which is frequently used in sterilizing 
articles used in surgical cases, a bottle is to be selected which holds 
exactly 7,000 grains (1 pound avoirdupois), 7 grains of the salt are 
mixed with a small quantity of distilled water, the solution poured 
into the bottle and then filled with distilled water ; this bottle should 
be kept ready for use at all times. For strychnine sulphate to be 
used in dispensing, a 2-ounce glass stoppered vial that contains 
exactly 2 fluid ounces when the stopper is in its place is desirable. 
This vial should be properly labeled and the formula strychnia 
sulphate, grs. iv, distilled water /§j, should be marked on it. All 
these active remedies should be kept in a special part of the dis- 
pensing counter used only for such active remedies." 

M. I. Wilbert, remarking on the use of preservatives for solutions 
of salts of cocaine, said they were not permissible, particularly boric 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1905. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



349 



acid. He said that it was not the spoiling of the solution, that is, 
the formation of microscopic organisms, which was to be guarded 
against so much as the hydrolysis of the salts, these being very un- 
stable. He also said that it was very difficult to produce the solu- 
tions of gelatin used in surgery, as they cannot be sterilized, and 
referred to several fatal cases of poisoning which had occurred 
lately, particularly in Germany. He said that some manufacturers 
put up sterile solutions of gelatin which are intended to be diluted 
with sterile water. 

With regard to percentage solutions, Mr. Wilbert said that the 
work was much simplified by making the calculations in the metric 
system and by the use of metric weights and measures. 

Mr. Wiegand agreed with this, and said that he did not believe 
in converting one system into another, particularly when in a hurry. 
He thought it was much better to use either one system or the 
other. 

Mr. Boring said that there was an advantage in using alcohol in 
making strychnine solutions, as it not only helped to dissolve the 
salt, but also was an advantage in dispensing. 

M. I. Wilbert, Ph.M., read a paper on "A Quarterly Review of 
Progress in Pharmacy," which was published in the June issue of 
this Journal (Vol. lxxvii, p. 281). 

In discussing the paper Joseph L. Lemberger, Ph.M., of Lebanon, 
Pa., referred to the recent amendment of the Pennsylvania pharmacy 
law, and said that it was much easier to amend a law than it was to 
enact it in the first place. He thought that a great advance had 
been made, particularly when it is remembered that the people in 
the country have not the advantages in an educational way enjoyed 
by the residents of cities. 

Mr. Wilbert said that the educational system in Pennsylvania is 
at fault. He said we should try to get back of the schools, and 
that there would be an advantage in having a universal body to look 
after the educational work in the State, as is the case in New York, 
and that the teaching body should not conduct the examinations. 

Wm. Mclntyre, who is a member of the Board of Education in 
Philadelphia, agreed that there would be an advantage in having a 
central educational body, which would advance the people's school 
on the one hand and at the same time consider the interests of the 
universities. He said it was often a question as to how far the pub- 



350 Notes and News. { Am j J u i^ 19 P oi iirm - 

lie schools should be advanced, and that there often seemed to be a 
gap between these and the universities. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer gave a short talk on "An Experiment in 
the Growing of Medicinal and Other Plants," which was illustrated 
with a number of lantern slides. The observations made will be 
embodied in a paper and published later. 

Florence Yaple, 

Secretary pro tern. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Memorial services for the late E. H. Sargent were held in Booth 
Hall, Northwestern University Building, Chicago, on the afternoon of June 8th. 
The services were largely attended by family friends, Chicago druggists and 
the faculty and students in the School of Pharmacy. As part of the program, 
President T. F. Holgate told of Mr. Sargent's connection with the School since 
its inception, and of his continued aid as a member of its Executive Commit- 
tee until the time of his death The Rev. Louis P. Mercer, of Cincinnati, O., 
for many years pastor of the deceased, related incidents drawn from personal 
experiences illustrative of his character as a man. Mr. Henry Biroth, Presi- 
dent of the Chicago Veteran Druggists' Association, spoke on behalf of many 
business friends and associates, and Mr. Albert E. Ebert g ive a short account 
of Mr. Sargent's services to the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

University oe Michigan.— Owing to the death of Dr. A. B. Prescott, of the 
University of Michigan, last February, the office of Dean of the School of Phar- 
macy was made vacant. At the last meeting of the Board of Regents, held on 
May 13th, Prof. J. O. Schlotterbeck, Junior Professor of Pharmacognosy and 
Botany, was elected to fill the vacancy. 

Prof. A. B. Stevens, Professor of Pharmacy, who has been studying at Berne, 
Switzerland, for the past two years, returns early in September, and will take 
up his duties in the School of Pharmacy. 

The Lewis and Clark Pharmaceutical Congress. — Plans are now 
being matured to hold a Pharmaceutical Congress at the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
position, Portland, Ore. It is proposed to convene the Congress July 11-14, 
holding eight to ten sessions. The Washington, Oregon and California State 
Associations of Pharmacy will also hold joint sessions at that time. The head- 
quarters will be at the " American Inn " which is in the Exposition grounds. 

Papers are to be presented pertaining to the history of Pharmacy and to the 
status of Pharmacy on the Pacific Coast. A series of from fifty to sixty of 
these papers will be devoted to a concise and carefully prepared and condensed 
report on pharmaceutical progress up to date, including, in so far as possible, 
citations of the more important literature on the various subjects. It is in- 
tended to appoint well-known authorities on the various branches of the art 
and science of pharmacy, who shall serve as chief contributors, requesting 
them to prepare the summaries as suggested above, giving them full power 
and authority to appoint assistant contributors to aid them in their work. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



AUGUST, 1905. 



A REVIEW OF THE EIGHTH DECENNIAL REVISION 
OF THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA. 

By M. I. Wilbkrt, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The long delayed, and anxiously awaited, eighth decennial revision 
of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America has finally 
been published, and, according to a decree imprinted on the title- 
page of the book, is to be the official authority on all matters 
pharmaceutic on and after the first day of September, 1905. 

As an appropriate introduction to a review that will be limited, 
as much as possible, to a comparison of the changes that have been 
made, with the general principles involved in the instructions given 
the revision committee by the National Convention of 1900, it may 
be permissible to quote the introduction to a somewhat similar 
review, printed in this Journal seventy-five years ago (A. J. P., 
Vol. II, page 316), on the occasion of the publication of the first 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America, in 
the city of New York, in 1 830. 

The review itself is unsigned, but was probably written by the 
editor, Dr. Benjamin Ellis, at that time the Professor of Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
He says : 

If there be any department of learning in which a spirit of severe criticism 
may be laudably indulged it is in the examination of such a work as a Pharma- 
copoeia. The preparation of a "code of medicines " is, in the present state of 
science, a task requiring microscopical minuteness of research, accurate learn- 
ing, and extensive practical knowledge. Kurope may be said to abound in 
Pharmacopoeias of great merit, suited to the uses of particular districts. Bach 

(350 



352 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { An AuSa905^ m- 

of these contains, in addition to what may be called the common stock of 
medicines, that peculiar to its own locality, and therefore marking it with dis- 
tinctive characters. 

Neither is there any want of works of great learning and value upon the 
natural and chemical history of drugs. Some of the most eminent natural 
philosophers of the age have not thought it beneath them to illustrate the 
science of pharmacy by their labors ; and there is therefore no excuse left but 
indolence or ignorance, for any gross errors in so important a work as a Phar- 
macopoeia. 

The skill displayed in its compilation may for this reason be viewed by 
strangers as no unfair index of the state of science in the community which is 
satisfied with the performance; for in a work requiring, not extraordinary talent, 
but patience, research, learning and accuracy, we may rest assured that the 
skill which the public sentiment requires will soon be brought to the task. 

We are therefore disposed to examine every work of the kind which issues 
from our press with jealousy and to give it a close scrutiny, and we seize the 
present, which is our first opportunity of vindicating the rights of the Journal 
of the College of Pharmacy to sit in judgment upon so important a matter. 

Much that is said in the succeeding twenty pages that are devoted 
to the review of this, the first, revision of the U.S. P., would apply 
equally well to the recently published eighth decennial revision of 
the same book, as the two have many points in common. 

The first revision, as does the one before us, includes doses. 

The first revision, as does the eighth, represents, for the science 
of pharmacy, a marked step in advance. 

The first revision of the U.S.P. was put to press in five months 
from the date of the meeting of the delegates in June, 1830; the 
present, eighth revision, has required more than five years. 

The first revision was thoroughly, and somewhat severely, criti- 
cized, and it is to be hoped that the eighth revision will be criticized 
even more thoroughly, though less severely and with a greater 
degree of moderation. 

The privilege assumed by the editor of the American Journal 
of Pharmacy, three-quarters of a century ago, to sit in judgment on 
authoritative works of this kind has, since then, been repeatedly 
exercised, and each succeeding decennial revision of the Pharma- 
copoeia of the United States of America has been critically reviewed 
for the purpose of pointing out its shortcomings and its weaknesses. 
This criticism has always been presented, not for the purpose of 
depreciating, or detracting from the popularity of the book, but with 
the idea of interesting all classes of pharmacists in the necessity ol 
improving the work and thus induce them to contribute their obser- 



A ^£us r t; F i905 mi '} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 353 

vations and experiences for the purpose of making the succeeding 
revision more perfect and more acceptable than the present. 

It is with this same purpose in mind that the present review of 
the general principles involved in this, the eighth, revision is pre- 
sented, as a forerunner of other more detailed criticisms of the same 
book. For more than two decades the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States of America has admittedly been ranked among the most 
satisfactory, the most practical, and the most scholarly of the various 
pharmacopoeias of the world. Of neither the revision of 1880 nor 
of 1890 could it be said that the committee having the revision in 
charge, attempted, in any way, to ignore the plain instructions that 
were given them by the respective National Conventions, and while 
it has been asserted that the resulting Pharmacopoeias were too 
highly scientific in character it must be admitted by all who have the 
interests of American pharmacy at heart, that it was directly due to 
this highly scientific character of our national standard that Ameri- 
can pharmacy has made the progress that it has in the last fifteen 
or twenty years. That the present, eighth, decennial revision should 
represent a distinct step in advance, even on the admittedly admira- 
ble Pharmacopoeia of 1890, was to have been expected, particularly 
in view of the advances that have been made in all branches relating 
to the science of Pharmacology. In many respects this expectation, 
justified as it was, is fully met, if not exceeded, by the committee on 
revision, who, particularly in connection with the chemistry of the 
book, present us with a very large number of tests and descriptions 
that should do much to place this revision at the head of all similar 
works of reference. For the painstaking work that they have done 
in connection with the book the members of the committee amply 
deserve and should duly receive the unreserved and hearty thanks 
of the physicians and pharmacists of the country. 

That the same book, despite the five years of painstaking woric 
that has been expended on it, would not, and practically could not, 
meet with universal approbation was also to be expected, and the 
present revision committee will undoubtedly welcome any and all 
criticisms and suggestions that are made for the purpose of improv- 
ing on the scientific character, general usefulness and adaptability of 
the Pharmacopoeia, as a guide and reference in future decades. 

The whole book, as published, comprises a total of more than 760 
large 8vo pages, well printed on an excellent quality of paper. 



354 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. {^i£g£ijg^ 

In the general style of its make-up it closely resembles the Pharma- 
copoeias published by the revision committees of 1880 and 1890. 
The materia medica of the new Pharmacopoeia is comprised in 510 
pages and includes a total of 957 titles, 33 less than are found in 
the Pharmacopoeia of 1890 and 40 less than were included in the 
Pharmacopoeia for 1880. 

The general trend of the articles in the several revisions is well 
shown in the appended table, giving the comparative number of the 
drugs and preparations, in these several revisions, compared with 
the list of articles included in the latest edition of the German 
Pharmacopoeia. 

TABLE NO. I. — GIVING COMPARATIVE NUMBER AND VARIETY OF ARTICLES 
INCLUDED IN THE THREE MOST RECENT EDITIONS OF THE U.S. P. AND IN 
THE GERMAN PHARMACOPOEIA FOR I9OO. 



U.S. P. U.S. P. U.S P. Phar Germ. 

188c. • 1890. 1900. 1900. 

Vegetable 264 255 220 177 

Animal" 15 18 21 15 

Chemical .......... 233 239 267 178 

Galenical 481 473 443 234 

General formulas 4 5 6 23 

Cross references . — — — i 

Total 997 990 957 626 



From a comparison of these figures it will be seen that while the 
actual as well as the comparative number of the ofncial vegetable 
drugs has decreased, the drugs of animal origin have slightly in- 
creased. Articles of a chemical nature have increased very decidedly 
and there is a corresponding falling off in the number of galenical 
preparations. The number of general formulas has been increased but 
slowly in the U.S. P., and in this particular our National Standard is 
certainly far behind the German Pharmacopoeia, which, as may be 
noted above, includes no less than 23 general formulas or descrip- 
tive articles or headings. 

This lack of general headings, particularly in view of the instruc- 
tions given the committee in paragraph 6 of the general principles 
to be followed in revising the Pharmacopoeia, is greatly to be de- 
plored and constitutes one of the questions that should be very 
freely discussed and commented on with a view of obviating any 
similar action by the revision committee that will be appointed in 
1910 to go over and if possible improve on this present edition. 



Al A^s r t.f906. rru "} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 355 

Some Pharmacopceial Problems. — As a fitting prologue to the 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia of 1890, the then chairman of the 
Committee on Revision, Dr. Charles Rice, contributed a paper on 
the subject of pharmacopceial problems to this Journal (A. J. P., 
1899, page 558). In this paper Dr. Rice outlined what to him ap- 
peared to be problems of sufficient interest to be worthy of general 
discussion. The innovations and additions that were suggested by 
him, in this particular paper, were practically all adopted, so that 
much of what is new in the present Pharmacopoeia may be directly 
traced to the foresight and suggestions of the late chairman of the 
Committee on Revision. 

The absence of several of the distinctive features of the earlier 
Pharmacopoeias, particularly the omission of the list of preparations 
in connection with official drugs, will be a marked disappointment 
to many and will do much to detract from the value of some of the 
new additions. 

In discussing the uses that the medical profession might have for 
a pharmacopoeia, Dr. Rice, in the paper quoted above, says : 

"The main objects which a physician usually has, or would have, 
for consulting a pharmacopoeia are to ascertain: 

" (1) What form or forms of administration are officially available 
in the case of a certain drug ? 

" (2) What is the strength of the respective preparations ? 

" (3) What are the ordinary doses ? " 

In the sixth and seventh decennial revisions a physician could 
readily find an answer to the first two questions but not to the third. 
In the present, eighth decennial, revision the answer to the third 
question is supplied, but the information formerly included as an 
answer to the first, and really most important, of these questions 
has been entirely omitted. 

The omission is all the more unfortunate as the Committee on 
Revision offers no adequate substitute and does not even mention 
why the lists of preparations, formerly included, have been so un- 
ceremoniously dropped. 

In addition to being a readily accessible and generally reliable 
source of information for the physician, these lists of preparations 
were also of considerable interest to the pharmacist as a readily- 
referred-to guide to the official preparations of any particular drug. 
To the student, these lists were especially valuable, as they enabled 



356 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { Am Aa|oItu9^ m * 

him to become familiar . with the names of the different official 
preparations in which the several articles were used as component 
parts. 

As noted above, the Committee on Revision does not appear to 
have taken cognizance of the absence of this particular feature, and 
as no direct mention is made concerning them, in the instructions 
given the committee by the National Convention, it is just possible 
that they have been inadvertently overlooked. 

Scope of the Pharmacopoeia. — To men who are actively engaged in 
following up the advances and the needs of the science of medicine, 
it is becoming more and more evident that a pharmacopoeia, to be 
acceptable and satisfactory to the community for which it is de- 
signed, must, in addition to a proper consideration of the articles 
that are more or less distinctive of local conditions, take cognizance 
of the tendency to recognize international standards for such drugs 
and preparations as are known and used in a greater number of the 
civilized countries of the world. 

That the national convention of 1900 was imbued with a realiza- 
tion of this particular necessity is evidenced by the tone and the 
character of the instructions embodied in the " General Principles to 
be Followed in Revising the Pharmacopoeia." That a majority, at 
least of the members of the Committee on Revision, have not been 
awakened to, or at least have not been sufficiently impressed by, 
this evident necessity for international standards for the more widely 
used drugs and preparations, is evidenced by the rather indifferent 
way in which many of the clear and definite instructions to the Com- 
mittee on Revision have been carried out. One of the shortcom- 
ings in this direction, but by far not the greatest, is to be found in 
the committee's attempt to solve the admittedly intricate problem 
connected with the admission of " synthetized products of definite 
composition." 

With the rapid dissemination of scientific facts that is possible 
at the present time, there is an ever-decreasing necessity for giving 
any particular heed to purely local demands for official recognition 
of any particular substance or preparation. When, on the other 
hand, widely-known and widely-used preparations are recognized, 
some attention should be directed to the requirements, uses, names 
and limitations of these same preparations in other countries. 

The recognition of the so-called synthetic chemicals, constituted 



Al Au!ustj905 mj "} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 357 

as Dr. Rice pointed out in the paper quoted above, a peculiarly dif- 
ficult problem. This problem is made still more intricate by the 
varying laws and regulations that exist in the different countries 
relating to proprietary rights in patents and trade-marks. 

To illustrate some of the complications and differences that future 
revision committees will have to contend with it may be well to 
compare the trade and the accepted chemical name of several of 
these newly-admitted synthetic preparations with the official titles 
that are given them in the new U.S. P., the B.P. and last edition of 
the German Pharmacopoeia. 

Antipyrine. Phenyldimethylpyrazolon. 
U.S. P. Antipyrina. 
B.P. Phenazonum. 

Ger. Phar. Pyrazolonum phenyldimethylicum. 

Chloralamid. Chloralformamide. 

U.S.P. Chloralformamidum. 

Ger. Phar. Chloralum formamidatum. 

Phenacetine. Par acetphenetidin. 
US.P. Acetphenetidinum. 
B.P. Phenacetinum. 
Ger. Phar. Phenacetinum. 

Sulphonal. Diethylsulphonedimethylmethane. 

U.S.P. Sulphonmethanum. 

B.P. Sulphonal. 

Ger. Phar. Sulfonalum. 

Trional. Diethylsulphonemethylethylmethane. 
U.S.P. Sulphonethylmethanum. 
Ger. Phar. Methylsulfonalum. 

Doses. — The instructions embodied in the " General Principles to be 
Followed in Revising the Pharmacopoeia," under the sub-heading 
" Doses," direct that the Committee on Revision " state the average 
approximate (but neither a minimum nor a maximum) dose for 
adults, and, when deemed advisable, also for children. The metric 
system to be used, and the approximate equivalents in ordinary 
weights and measures inserted in parenthesis." In executing these 
indisputably plain and explicit instructions, the members of the 
Committee on Revision cannot be said to have followed them too 





358 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { AD iuU£, wo"™" 

closely. They have, as the result of their labors, presented us with 
a list of " average approximate doses, in the metric system," that 
will do almost anything but popularize the metric system of weights 
and measures with the majority of physicians and pharmacists of 
the United States. 

In this connection it would be interesting, indeed, to discover by 
what manner of reasoning the members of the Committee on Revis- 
ion were enabled to come to the conclusion that o 065 of opium 
more nearly represented an average dose than 0-050 ; or how and 
why 0-125 of a given drug should be considered approximately 
nearer to an average dose than o*ioo of the same substance. To 
any reasonable individual it would certainly appear that if the mem- 
bers of the Committee on Revision had given the average dose of 
pharmacopceial articles in full, round decimal quantities, in place of 
stating, as they practically do, the exact metric equivalents of the 
average dose in the ordinary weights or measures, they would have, 
more nearly at least, complied with the spirit as well as the letter of 
their instructions. The members of the Committee on Revision 
have seen fit to go even further. In addition to the ludicrous figures 
that they have given us as representing the average doses of drugs 
in metric quantities, they have also included, in the introductory 
notices to the book, a table of approximate measures that in addi- 
tion to being manifestly incorrect, is not in keeping with any attempt 
to popularize or to increase the use of the metric system of weights 
and measures. Here it may be added that with the single excep- 
tion of "The Pharmacopoeia of the New York Hospital," published 
in 1 8 16, no other representative American pharmacopoeia has ever 
taken cognizance of approximate measures; and while the Pharma- 
copoeia of the New York Hospital simply recommends that when 
the terms tea- or tablespoonful are used, they be considered as rep- 
resenting approximately the given equivalents, this new, eighth de- 
cennial, revision of the U.S. P. directs that the given values for 
approximate measures should be used, despite the fact that they are 
not in keeping with the actual capacity of the spoons mentioned. 
So far as the metric system of weights and measures is concerned, 
the revision committee appear to have lost sight of the fact that 
metric quantities are decimal in nature and are most readily multi- 
plied by 5 or 10, or multiples of these figures. 

Altogether it may be said that the figures that are given in the 



An A^st^So" m '} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 359 

new pharmacopoeia as representing doses of official articles in metric 
quantities, bear such a startling resemblance to the corresponding 
fips, bits, levies and shillings that were formerly used in connection 
with our decimal system of coinage, that the question inadvertently 
suggests itself, Can it be that the members of the revision commit- 
tee, are Rip Van Winkle-like, the reawakened greatnesses of bygone 
generations ? 

Changes in Titles, — For many decades it appears to have been the 
ambition of successive revision committees to establish a record for 
the number of changes in titles. The Pharmacopoeia for 1880 con- 
tains a list of 256 changes, and this number was readily exceeded 
by the revision committee for 1890 with a total of 281 changes. 
The latter comparatively high number is again exceeded by the pres- 
ent committee, who present us with a list of no less than 297 
changes in titles. Of this number 142 are changes in the official 
Latin and 155 changes in the official English titles of the Pharma- 
copoeia. Many of the changes that have been made are quite in 
keeping with the instructions that were given the committee by the 
National Convention. Some of the changes, however, and of these 
there are not a few, fully illustrate the truism quoted by the presi- 
dent, Dr. Horatio C. Wood, in his address before the National Con- 
vention, that: "In this, as in former ages, men are creating confusion 
by creating names." 

The production of such lexicographic monstrosities as " Fluidex- 
tractum " and " Fluidextract " should require a more satisfactory 
explanation than the feeble apology that is offered in the preface of 
the Pharmacopoeia, particularly in view of the fact that the instruc- 
tions given by the national convention of 1900 distinctly " recommend 
that changes in the titles at present official be made only for the 
purpose of insuring greater accuracy or safety in dispensing." 

For upwards of half a century it has been customary to abbrevi- 
ate the titles for this class of preparations by F. E., Fid. Ext., or 
Ext. (Latin title) Fid. Any one and all of these abbreviations 
would be manifestly incorrect in connection with the new, official, 
compounded titles. 

In this connection it may be pointed out that the revision com- 
mittee might have attained precisely the same results by adhering 
more closely to its instructions and incorporating general formulas 
or at least by dividing the extract preparations into two logical 



360 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { A ^ u J g u u s r t,Tm!' m 

classes headed " Extracta " and " Extracta Fluida " respectively. By 
doing so they could have readily obviated " the intermingling in the 
text of extracts and fluid extracts " that, as is stated in the preface 
to the Pharmacopoeia, was the sole reason for this change. 

By adopting a general descriptive heading for fluid extracts, the 
revision committee might also have divested the book of a large 
number of practically useless preparations with which it is at pres- 
ent encumbered. 

Among other changes of doubtful utility is the introduction of 
" Spiritus Glycerilis Nitratis " in place of " Spiritus Glonoini." While 
the former is undoubtedly proper and perfectly correct from a chemi- 
cal point of view, it is a stranger in a strange land, and is, like many 
of the other changes, not fully in harmony with the instructions 
that should have guided the committee. 

Despite the comparatively large number of changes in nomen- 
clature that have been made by the present committee, the members 
have not seen their way clear to adopt the recommendations of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, as to the 
spelling of chemical terms. This is rather unfortunate, as several, if 
not all of the leading medical journals of the country have adopted 
the more rational spelling for chemical terms, and it is not likely 
that they will readopt the antiquated superfluities retained by the 
present pharmacopoeia. 

In this connection the members of the revision committee would 
have done well to remember that anything that makes for simplicity 
makes for progress, and even if they were not prepared to drop the 
terminal e from the English names for alkaloids, there is practically 
no reason why the same termination should be retained in connec- 
tion with such words as bromide, chloride, oxide, etc. 

Assay Processes. — The Committee on Revision has given rather a 
liberal interpretation to the instruction given by the National Con- 
vention, " to append assay processes to as many of the potent drugs 
and preparations made therefrom as may be found possible, provided 
that the process of assay is reasonably simple (both as to methods 
and apparatus required) and leads to fairly uniform results in differ- 
ent hands." 

In following out these instructions the committee has appended 
assay processes to at least twenty potent drugs and the preparations 
made from them. Assay processes have also been appended to 



A ^ugus r t,i905. rtu '} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 361 

thirteen of the official essential oils. Whether or not all of these 
processes will fully meet with the qualifications provided in the com- 
mittee's instructions time alone can demonstrate, as it will require a 
considerable number of experiments by widely differing operators to 
demonstrate whether or not the adopted processes " lead to fairly 
uniform results in different hands." 

Purity and Strength of Phatmacopceial Articles. — To fully meet the 
recommendations of the National Convention, on the purity and 
strength of pharmacopceial articles, the Committee on Revision has 
adopted what it is pleased to designate as the " Purity Rubric." 
While considerable publicity has been given the fact that the adop- 
tion of such a standard, or rather series of standards, was contem- 
plated, little or nothing has been known as to the proposed 
limitations of the permissible impurities, and the official descriptions 
of the included chemicals will, no doubt, be eagerly scanned by 
pharmacists and others to learn what, and how much, foreign mate- 
rial may officially be found in, or added to, any given substance. 

In common with the assay processes mentioned above, time alone 
can demonstrate the wisdom, or the desirability, of making much of 
this particular innovation in the way it has been done. It is quite 
probable, however, that it would have been more satisfactory if the 
Committee on Revision had adopted generally attainable standards 
for purity without laying undue stress on the permissible impurities, 
or, as stated in the preface to the Pharmacopoeia " more accurately 
defining the limit of purity permissible in official chemical sub- 
stances." 

Regarding the second portion of this item of the instructions, the 
committee has only partially acceded to that portion which reads : 

" It is recommended that the committee keep in view the desira- 
bility of at least a gradual approach, upon mutual concessions, 
towards uniformity with similar preparations of other pharmaco- 
poeias, particularly in the case of potent remedies which are in 
general use among civilized nations." 

By comparing the formulas for preparations of potent drugs with 
the provisions of the protocol signed by the accredited representa- 
tives of civilized nations, at Brussels, in 1902 (A. J. P., 1903, page 
1), it will be found that our U.S.P. preparations still differ in many 
particulars from the proposed International Standard. 

The committee, it is true, has made a number of important con- 



362 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopceia. { A ^i n S t.T£s* m * 

cessions, but there is no reason why the United States of America, 
as the leading nation of the civilized world, should re use to fully 
accept provisions that are so evidently in harmony with progress 
and science as are those adopted by the International Conference 
for the unification of the formulas of potent medicaments. 

Changes in Strength.— -The comparative table showing the strength 
of the more important pharmacopoeial substances and preparations 
in the preceding and in the present Pharmacopceia includes a total 
of 106 titles. While it is true that many of the changes that have 
been made are unimportant, and while practically all of them are in 
the direction of greater uniformity, and therefore to be commended, 
there are several for which the necessity of the change is not ap- 
parent. Why should the strength of chrysarobin ointment be 
changed from 5 to 6 per cent., or why should the ointment of phenol 
be changed from 5 to 3 per cent. ? 

On the other hand, some of the changes that have been made are 
not quite radical enough. Why, for instance, if any change was 
thought necessary in the morphine content of opium and its prepa- 
rations, did the committee not see its way clear to adopt the pro- 
posed International Standard for powdered opium, 10 per cent , in 
place of reducing the maximum content to 12-5 per cent, from 15 
per cent., the maximum of the Pharmacopceia for 1890? 

The changes that have been made in the strength of a number of 
frequently used, and, therefore, comparatively important, galenical 
preparations are of such a nature that they should have been given 
wide publicity before the book was published, particularly in view 
of the fact that so short a period was to intervene between the date 
of publication and the date when the book was to become the ac- 
cepted official standard. In view of the importance of these changes 
it may be well to call special attention to a number of them and 
they have, for this purpose, been incorporated in the appended table: 

TABLE NO. 2. — SHOWING SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT CHANGES IN THE 



STRENGTH OF GALENICAL PREPARATIONS. 



English Title. Pharm. 1890, 

Per Cent. 

Solution of Ferric Chloride 37*8 

" " " Sulphate .28-7 

" " Iron and Ammonium Acetate, 2' 

Opium, granulated i3-*5 

" powdered 13-15 



Pharm. 1900. 
Per Cent. 



4: 

I2-I2-5 
I2-I2-5 



29 
36 



Am Au|uJt,'iK m '} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 363 

Syrup of Ferrous Iodide 10 5 

Tincture of Aconite 35 10 

" " Belladonna Leaves 15 10 

" " Cantharides 5 10 

" " Capsicum 5 10 

" " Colchicum Seed 15 10 

" " Digitalis . 15 10 

M " Gelsemium - . 15 10 

" " Hyoscyamus 15 10 

" " Indian Cannabis 15 10 

" " Lobelia 20 10 

" l< Nux Vomica 0*3 total alkaloids o'i strychnine 

" " Opium 1 "3- 1 "5 i-2o- 1*25 

" " " deodorized . . . 1*3-1*5 1*20- 1*25 

" " Physostigma 15 10 

* < " Rhubarb 10 20 

" " Sanguinaria 15 10 

" " Squill 15 10 

" Stramonium 15 10 

" " Strophanthus 5 10 

" Veratrum 40 10 

In connection with the changes made in the strength of the tinc- 
tures of potent drugs an explanatory note, similar to that included 
with tincture of aconite, tincture of strophanthus and tincture of 
veratrum, should also have been appended to tincture of capsicum 
and tincture of cantharides, the latter particularly, as it is now the 
most potent of all the official tinctures. 

The addition of 2 per cent, of diluted hypophosphorous acid, to 
the syrup of ferrous iodide, is an unnecessary precaution and is par- 
ticularly unfortunate in view of the fact that it introduces into this 
formula an additional ingredient not provided for in the provisions 
accepted by the International Conference at Brussels. 

Additions and Dismissals. — The additions and dismissals, in con- 
nection with the publication of a new Pharmacopoeia, may be vari- 
ably regarded as an index of the care and scrutiny that has been 
exercised by the Committee of Revision in correctly interpreting 
the popularity, or lack of popularity, of the several substances that 
are brought before it for consideration ; or, they may be regarded 
as an indication of the number of comparatively useless articles that 
are still included in the book itself. 

Figures, while they offer but an uncertain basis for comparison, 
are usually interesting and it may therefore be permissible to in- 



364 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { ^ m Atiu^<M. m ' 

elude a comparative table showing the number of admissions and 
dismissals enumerated in the three recent editions of the U.S. P. 



TABLE NO. 3. — SHOWING THE NUMBER OF ADDITIONS AND DISMISSALS IN THE 
EDITIONS OF THE U.S. P. FOR 1880, 1890 AND I90O. 





I8S0. 


1890. 


1900. 




256 


88 


121 






92 


155 




485 


180 


276 



That the members of the revision committees for 1880 and 1890 
were more than usually careful in the consideration of their dismis- 
sals is evidenced by the fact that the present list of additions con- 
tains but three articles that were dismissed from these former 
editions. Of these articles, but one, extractum malti, dismissed 
from the Pharmacopoeia f or 1890, may properly be considered a 
desirable addition to the official materia medica. The other two, 
berberis and ceratum resinae compositum, may safely be classed as 
being of doubtful utility. The latter particularly, popularly known 
as Deshler's Salve, while it has some local reputation in Philadelphia 
and its immediate vicinity as a household remedy, will find little or 
no use in the everyday practice of the modern surgeon. 

Even a cursory review of the lists published in the new Pharma- 
copoeia will suggest to the ordinary observer that the present Revision 
Committee has also been rather more careful with its dismissals than 
with its new additions, fully 30 per cent, of the latter being articles 
that are more or less limited in their uses. As an illustration of the 
rather liberal policy pursued by the committee it will suffice to call 
attention to the list of fluid extracts that are newly admitted ; of the 
thirteen preparations included under this head it is safe to say that 
the fluid extract of cascara sagrada aromatic is practically the only 
one for which there was any real need, and here it is doubtful indeed 
if the committee has selected a formula that will give uniformly good 
results, or whether the preparations made according to this formula 
will be at all comparable to similar preparations put out by manu- 
facturing pharmacists. Of the dismissals probably not more than 
three, or at most four, will be seriously missed. Potassa sulphurata 
might have been retained as it is not infrequently prescribed by 
dermatologists, in lotions, and being a substance that is not particu- 



AQ ASust, P iK m '} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopeia. 365 

larly stable, some official limitation of the permissible decomposition 
would appear to be particularly desirable. Sodii carbonas is another 
substance for which there would appear to be little or no valid 
reasons for its dismissal; it is true the committee has offered us, as 
a substitute, sodii carbonas monohydras, but as this substitute ap- 
pears to be quite unknown in the ordinary channels of trade, not even 
appearing in the price lists of manufacturing chemists, it would seem 
as though the committee might have contented itself by replacing 
sodii carbonas exsiccatus by the new title and retaining the well- 
known, though admittedly variable, sodii carbonas until such times 
as sodii carbonas monohydras had demonstrated its supposedly 
superior qualities. 

At least one of the dismissals has considerable sentimental interest. 
For more than sixty years absinthium has practically served as 
the first stepping stone of the average apprentice into the interest- 
ing and fertile fields of pharmaceutical learning. In this connection 
it would be interesting, indeed, to know what a host of pleasant and 
in some cases, perhaps, unpleasant memories will be awakened by 
the dismissal of this one article. To many of the older men par- 
ticularly it will appear as though another of the threads that binds 
the present with the past has been broken, and the question sug- 
gests itself, who is there that is willing and able to record the his- 
tory, the romance and the varied memories that necessarily cluster 
about this singularly interesting though admittedly useless drug? 

General Formula?. — Paragraph 6 of the general principles to be fol- 
lowed in revising the Pharmacopoeia, has already been referred to 
in another portion of this review. Unfortunately, perhaps, for the 
present-day pharmacist the instructions that were given the com- 
mittee were not sufficiently specific, and the members of the com- 
mittee probably thought it beyond their province to include general 
formulae for preparations not included directly in the Pharmacopoeia. 

Some of the formulae for galenical preparations that are included 
in this new Pharmacopoeia would appear to indicate that the mem- 
bers of the Committee on Revision have lost faith in the ability, 
cunning and training of the average American pharmacist. 

For more than half a century it has been the belief of the Ameri- 
can pharmacist that he could, and actually did, make a very large 
number of extractive preparations by percolation that, in other 
countries, were usually made by maceration. The present revision 



366 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { Am i^i ,i9 h 05. rm ' 

committee, recognizing the fallacy of this belief, have directed that 
a number of tinctures, formerly made by percolation, be now made 
by the older, more uncertain and less economical method of macera- 
tion and subsequent filtration. The Committee on Revision has gone 
even farther than this in connection with the official wines, and di- 
rects that four of the five wines of vegetable drugs be made from 
« fluidextracts," simple dilutions. 

These are subjects, however, that should be, and probably will be 
considered at greater length at some future time, and are, in addi- 
tion, not quite germane to the subject under consideration. 

Suppositories. — Under this heading the revision committee gives 
a lengthy and in many respects excellent dissertation on the various 
kinds of suppositories in use, and the different materials used in their 
manufacture. In some particulars, however, the description is not 
quite in keeping with the facts. 

When the committee asserts that suppositories " melt readily at 
blood heat," the assertion should have been qualified and made to 
apply only to that class of suppositories that do, or are intended to, 
melt at about that approximate temperature. Glycerin suppositories, 
for instance, do not and are not intended to melt at a low tempera- 
ture. 

In describing the method of making suppositories the committee 
speaks of fusion and of rolling by hand. As a matter of fact, by far 
the greater number of suppositories made and used in this country 
are made by cold compression in machines making from I to 300 
suppositories at a time. As this process is not mentioned in this 
official description, it is fair to suppose that suppositories of this kind 
do not meet with the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia, and should 
not be dispensed or used unless specified. The official weight of 
rectal suppositories, formerly 1 gramme, has been changed to 2 
grammes, and the weight of glycerin suppositories is now a fraction 
more than 3 grammes, or little more than one-half the size of those 
formerly official. 

Of the several preparations for which a general formula might 
very properly have been added to this pharmacopoeia, the most 
popular are hypodermatic tablets. These preparations are now so 
extensively used, and the diluting powder used by different makers 
varies so greatly, that some restriction or at least suggestion as to 
the more desirable diluent, size and methods of making might well 



Am August, P i905 rm *} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 367 

have been included as a guide and for general information to physi- 
cians and pharmacists. 

Powdered Drugs. — The motion, adopted on the second day of the 
Pharmacopceial Convention, " That the Committee on Revision be 
requested to consider the advisability of treating the subject of pow- 
dered drugs in the text of the Pharmacopoeia," has received but in- 
different attention, so that in this one particular at least, the present 
edition of the U.S.P. is decidedly behind the latest edition of the 
German Pharmacopoeia, published more than five years ago. 

This action is the more unfortunate as the practice of supplying 
ground and powdered drugs probably originated and is certainly 
more generally followed in this than in any other country in the 
world. 

Standard Dropper. — Another motion, also considered on the sec- 
ond day of the Convention, recommending the adoption of a stand- 
ard medicine dropper, was referred to the Committee on Revision 
without recommendations. In view of the fact that the Interna- 
tional Conference for the Unification of Potent Medicaments adopted 
practically the same description for a dropper, and the same approxi- 
mate equivalent for the size and weight of a drop of water, it does 
appear more than passing strange that the members of the Commit- 
tee on Revision, should have ignored the subject entirely. 

Atomic Weights. — The decision of the committee to adopt the so- 
called didactic standard of atomic weights (H = 1) in place of the 
international or practical (O = 16) is to be deplored, particularly 
from the point of view of the pharmacist or the practical chemist, 
who can have little or no interest in the abstract principles involved 
in teaching the theory of chemical philosophy. 

The practical reasons for adopting oxygen = 16 as the basis of 
the atomic weights in a work of this kind have been recounted in 
this Journal so recently (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1902, pp. 153, 231) 
that there is but little necessity for going over this ground again. 

A pharmacopoeia is, or rather should be, above all a practical book 
for every-day work, and any feature that will in any way contribute 
to facilitate the necessary calculations connected with the estimation 
of the amount of a certain elementary body in any given combina- 
tion, should be accepted without question. In addition to this, 
chemists who are actively engaged in industrial or analytical work 
the world over are using O = 16 as the basis of their calculations 



368 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. | A August", mo5. rm " 

The same is true of the pharmacopoeias that have recently been pub- 
lished or are being prepared in Europe. 

How much more closely the molecular weights of official sub- 
stances, if based on an atomic weight of O = 16, would correspond to 
the molecular weights of the same substances as given in the phar- 
macopoeias of 1880 and of 1890, is well shown by the appended 
table : 





U.S.P. 1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


G. P. 1900 




H = 1 + = 16. 


H = 1. 


H = t. 


O = 16. 


Water 


. . 18 


17-96 


17-88 


I8-02 




• • 342 


341-2 


339'6 


342*22 


Morphine sulphate . 


• - 758 


756-38 


752-83 


758-54 


Quinine sulphate . . 


• - 872 


870*22 


866-15 


872-78 


Strychnine sulphate . 


■ - 856 


854"24 


850 21 


856.78 




. . 286 


285-33 


283-99 


286-18 




. . 1697 


169-55 


168-69 


169-97 


Sodium phosphate . 


• - 358 


357*32 


355-6i 


358-35 




286-9 


286-64 


285-41 


2876 



Specific Gravity and Solubility. — The adoption of 25 C. {JJ° F.) 
as the standard temperature at which the specific gravity as well as 
the solubility of the several chemical substances are to be determined 
and compared will undoubtedly meet with general approval, and is 
quite in keeping with a number of other practical advances that have 
been made in the chemistry of the new U.S.P. 

This degree of temperature is so nearly the average of that main- 
tained in habitations in temperate climates, that there should be lit- 
tle or no difficulty to obtain and maintain it, even with the limited 
amount of apparatus usually found in the average pharmacy. The 
adoption and use of this readily obtained degree of temperature 
should do much towards inducing pharmacists to apply many of the 
prescribed tests for the different official drugs and preparations, and 
thus make them familiar with the importance of specific gravity and 
solubility as an indication of the identity, purity and strength of 
many of the official substances. 

Appendix. — This portion of the book can hardly be said to have 
been subjected to any radical changes, the bulk of the contained 
material and the manner of arranging the same being practically the 
same as that of the Pharmacopoeia for 1890. A special table of 
contents has been added, and the whole section appears to have 
been carefully revised so as to bring it fully in harmony with the ad- 



^aSsmK™* } Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 369 

mittedly highly scientific character of the chemical pDrtions of the 
new pharmacopoeia. 

A number of new reagents, test solutions and volumetric solutions 
have been added, and several of the more obsolete or less useful 
tests have been omitted. Numerically, the present Pharmacopoeia 
has sixteen more tests and reagents and four more volumetric solu- 
tions than were included in the Pharmacopoeia for 1890, which con- 
tained a total of 135. 

Among the innovations in this portion of the book is a time-limit 
test for heavy metals. "To detect the presence of poisonous or un- 
desirable metallic impurities in official chemical substances or their 
solutions." The test is designed to detect objectionable quantities 
ot antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc, and is re- 
ferred to repeatedly in the text of the Pharmacopoeia as an indica- 
tion of the permissible limitations of these substances. 

The appended tables have been carefully revised, so as to bring 
them up to date and fully in harmony with the changes that have 
been made in the text-book itself. One additional table, a table of 
weight and volume relations, has been added. 

The index, which is also considered as a portion of this appendix, 
consists of forty-four double-column pages, and contains upwards of 
3,500 references. The popular synonyms that appeared as an inte- 
gral part of the description of the several official articles in previous 
editions of the Pharmacopoeia, have been relegated to the index, 
where they appear as cross references, being printed in small type 
under the official Latin titles, and in the ordinary type in their 
alphabetical order, followed by the official Latin title. 

The Problems Before Us. — For the final publication of the new 
Pharmacopoeia, and for all material advances that have been made 
in connection with it, we are indebted to the members of the Com- 
mittee on Revision. They, individually and collectively, have 
devoted to the work a considerable amount of time, thought and 
labor for which they will not, and, in fact, could not, be adequately 
recompensed by any profits that can possibly accrue from the use 
or sale of the book. 

That the eighth revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States of America will be the most popular and most widely used 
of all the editions of the book so far published, is to be expected, 
and is in a measure assured by the increasing sale, use and popu- 
larity of the U.S.P. in recent decades. 



3/0 Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharmacopoeia. { Au iigu S r t,?905 rm ' 

The recognition that the present edition of the U.S. P. will receive, 
and the influence that it will have among medical practitioners, 
will depend largely on how the pharmacists of the country demon- 
strate their ability to interpret the descriptions, the formulas and 
the directions that are embodied in it. 

That the time that has elapsed between the meeting of the 
National Convention in 1900, and the final publication of the Phar- 
macopoeia in 1905, has been so long, is unfortunate, and is probably 
due to a series of unforeseen circumstances that could not have been 
properly provided for by the National Convention itself. For the 
apparent undue haste, however, with which the present Pharma- 
copoeia is expected to be put into use, as the official authority, after 
its final publication, the National Convention must share the respon- 
sibility and the blame with the members of the Board of Trustees. 
It is true that the National Convention resolved that the date when 
the new Pharmacopoeia is intended to go into effect should be 
reasonably distant from the actual date of publication, but the word- 
ing of this resolution was so indefinite, that, in view of the long 
period of time that has elapsed since the present revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia was commenced, the members of the Board of Trus- 
tees should not be too severely criticized for appearing to be over- 
anxious to get this, their first venture in the publication line, before 
the medical and pharmaceutical professions. 

A repetition of this rather unfortunate combination of circum- 
stances might, and properly should, be guarded against at the next 
decennial meeting of the United States Pharmacopceial Convention, 
in 1910, by outlining more clearly the general principles to be 
followed in revising the Pharmacopoeia and by fixing on a definite 
date, at least four or six months after the actual publication of the 
book, when the same shall become authoritative and official. 

The time that is usually required to prepare the revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia for the press could, and certainly should, be mate- 
rially reduced if pharmacists, and others who are interested, would 
liberally criticise the book before the meeting of the National Con- 
vention so as to allow the Committee on Revision and the repre- 
sentatives of accredited societies to present definite and acceptable 
outlines for revising not alone the general principles that are in- 
volved but also such of the official formulas and descriptions as may 
be found faulty or incorrect. 



Am August,^9o^! m '} Eighth Decennial Revision of Pharrnacopceia. 371 

The scope of the Pharmacopoeia could very well be still more 
restricted and be made to include only such drugs and preparations as 
are generally used in different sections of the country. In addition 
to this general formulas, or descriptions of classes of preparations, 
should be introduced and be made to provide for a host of prepara- 
tions not necessarily carried as an integral part of the Pharmacopoeia 
itself. 

For that large, and constantly growing, class of substances that 
goes to make up the universal, or common, stock of medicines we 
should have a due and proper consideration for the usages in other 
countries and endeavor to adjust our descriptions in such a way that 
they will coincide as much as possible with similar descriptions in 
other National Pharmacopoeias. 

This principle, a due regard for the uses and practices in other 
countries, is known to have been recognized by the National Con- 
vention that met in Washington, in 1850, and is commented on 
favorably in the preface to the Pharmacopoeia for that year. 

Since then, however, man, through his knowledge and application 
of the practical sciences, has been able to annihilate time and space 
to such an extent that important happenings in distant parts of the 
world may, in point of time, be announced to us before they occur. 

The progress that has been made in this direction has had a very 
marked influence in eliminating local, and even national, ideas and 
customs, and has practically done away with the clannishness and 
conservatism that formerly distinguished and effectually segregated 
the different nations of Europe. This same spirit of progressiveness 
has also had a marked effect on the science of medicine ; and the 
practice of pharmacy, particulary, has undergone changes but little 
dreamed of half a century ago. 

So far, neither these changes themselves, nor the spirit of pro- 
gressiveness that has brought them about, are as fully or as truth- 
fully reflected in our National Pharmacopoeia as they should be, and 
it remains for us to say whether or not they are to be more clearly 
portrayed in the next revision. 

In this connection it must be remembered that the pharmacists 
of this country, individually and collectively, are responsible for the 
shortcomings, errors, ambiguities and faults of the Pharmacopoeia 
unless they are in a position to point out to the present and to the 
succeeding Committee on Revision why and how corrections are to 



372 



Alkaloidal Estimations. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1905. 



be made, and where and how the book itself may be improved so 
as to make it, as it rightfully should be, the accepted and acknowl- 
edged authority on all matters pertaining to drugs and preparations 
that are generally accepted and widely used in the treatment of 
disease. 



ALKALOIDAL ESTIMATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 
PHARMACOPCEIA, EIGHTH REVISION. 

By W. A. Puckner. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia of 1890 prescribed standards for 
three alkaloid bearing drugs, cinchona, nux vomica and opium, and 
for six preparations therefrom, namely, extract, fluid extract and 
tincture of nux vomica, and extract, tincture and deodorized tincture 
of opium. The eighth decennial revision of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia directs alkaloidal estimations for twenty-one drugs : aco- 
nite, belladonna leaves, belladonna root, cinchona, red cinchona, 
coca, colchicum seed, conium, guarana, hydrastis, hyoscyamus, 
ipecac, nux vomica, opium, deodorized opium, granulated opium, 
physostigma, pilocarpus, scopola and stramonium. Further, the 
estimation of alkaloid in thirty-four preparations of these drugs is 
directed ; namely, belladonna plaster, extracts of belladonna leaves, 
colchicum corm, hyoscyamus, nux vomica, opium, physostigma, 
scopola and stramonium, fluid extracts of aconite, belladonna root, 
cinchona, coca, colchicum seed, conium, guarana, hydrastis, hyoscy- 
amus, nux vomica, opium, deodorized opium, physostigma and 
stramonium. Truly, a victory for the advocates of alkaloidal 
assays ! The advanced position which the revision committee has 
taken in respect to standardization of alkaloidal drugs and their 
preparations is shown by a glance at the German Pharmacopoeia, 
which went into effect January 1, 1901, and the British Pharmaco- 
poeia of 1898. The latter directs the valuation of the preparations 
of belladonna, cinchona, ipecac, nux vomica and opium only, twelve 
altogether. It requires but two drugs, red cinchona bark and opium, 
to be assayed ; evidently considering such assays superfluous when 
the preparations of the drugs, the form in which they are adminis- 
tered, must be assayed when finished. The German Pharmacopoeia 
prescribes methods of valuation for six drugs, aconite, cinchona, 
ipecac, nux vomica, opium and pomegranate, and for the prepara- 



nS;S a ) Alkaloidal Estimations. 373 

tions of belladonna, cinchona, hydrastis, hyoscyamus, nux vomica 
and opium — ten altogether. 

The advanced position taken by the revisors of the Pharmaco- 
poeia is also shown by the nature of the standards adopted. While 
our Pharmacopoeia of 1890 and the present German Pharmacopoeia 
direct the determination of total alkaloids of nux vomica, the new 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia, also the British Pharmacopoeia, sepa- 
rates brucine from strychnine and estimates the strychnine only. 
When assaying opium the purity of the precipitated morphine must 
be proven. While the British Pharmacopoeia directs the estimation 
of total alkaloids in ipecac the new book uses a method which 
rejects the inert psychotrine. Similarly an attempt is made to esti- 
mate, not total alkaloids, but cocaine in coca. 

As is well known, the amount of alkaloid in a given drug is sub- 
ject to wide variations, depending on the conditions under which it 
was grown, when collected, etc., and the means to be adopted to 
obtain a drug preparation of definite strength has been a frequent 
subject of discussion. It is often asked whether, to obtain a fluid 
extract of a certain alkaloidal content, must a drug of such strength 
be used so that 100 grammes will yield 100 c.c. of a fluid extract 
of the correct strength ? Or may weak and strong drug be mixed 
in such proportions that 1 00 grammes of the mixture will yield 
100 c.c. of a fluid extract of the correct strength ? Or may drug of 
any strength be used and the volume of the finished fluid extract 
adjusted accordingly? Similarly, in the preparation of solid ex- 
tracts it is asked whether an extract above the desired strength 
may be reduced with a weaker extract? Or may inert matter be 
used as diluent? And, if so, what diluent shall be used? Or if 
extract of nux vomica should be deficient in alkaloid, may perhaps 
it be fortified with strychnine ? Generally, the U.S.P., eighth edition, 
requires drugs, when assayed by the process given, shall yield " not 
less than " a given per cent, of alkaloid, and the preparation obtained 
therefrom shall, if " found by the assay to contain more than" the 
required percentage of alkaloid, be diluted to a definite strength. 
For fluid extracts menstruum such as was used for the percolation 
is usually directed as the diluent, and for extracts, dry as well as 
those of pilular consistence, sugar of milk is directed. Generally, 
as stated before, the preparations of drugs are directed to be adjusted 
to a definite standard; thus extract of nux vomica must contain 0-5 



374 



Alkaloidal Estimations. 



\ Atn. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1905. 



per cent, strychnine, extract of opium 20 per cent, of morphine, 
fluid extract of nux vomica I gramme strychnine in 100 c.c. An 
exception is tincture of opium, which " should contain in IOO c.c. not 
less than 1-2 nor more than 1-25 grammes " of morphine. For 
tinctures no directions for diluting to a definite standard are given, 
they being required to contain " not less than " a stated amount 
of alkaloid ; exceptions to this are tinctures of aconite and bella- 
donna leaves, which are to be adjusted to a definite standard. No 
authority is given for concentrating preparations if they, on assay, 
are found below standard, and, since a minimum standard is pre- 
scribed for the crude drug, this condition need perhaps not arise- 
But if coca leaves assaying 04 per cent, are on hand, what disposi- 
tion is to be made of them ? If mixed with an equal bulk of leaves 
assaying 06 per cent., may this mixture be considered to be 
coca U.S.P. ? Since with opium the mixing of weaker and stronger 
drug in proper proportions is specifically directed, and since no such 
directions are given for any other drug, does this mean that this 
procedure may be used with opium only ? 

As was natural, the Keller method of assay, with few exceptions, 
was adopted for the assay of crude drugs. For belladonna leaves, 
belladonna root, coca, hyoscyamus, scopola and stramonium, the 
writer's modification of the Keller method [Pharm. Rev., 1898, 16, 
p. 180), which avoids the use of aliquot parts, was adopted. For 
aconite the method of A, B. Stevens [Pharm. Arch., 1902, 6, p. 49; 
Proc. A. Ph. A., 51, 776), in which the drug is extracted with 70 per 
cent, alcohol, was adopted. For pilocarpus the method of A. B. Lyons 
(Proc. A. Ph. A., 1903, 51, p. 254), in which the drug is percolated 
with chloroform in the presence of ammonia and where also aliquot 
parts are avoided, is given. 

For fluid extracts quite a variety of methods were adopted. Fluid 
extract of aconite is, of course, assayed by the Stevens method. 
Fluid extracts of belladonna leaves, hyoscyamus, scopola and stra- 
monium are to be assayed by the method suggested by the writer 
(Pharm. Rev., 1898, 16, p. 303), in which the fluid extract is diluted 
with water, made alkaline with ammonia water and extracted with 
chloroform without having previously expelled the alcohol contained 
in the fluid extract. When assaying fluid extract of coca the same 
method is used, except that ether is substituted for chloroform. 
Fluid extracts of ipecac and nux vomica are illustrations where the 



Am ASusM905" m -} Alkaloidal Estimations. 375 

alcohol is expelled before the liquid is transferred to the separator 
for extraction. In fluid extract of colchicum seed and fluid extract 
conium the liquid is evaporated to dryness with sand, and then the 
Keller assay method applied. While in the assay of hydrastis the 
insolubility of berberine in ether is depended on to separate hydras- 
tine from berberine, when the fluid extract is assayed the berberine 
is precipitated and removed as the iodide, as recommended by Gor- 
din and Prescott (Am. J. Pharm., 1899, 71, p. 257). 

The methods for the assay of tinctures and extracts are generally 
adapted from those prescribed for the corresponding fluid extracts. 
Thus extract of belladonna leaves is dissolved in a mixture of water, 
alcohol and ammonia water, and then treated as directed for the 
fluid extract, while extract of physostigma is digested with a little 
dilute alcohol, then brought to dryness with sand and assayed. 

When the alkaloidal residue obtained in the assay is to be 
titrated, generally hematoxylin is to be used as indicator, even when 
titrating ipecac alkaloids. In some cases iodeosin is given as an 
alternate ; in nux vomica it is specified. 

Caffeine, colchicine, hydrastine and morphine are determined by 
weighing the free base, the purity of morphine being checked by its 
solubility in lime water. Conine is weighed as conine chloride. 

When stramonium leaves or its preparations are submitted to 
assay the alkaloidal content is calculated from the amount of acid 
required for the neutralization of the extracted alkaloids; but this 
assay tells practically nothing about the identity of the alkaloids. 
As far as the assay is concerned, fluid extract of coca might be sub- 
stituted lor stramonium leaves or a worthless lot of hyoscyamus 
might be brought up to standard by the admixture of very little 
belladonna leaves. While such substitution has been detected in 
commercial products, as, for instance, in sheep dips, sold on 
their nicotine content, which have been found adulterated with 
pyridine (J. A. Emery, J. Am. Chan. Soc, 1904, 26, p. 11 13), no 
similar adulteration has to my knowledge been reported for medici- 
nal substances. Although not requiring an identification as well as 
an estimation of the alkaloid of drugs, as does the German Pharma- 
copoeia, in some cases the U.S.P. standards in a way do define the 
identity of the alkaloids ; thus hydrastis is required to contain not 
less than 2-5 percent, of hydrastine, belladonna leaves shall yield 
not less than 0-35 per cent, of mydriatic alkaloids, fluid extract of 



37^ Professor Horatio C. Wood. { Am Augusi. S. rm# 

belladonna root must contain 5 grammes of mydriatic alkaloids 
from belladonna root, and fluid extract of guarana must contain in 
100 c.c. 3-5 grammes of the alkaloids from guarana. 

Finally, the retention of H=i standard of atomic weights should 
here be noted, since it is liable to be of some annoyance in alka- 
loidal estimations. Thus, while with this standard the molecular 
weight of aconitine, C 34 H 47 O n N, is 640-55, it is 645-42 when the now 
generally adopted standard, O = 16, is used to calculate the molecu- 
lar weight, and an inadvertent substitution of one for the other may 
introduce an error of nearly 1 per cent, in a volumetric estimation 
of aconitine. 

Scientific Department, 
The Searee & Hereth Company. 



PROFESSOR HORATIO C. WOOD. 
By Henry Beates, Jr. 

Prof. Horatio C. Wood, the President of the U. S. Pharmacopceial 
Convention, is a physician of distinguished and scientific merit, as 
well as a naturalist of world-wide fame. He was born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., January 13, 1841. He is a descendant of Richard Wood, 
who emigrated from Bristol, England, in 1682, and settled first in 
Philadelphia, and later in New Jersey. His genealogy on his father's 
side in America, arranged in generations, is Richard Wood, James 
Wood and Jane Wood, Richard Wood and Priscilla Bacon Wood, 
Richard Wood and Hannah Davis Wood, Richard Wood and 
Elizabeth Bacon Wood, Horatio Curtis Wood and Elizabeth Bacon 
Wood. 

On the mother's side he is believed to be descended from Samuel 
Bacon, who, in 1685, purchased lands on the Cohansey River, Cum- 
berland County, N. J., from the Indian sachems. Samuel Bacon is 
the reputed son of Nathaniel Bacon, who was a member of the 
Long Parliament, and banished under Charles II. This Nathaniel 
Bacon was the son of Sir Nathaniel Bacon, a brother of Sir Thomas 
Bacon and grandson of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper to Queen 
Elizabeth. Through Hannah Davis the strain of blood is traceable 
to a brother of Robert Bruce, of Scotland. 

Professor Wood was educated at Westtown Boarding School, 
and the Friends' Select School of Philadelphia, both sectarian insti- 




H. C. WOOD, M.D., 
President U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, 1900. 



Am iugusl P l9 h (S' m •} Professor Horatio C. Wood, 377 

tutions, and graduated by the Medical Department of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in the class of 1862. 

Before entering medicine his fondness for natural history found 
him a worker in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
He there distinguished himself by his original work. His first 
original paper, " Contributions to the Carboniferous Flora of the 
United States," appeared in the proceedings of the Academy when 
he was but nineteen years old. 

After obtaining the doctorate, he at once became a resident 
physician of the Philadelphia Hospital, and, a year later, occupied a 
similar post in the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

He entered upon private practice in 1865, and directed his ener- 
gies especially to materia medica and the art of therapeutics. 
During these years he continued his studies in natural history and 
published numerous valuable papers. His work in " cell botany " 
was noted, and of his many important papers one on the " Fresh- 
Water Algae of North America " was published in the "Smith- 
sonian " of 1872, with nineteen colored and two uncolored plates, 
and 360 original microscopical drawings. Thirteen original memoirs 
on entomological subjects contribute to his fame. 

After 1873 he devoted his talents entirely to medicine. He occu- 
pied the Chair of Botany on the Auxiliary Faculty of Medicine of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1866. He filled this chair, which 
had been established and endowed by his famous uncle, Prof. Geo. 
B. Wood, for ten years with distinguished merit. He devoted 
several years to the especial study of diseases of the nervous system, 
and was made clinical lecturer on this subject when, in 1894, the 
new University Hospital was organized. 

The following year he was appointed Professor of Diseases of the 
Nervous System. As editor of New Remedies, 1 871-73, and of the 
Philadelphia Medical Times, 1873-83; of the Therapeutic Gazette, 
1884-90; and as sole editor of the latter half of the fourteenth edi- 
tion of the United States Dispensatory, he served medical journalism 
with meritorious success. His co-operation in the revision of the 
fifteenth to eighteenth editions of the United States Dispensatory, 
with Profs. Joseph P. Remington and Samuel P. Sadtler, is well 
known. 

His " Investigation of Thermic Fever or Sunstroke," 1 892 ; " Studies 
n the Physiology of Fever"; his world-wide-used text and reference 



378 



Professor Horatio C. Wood. 



f Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ August, 1905. 



book on " Materia Medica, Theapeutics and Toxicology," first edi- 
tion, 1874; twelfth, 1905 — are monuments to his learning and skill, 
and have served as most potent factors in evolving that type of 
modern thought so well termed rational medicine. Indeed, his 
influence for rational medicine classifies him as a pioneer. 

His prize essay on " Thermic Fever or Sunstroke," in 1872 ; the 
brochure on " Brain Work and Overwork," in 1880; his text-book 
on " Nervous Diseases and Their Diagnosis," 1887; "Syphilis of 
the Nervous System," 1889; "The Practice of Medicine," in con- 
nection with Prof. R. H. Fitz, of Harvard, in 1896, compose the 
more widely used of his published works. 

Miscellaneous papers have been published by the Smithsonian 
Institute, the American Philosophical Society, the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Essex Institute of Salem, Mass., 
as well as by the various leading technical, scientific and medical 
journals of America, England and Germany. These comprise 
twenty-six original botanical and entomological papers and 240 
original articles on experimental pathology, physiology, therapeutics 
and clinical and legal medicine. 

Under the auspices of the Medical Alumni of Harvard University 
he delivered a special course of lectures on Therapeutics in that in- 
stitution in 1893. In 1890 he was honored with delivering the ad- 
dress for America before the International Medical Congress in 
Berlin, Germany. He represented America again at the Inter- 
national Pharmacopceial Convention at Brussels, Belgium, in 1902. 

He served his country during the War of the Rebellion as Acting 
Assistant Surgeon in Washington, Virginia and Philadelphia. As 
consulting neurologist he has been connected with the Philadelphia, 
Episcopal, University and Burn Brae Hospitals. He has won sev- 
eral prizes offered for scientific research, requiring ability of the 
highest order, and has been the recipient of honorary degrees by 
several of our most renowned institutions of learning. 

Many scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sci- 
ence, are honored by his membership. The College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of Philadelphia in 1902 and 1903 accorded him their 
highest gift, the presidency. 

This partial sketch of one of Philadelphia's most indefatigable and 
distinguished scientists would be incomplete were reference not had 
to his personality or character. Always exemplary of the highest 



^ m August-.^ m -} Professor Joseph P. Remington. 379 

ideals, he is thorough as an investigator, and demands of his stu- 
dents accuracy of work in the acquisition of knowledge. Exacting, 
he is ever courteous and considerate, and those who have profited 
from his teachings and enjoyed the privilege of his learned dis- 
courses hold in grateful remembrance him whom they respect and 
regard with high esteem. 

His influence for strength of character; for unceasing endeavor to 
better and progress ; for devotion to truth and the welfare of fellow 
man ; for doing unto others as he would be done by ; explain why 
the profession it has been his life-work to serve, has honored him 
with well-merited tributes of the highest confidences, trust and re- 
spect. Truly, of Wood it can be said, the world is the better for 
his having lived. 



BIOGRAPHY OF PROF. JOSEPH P. REMINGTON. 
By Chas. H. UWau. 

Equipped by nature with a rare combination of qualities of a high 
order, Prof. Joseph P. Remington, chairman of the Committee of 
Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, is to-day unquestion- 
ably the foremost figure in American pharmacy. A profound stu- 
dent of human nature, a discriminating patron of art and literature, 
possessed of a wide fund of scientific knowledge and a man of rarely 
winning personality, he is the possessor of many other admirable 
qualities which endear him to his friends and compel the respect of 
those who differ from him. ' 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington was born in Philadelphia on the 26th 
of March, 1847. His father was Dr. Isaac Remington, a well-known 
Philadelphia physician, and his mother was the daughter of John 
Hart, who was the descendant of Townsend Speakman, one of the 
earliest Philadelphia apothecaries. Professor Remington's ancestors 
on both sides of the family have been residents of Philadelphia for 
three generations, and all of them have been members of the Society 
of Friends. 

From both his maternal and paternal ancestry Professor Rem- 
ington inherited a liking for science, particularly in the direction of 
chemistry, and at an early age he equipped a small laboratory, 
where he carried out many experiments, and at this early period he 
constructed much of his own apparatus, being of a mechanical turn 



38o 



Professor Joseph P. Remington. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1905. 



of mind. At the age of fifteen he suffered the loss of his father, 
whose death at this time compelled him to change his plans regard- 
ing his education. There was no doubt as to the line of work for 
which he was best adapted, although many of his friends and rela- 
tives at that time wished him to take up his father's profession and 
become a physician. In this discussion he had his own way, and he 
was allowed to begin the study of pharmacy, his argument being 
that the best way to become a good physician was first to become a 
good pharmacist. He thus gained his point, and while medicine 
may have lost a shining light, pharmacy has acquired a new con- 
stellation, in which he is the central moving force. 

On January I, 1863, Joseph P. Remington began his apprentice- 
ship whereby he was to learn the art and mystery of the apothecary 
business. The store selected was that of Charles Ellis, Son & Co., 
the selection being made by Mr. Henry M. Troth, the son of Henry 
Troth, who played such a prominent part in the early affairs of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Mr. Troth was the brother-in- 
law of Professor Remington, and it was through him that Charles 
Ellis, the head of the firm, who was at that time the president of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, took more than ordinary 
interest in the young apprentice. In those days the apprenticeship 
to the drug business did not consist in selling postage stamps and 
serving soda-water, and the business of Charles Ellis, Son & Co. at 
that time embraced an unusually wide range of work, including the 
spreading of adhesive plasters and the manufacture of many phar- 
maceutical preparations on a large scale. 

During his term of apprenticeship Prof. Remington attended the lec- 
tures at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and the degree of Grad- 
uate in Pharmacy was conferred upon him at the Commencement of 
the College held in 1866. On January 1, 1867, Professor Remington 
entered the service of Dr. E. R. Squibb, who was probably the most 
painstaking and conscientious member of the pharmaceutical profes- 
sion in this country. Professor Remington entered Dr. Squibb's family 
and made his home with them for nearly three years ; during which 
time he acquired a practical knowledge of analytical and manufac- 
turing work, which was rendered doubly valuable by the daily dis- 
cussions with his preceptor, and the interest which Dr. Squibb took 
in his pupil. Professor Remington's special duties during the latter 
part of this period embraced the manufacture of chemical salts* 



Am ASsi, i l9o a 5 , ; m *} Professor Joseph P. Remington, 381 

spirit of nitrous ether, oil of wine, purification of chloroform and the 
manufacture of ether for anaesthetic purposes, the latter process 
being one in which Dr. Squibb took especial pride, the product 
being made of the highest possible quality in an apparatus of his 
own devising. 

The death of Professor Remington's mother at this period neces- 
sitated his return to Philadelphia, where he entered the employ of 
Powers & Weightman, with whom he continued until 1872, when he 
purchased the retail pharmacy at the northeast corner of Thirteenth 
and Walnut Streets. Here he continued in business for a period of 
thirteen years, during which time he showed himself to be equipped 
with practical business qualities seldom seen in combination with 
the high degree of professional knowledge of which he was the 
possessor. 

His active participation in the affairs of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy commenced in 1871, when he was invited to become 
the assistant to Prof. Edward Parrish, who then occupied the chair of 
Pharmacy in that institution. After the death of Professor Parrish, 
in 1872, Professor Procter, who was reinstated to the position of Pro- 
fessor of Pharmacy, which he had formerly occupied, retained Pro- 
fessor Remington as his assistant. These pleasant relations 
continued until the death of Professor Procter, in 1874, Professor 
Remington being elected in March of that year to the full Professor- 
ship in Pharmacy. His progressive spirit and his sincere love for 
his Alma Mater has led him to constantly exert his efforts toward 
increasing the equipment and raising the standard of education in 
the institution with which he has ever since been associated. It 
was through his instrumentality that the method of practical in- 
struction in pharmacy was inaugurated and brought to its present 
high degree of efficiency. 

Professor Remington's service in the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, of which body he became a member in 1868, has been 
varied and continuous. He has been the chairman of numerous im- 
portant committees, among which may be mentioned the Commit- 
tee on the Centennial Exhibition in 1876, at which time he played 
a very important part in local pharmaceutical affairs owing to his 
high professional standing, both as a teacher and as a practical 
pharmacist. In 1892 he was elected to the presidency of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, and he presided over probably the 



3 82 



Professor [oseph P. Remington. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1905. 



most important meeting in the history of that association — the one 
held in Chicago during the World's Fair in 1893, during which 
time there was also an important international pharmaceutical con- 
ference, over which he also presided. During his many years 
of membership in this association his numerous contributions of 
papers to the annual meetings have been valuable and interesting. 

In 1878 Professor Remingtom aided in organizing the Pennsyl- 
vania Pharmaceutical Association. During the many years since 
that time Professor Remington has rarely missed a meeting of that 
association, as he has constantly been actively interested in all sub- 
jects pertaining to the advancement of pharmacy. He was elected 
to the presidency of the Pennsylvania State Association in 1896, and 
it was largely through his active efforts during President Hay's term 
of office in 1903 that the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association 
added 500 new members by special organized effort of an auxiliary 
committee on membership of which Professor Remington was the 
chairman. 

Professor Remington's high order of ability as a diplomat has 
frequently l?d to his appointment as a delegate to the various medi- 
cal associations, and it is largely through his instrumentality that 
the most cordial relations have always existed between the organi- 
zations of these two great professions. 

Professor Remington's contributions to the literature of pharmacy 
have not been confined to the writing of papers, but he is the author 
of one of the best-known text-books of pharmacy in the world, the 
" Practice of Pharmacy," first issued in 1885, and used at present in 
every college of pharmacy in America, besides being widely and 
favorably known abroad, and the fourth edition of which is now 
in preparation. He has also been an associate editor of the 
United States Dispensatory since 1 879. During the period of 
his connection with that important work of reference, four editions 
have been issued, each of which has been successful in the highest 
degree. In 1897 he became the pharmaceutical editor of " Lippin- 
cott's Medical Dictionary," a standard work of reference. 

From his prominence in association matters, Professor Remington 
has naturally been looked to for assistance in all matters pertaining 
to pharmaceutical legislation. That he has been a willing and able 
worker in this direction is attested by the fact that he was a prime 
mover in the efforts to have the college diplomas recognized by the 



PROFESSOR JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, 
Chairman U. S. Pharmacopceial Revision Committee, 1900. 



Am. Jour. Ptiarm. \ 
August, 1905. J 



Professor Joseph P. Remington, 



383 



various State authorities, and when the time became ripe for pre- 
requisite legislation he was one of the hardest workers in securing 
the passage of the prerequisite amendment to the Pharmacy Law in 
the State of Pennsylvania in the Spring of 1905. 

In 1886-7 Professor Remington was elected a Fellow of the 
Chemical, of the Linnean, and of the Royal Microscopical Societies 
of Great Britain. He has been a recipient of the honorary degree 
of Master in Pharmacy (Ph.M.) of the Philadelphia College of Pharm- 
acy, and that of Doctor of Pharmacy (Phar.D.) from the Northwest- 
ern University of Chicago. He is an honorary member of the 
College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, and of the State 
Pharmaceutical Associations of New York, New Jersey, New Hamp- 
shire, Nebraska, Ohio, Colorado, Virginia, Georgia and others. He 
is a member of The American Philosophical Society, The American 
Chemical Society, The American Geographical Society, a life mem- 
ber of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. He was appointed to represent 
the United States at the Eighth International Pharmaceutical Con- 
gress, held at Brussels in 1896; was a delegate to the Pan-American 
Medical Congress in 1893 ; also to the second Congress in Mexico 
in 1896. He holds honorable membership in the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain, the British Pharmaceutical Conference, 
Pharmaceutische Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg, Institute Medico 
Nacional, Mexico ; Societe de Pharmacie d'Anvers, Societe Royale 
de Pharmacie de Bruxelles. He also holds membership in the Art 
Club, the Society of American Authors, the Franklin Inn Club/and 
the Church Club, all of Philadelphia. 

Professor Remington's connection with the United States Phar- 
macopoeia commenced in 1 877, when he was appointed to serve on 
an auxiliary Committee of Revision appointed by the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy. The following year the same institution ap- 
pointed him as a delegate to the National Convention for revising 
the Pharmacopoeia, which body met in Washington, D. C, in 1880. 
The report of the committee from the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was of such great value to the Revision Committee that he 
was elected a member of the final revising committee and chosen 
first vice-chairman of that body. In 1890 he was again sent as a 
delegate by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy to the National 
Convention which met in Washington, and was again elected to tiie 



3§4 



Professor Joseph P. Remington. 



A.m. Jr>nr. Pharm. 
August, 1905. 



position of first vice-chairman of the final Committee of Revision, 
and it was while serving in this capacity that the lamented death of 
Charles Rice, Chairman of the National Revision Committee, occurred 
on May 13, 1901. Although elected first vice-chairman for the 
purpose of succeeding to the chairmanship, Professor Remington 
felt that such an important position should not be filled by succes- 
sion and, after serving a short time until the office was in running 
order, he asked for a special election to fill the position of chairman, 
for the enormous amount of time and labor which this position 
demands was not wholly at his disposal. Of the twenty-six mem- 
bers of the Committee of Revision, twenty-two voted for the election 
of Professor Remington, and he felt that, under the circumstances, 
it was his duty to accept. 

The eighth decennial revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
has been accomplished under great difficulties. An unusual number 
of deaths occurred in the committee. The chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Revision and the chairman of the Board of Trustees of 
the Pharmacopoeia, both died in office, and four other members 
passed away. 

Professor Remington's summer months are spent at his seaside 
home in Longport, N. J., where much of the work of Pharmacopceial 
revision has been carried on under his immediate supervision and 
active participation. His judicious system of combining both busi- 
ness and pleasure in the proper proportions has enabled him to 
accomplish a wonderful amount of work without losing the buoyancy 
of manner and cheerfulness of disposition which have always been 
characteristic of him, and which have won him the friendship of all 
who have been fortunate enough to be associated with him. One 
of his most prominent characteristics, and the one to which his 
success may be largely attributed, is his wonderful painstaking 
attention to the minute details of whatever work occupies his atten- 
tion for the moment. This is due to his remarkable power of con- 
centration upon the subject at hand, which often enables him to do 
more than double the amount of work upon any subject than is done 
by the ordinary worker in a given time, and his insistence upon the 
same intensity of purpose in those who are associated with him in 
any undertaking, marks his ability as a leader of no ordinary calibre. 

Piofessor Remington is a fluent and forceful speaker upon any 
subject pertaining to his professional work, and his ability as a 



Ar AuJus r M?o a oy m *} Structural Plant Relationships. 385 

teacher is recognized by the thousands who have benefited by the 
instruction which he has so conscientiously given for nearly thirty-five 
years. Indeed he may be said to be a teacher of teachers, for most 
of the successul Professors of Pharmacy in America to-day have 
been pupils of his at some time during their careers. 

As an extemporaneous speaker he has few equals in professional 
life, his ready fund of apt illustrations and his keen wit rendering 
him almost incomparable in this respect. 



STRUCTURAL PLANT RELATIONSHIPS. 1 
By John Uri Lloyd, Ph.D., Ph.M. 

Their Record. — Among the earliest remedial agents, as well as the 
most useful remedies of the present, are plant products and plant 
agents. From the dawn of the study of medicine to the threshold 
of the nineteenth century, the most conspicuous of all remedies have 
been those formulated under the influence of vegetable life. The 
simples of the aborigines of all climes and lands, the remedies of 
domestic medicine, as well as those of empiricism past and present, 
the agents that science most values and most studies, have been and 
yet are plant structures. Every country ot the globe contributes 
thereto. Every people of the earth partakes thereof. The phar- 
macopoeia of every country, the materia medica of all the schools in 
medicine past and present, give their best care to the remedial action 
of vegetable structures. These have ever been the established, the 
cherished remedies of all nations, and are no more to be displaced 
by artificial preparations from outside, than are vegetable foods to 
be replaced by synthetics evolved by the chemist. 

Let us not neglect to credit the value of inorganics in life con- 
servation. No man will 'deny the value of minute amounts of sodium 
and potassium compounds, of chlorine salts, of earths, of minerals in 
foods. Nor will he, if he thinks, undervalue the rational use of such 
in medicine, where either alone, or as integral parts of plant struc- 
tures, they serve well their part. But as no reflecting man will pre- 
sume to restrict his foods wholly to these unorganized substances, 
so no balanced mind, informed concerning the record of remedial 



1 Read at the meeting of the National Eclectic Medical Association, St. 
Louis, 1904, and contributed by the author. 



386 Structural Plant Relationships. { Am ii° g ulu mf m ' 

agents of the past, and their qualities at present, will deny the 
supremacy of vegetable structures as corrective agents in the hands 
of men qualified to use them intelligently. 

The life of man and the health of man depend on the conservation 
of energy held in the life forces that are locked in vegetable struc- 
tures, be they called food or remedy. 1 

Empiricism in Food and Remedy Studies. — As the natural foods of 
man are empirical (established by experimentation) so are the most 
useful plant remedies the result of empiricism. Lost in the past are 
the experiments that led man to know that wheat is a food, and the 
same is true of most fruits. The wanderings which give us our 
known foods and medicines are not less tortuous than the painful 
creeping of the human family from out savagery into civilization. 
But they are more obscure, because in the main the journey com- 
menced before man presumed to record any data whatever. It 
antedated the records of lost civilizations, and came down much after 
the manner in which a robin teaches its young to eat a worm. Who 
can tell the number of lives lost in the experimentation that finally 
led to the separating of the poison that exists in the tapioca plant 
from the wholesome starch food known as tapioca ? Who knows 
the number of deaths preliminary to man's differentiating between 
the poisonous and the edible fungi, which is yet a problem, for in 
this field deaths often occur ? The story of how the acrid arums 
came to be utilized by primitive people so as to become foods, or of 
the discovery of the distinction between the edible fish and flesh 
and forms of flesh and fish unwholesome, is as obscure as the experi- 
ments that led to the utilization of innocuous weeds as foods. Some- 
where in Nature's climes all food plants are, or once were, weeds. 
To find their value as nutrients demands experiment which estab- 
lishes some as useful when they become known as foods. So recent 
comparatively, is the sad proving of the attempt to eat as a pot herb 
one of America's new plants, as to have fixed the term Jamestozvn 
Weed to the plant which the settlers of Virginia about Jamestown 
investigated to their sorrow and death. Man's search for food is a 



1 Do not infer that the author overlooks or condemns animal foods. This 
paper will not permit a consideration of that phase, but it may be briefly said 
that the use of animal food is but the utilizing of vital force that has been 
transferred to flesh from plants that the animal has eaten. Plant life is the 
great food storehouse of both carnivorous and herbivorous animals. 



Am :dlust P im m '} Structural Plant Relationships. 387 

story still in process. There is yet a risk in some directions where 
persons uninformed partake of weeds that should be known as poi- 
sons. In England the " sow-bread " or bryonia claims each year 
its victims. The same is true of (Enanthe crocata. The wild pars- 
nip is often eaten in America lor parsnip, and death results. The 
terribly poisonous amanita is mistaken for the wholesome mushroom. 
Whole families sometimes perish; no antidote is known. And yet 
the weeds of the field, the plants of the desert and the forest, un- 
questionably offer untold food opportunities to the human family. 
Let us not forget that the luscious apple came from a knotty, astrin- 
gent wild fruit, that the mother of the potato grows yet as an insig- 
nificant wild tuber in Mexico, and that but a generation back the 
tomato was considered poisonous and was cultivated merely as an 
ornamental plant. 

Turn now to remedial plants. Who can even formulate the em- 
pirical wanderings that led to the discovery of the qualities of ipecac, 
nux vomica, opium, jalap, podophyllum, that are possessed of ener- 
gies that may, if illogically used, make them poisons, or, if discreetly 
employed, yield kindly remedial agents ? Who can trace the more 
difficult study that led to the discovery of the insidious, valuable 
qualities of less harsh agents, such as baptisia, aletris, hydrastis, col- 
linsonia, macrotys, and that last valuable discovery of the past 
decade, echinacea, which but a few years ago was known only as 
a worthless Western weed ? Who will next serve humanity in this 
field, or who can predict the name of the plant next to unfold its 
qualities ? All that have been introduced are as yet empirical gifts 
to man in the sense that all these natural corrective agents have 
been established experimentally. The good of those yet to come 
must as surely be the result of empiricism. All that nourishes and 
conserves life, all that upbuilds structures and modifies the life cur- 
rent or prevents the abnormal destruction of tissue, reasoning from 
analogy and from rational thought has been the result of empirical 
gifts to mankind. The evolution was based on experimentation 
which leads to faith in that which has been evolved in the past 
mazes of a struggle for existence wherein as a rule no book record 
is preserved. The data of it all is lost. 

The Natural Structure of Foods and Alteratives. — Among primi- 
tive lessons in food study is that of selection and differentiation be- 
tween parts of natural bodies, be they vegetable or animal. Men do 



388 



Structural Plant Relationships. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1905. 



not eat the thorn of the cactus or the root of the mandrake, but the 
fruit or juice of the one, and the fruit of the other. They do not eat 
the husk of corn or the shell of the almond, but their kernels. This 
is a familiar fact, seemingly self-evident, but some time in the past 
it too had to be learned by experiment. The tuber of the potato 
is food, not its top. Phytolacca sprouts are excellent greens, but the 
root is an acrid irritant. The flesh of the fruit that encloses the 
deadly nux vomica seeds, much as an orange seed is imbedded in 
its pulp, is eaten freely. All this has experience taught, and were it 
not for the personal instruction each man gets from those already 
informed, would, in each case, have to be learned anew. 

Empiricism teaches that the bark of the cinchona, the inspissated 
juice of the poppy capsule, the root of ipecac, the fruit of calabar, 
the dried juice of the catechu are remedial alteratives. They pro- 
duce changes in organs or in structures by their influence on nerve 
current or on vitalized matter. They are natural plant structures, 
which experience has taught, as a crude whole, can influence or con- 
serve life structures. 

Empiricism Extended in the Direction of Medicine. — Let us pass 
the evolution which in foods is giving us new forms and combinations 
of old food-stuffs to serve the palate and the eye, and turn our atten- 
tion to therapy. Basing his reasoning on observed facts, the thought- 
ful modern physician, aided by the pharmacist, draws yet finer lines. 
With his foot on the pedestal empiricism has reared in the use of 
plants as a whole, he adds thereto another mite. Ke differentiates 
between the giving of certain remedial structures for disease names 
and the giving of them for disease expressions which accompany 
abnormal conditions that have given rise to such disease names. He 
learns that even though a fever may be always reduced by aconite, 
as established by more superficial observation, it is not best to give 
aconite in all expressions accompanied by fever. He learns that 
while cinchona is useful in " intermittents," it must be given only in 
certain stages of the affection. He learns that opium may be a 
friend or an enemy, dependent on symptoms, idiosyncrasies, and com. 
plications ; that ipecac has two qualities, and when used in minute 
doses is useful in a direction that is the very antithesis of emesis, 
its first field. Such as this he learns by experimentation and obser- 
vation, and such truths as this can be learned only by observation 
based on experimentation. He also discovers that given a proven 



Am ^ T S P iK m '} Structural Plant Relationships. 389 

symptomatic condition, unless there be some exceptional counter- 
acting influence, a known remedy will produce specific effects. The 
method by which all this is determined is empirical ; the ultimate, 
when established, is considered a phase of scientific art. 

The Demands of Science. — But the fact soon becomes apparent 
that medication for well-known and well-established symptoms is 
hazardous if one depends on Nature's varying vegetable crudities. 
As the husk and shell of plants vary their proportions to other 
parts of the plant, under the influence of seasons, sunshine and 
showers, likewise do the proportions and relationships of the inter- 
cellular structures of certain parts of the plants used in medicine 
vary. The farmer knows that one season a field of grain may con- 
sist of much straw and little oats, while the next year the grain may 
be heavy and the stalk light. Nor are all plants in a crop uniform. 
The tree that bears the heaviest load of foliage may be barren of 
fruit. The most stately cinchona tree may be covered with worth- 
less bark. A small chestnut tree, loaded with fruit, may be 
overshadowed by a mighty chestnut bearing foliage only. This 
empiricism teaches. And so empiricism or observation led to the 
first attempt to make more uniform preparations from the crude 
parts used in medicine. Came then the crude extracts both fluid 
and solid, the infusions and decoctions. 

Finally, only one hundred years ago, morphine was discovered. 
Quick followed quinine, and then other bodies of a similar nature. 
Now entered a new thought. These energetic chemically-constructed 
ultimates seemed to indicate that behind every natural remedy lay 
a definite something that could replace in therapy the parent struc- 
ture. This one-sided conception held the thought and experiment 
of many talented men for a hundred years, it locks many to-day in 
its tenacious embrace and which has been carried by some to irra- 
tional extremes. That it was a natural line for enthusiasm to take 
is apparently supported by the aggressive energies of a few educts 
and products, such as the cathartic- resins of jalap and podophyllum 
(which are in themselves complex structures), the energetic alkaloids, 
and a few other products which possess in themselves qualities to 
remind one of the parent structures. Thus it is that the conspicuous 
example, quinine and morphine, nearly one hundred years ago led to 
blanket theories (resinoids and alkaloids) which well nigh wrecked 
the Eclectic school half a century later, and which now distract and 



390 Structural Plant Relationships. { An k5Sst, u&? m ' 

pervert thought in the Regular school, until we observe that medical 
nihilism, too often the result of such medication, is fostered by con- 
tinued disappointment in directions where structures, not fragments, 
dominate a drug. 

The great mass of organic remedial agents has no one dominating 
definite structure capable of either isolation or of yielding, by 
chemical destruction, definite ultimates. In them the natural struc- 
tures, without formula or equation, stand supreme in the face of the 
aggressive chemist, and both his constructive and destructive art. 
In the materia medica of intercellular structures, no one chemically- 
made fragment that can be broken out parallels the drug as a whole, 
if one knows the whole drug. Indeed, with the vast majority of 
valuable vegetable remedies, chemistry is inadequate to even help 
identify a drug through the reactions of any known quality pos- 
sessed by either its chemically-made or chemically-isolated frag- 
ments. Scores of plant preparations that for half a century have 
been valued as remedies, may be mixed ; and no chemist in the 
world can, by his art, identify any one drug of the mixture, or by 
means of a formula or equation or reaction, point to any therapeuti- 
cal constituent present in the mixture. Inter-structural compounds 
exist, by their well-known qualities are they established in pharmacy 
and therapy, but a blank are they to the chemist's art. 

The time of thousands of workers has been spent during the past 
century in the hope that a single thing picked out of a mighty 
whole can parallel the original structure. A worthy ambition is 
this, but one that led to the greatest disappointment this writer ever 
experienced in a loved scientific theory, which thirty years ago held 
his enthusiastic care, and thirty years ago was sadly relinquished. 
Unquestionable evidence taught that fragments created out of drugs 
by chemistry do not parallel the natural intermolecular structures 
that establish drugs as remedies. 

Much of the present discouragement of Regular physicians is 
surely due to the use of fragments only. Unwisely they have ig- 
nored the claims of plant structures which in themselves are valuable 
in medicine, but are neglected and discarded because the test tube 
and reagent of the chemist cannot create from them bodies like unto 
the poisonous alkaloids, atropine, strychnine, morphine. These men 
seek the hurricane ; the still, small voice has no part in such medi- 
cation. 



Am iigust P i905! m '} Structural Plant Relationships. 391 

Eclectic thought comprehended the situation in the latter part of 
the last century, and through clinical experimentation came into pos- 
session of a great, rich field which the Regular physician had un- 
wittingly relinquished. It turned toward the evolution of a standard 
form of clean remedies, as nearly devoid of common plant dirt as 
possible, which should parallel the natural drugs as a whole, not be 
a fragment only. The demands of exact Eclectic medication in 
which small doses of natural, preserved, soluble drug structures were 
to be used to meet definite symptoms, made necessary the greatest pos- 
sible exactness and the kindliest manipulation looking to the perfec- 
tion of these preparations. The fathers foresaw wisely that on this 
materia medica the life of Eclecticism depended. By the use of this 
materia medica came their opportunity to do well their work. 

The Evolution of Structural Remedies. — The one school in Ameri- 
can medicine that has given its thought, its culture, its aim in the 
treatment of disease by structural vegetable remedies is acknowl- 
edged to be the Eclectic school. Whilst free to use all remedial 
agents, be they animal, vegetable or mineral, its great field has been 
the development of our native American drugs. It has taken freely 
from the discoveries of the Regular and the Homoeopathic schools, 
crediting them therefor ; it has no less freely given to them. The 
ambition of the Eclectic has been to investigate, to discover, to 
demonstrate., With this worthy object, as the various American 
drugs were investigated, the therapeutical values of these drugs were 
given to the world. They were placed before the profession under 
the true names of the plants yielding them. Text-books, materia 
medicas, works on practice, descriptive both of the drugs and their 
action in disease, were written. Thus, the facts evolved were ever 
at the command of men of other schools, whose investigating care 
was chiefly given in other directions and whose study was chiefly di- 
rected towards other fields. The evolution of these Eclectic remedies 
has been clinical, experimental in human disease expressions (not 
on animals in health), by a rule which necessitated a long and cir- 
cumspect study of each remedy. It is a clinical furthering of the 
empiricism of the past in which as a rule the natural energetic struc- 
ture of a drug dissolved in an appropriate preservative menstruum, 
separated from inert matters as much as possible, is viewed as a 
whole y and then used as a whole. Due credit is given isolated sub- 
stances in their useful places. Indeed, the credit of discovering those 



392 



Vanillin Tests. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X August, 1905. 



most valued in American plant life is to be credited to Eclecticism. 
But we value above all the interstructural effect that comes from life- 
bound structures endowed with their full vital qualities, preserved in 
assimilable form. This vegetable Eclectic Materia Medica has been 
evolved by seventy-five years' study of organized plant structures. 
To attempt to parallel these remedies by crudities we have left be- 
hind generations ago, or by fragments broken out of them, is as 
illogical as to attempt to use the decomposition products of albumen 
as a food where experience has proven the value of albumen as a 
whole. On the use of these valuable structures has the therapy of 
our school been established, both as to its indications and dosage. 
It is a therapy and a materia medica that now is increasingly sought, 
and is greatly needed by the physicians of other schools, whose eyes 
I believe are at last longingly directed toward the fruit borne by the 
tree of Eclecticism, in this, its last quarter of nearly a century of 
patient life. 



VANILLIN IN ITS BEHAVIOR TO THE FORMALDE- 
HYDE TESTS. 1 
By Charges H. LaWali,. 
The accuracy and reliability of any test or analytical method is 
directly proportionate to the knowledge which has been acquired 
concerning the means of distinguishing other substances which are 
liable to be confused with it on account of the similarity of the 
reaction. 

The possibility of error is much smaller in the field of inorganic 
work, where schemes have been worked out for the separation of 
all known substances of this class; but in the department of organic 
chemistry, where the large number and complex constitution of most 
of the bodies render the application of any definite scheme of sep- 
aration and identification almost impossible except tor a very few 
substances, the chemist is compelled to rely upon certain reactions 
known as color reactions in identifying most organic bodies when 
they are present only in small amounts or mere traces. 

The fact that in many instances color reactions of a similar nature 
are produced by different bodies, often due to remote chemical rela- 



1 Read at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, June, 
1905, and contributed by the author. 



Am A U J Jast-S m -} ^ Vanillin Tests. 393 

tionship, is usually borne in mind by the careful worker in this field 
of chemistry, and it is customary to apply all of the known tests 
for the identification of an organic body before deciding definitely 
regarding it. 

A sample of ice-cream was recently brought to the author of this 
paper for examination, with the information that it had been reported 
to contain formaldehyde. An examination by three well-known 
methods apparently indicated the unmistakable presence of formal- 
dehyde. These methods were the Hehner contact test, the resorci- 
nol-sulphuric acid contact test and the phenol-sulphuric acid contact 
test. As the author is in the habit of always applying the phenyl- 
hydrazine test, this test was applied with negative results, and a 
further application of the phloroglucol, resorcinol-soda, and hydro- 
chloric acid tests also gave negative results. The flavor of the 
ice-cream was easily recognized as vanilla, and vanillin being an 
aldehyde, and thus indirectly related to formaldehyde, it was con- 
sidered advisable to make some experiments with this substance 
with a view to ascertaining whether it gave similar reactions to 
formaldehyde with those tests which had indicated the presence of 
that substance. 

A solution of vanillin, 10 1 Q1) , was made up and employed in the 
various tests, and it was found to produce color reactions in ail of 
the zone tests, which were either identical in appearance with the 
colors produced by known solutions of formaldehyde which were 
tested at the same time, or were so close a resemblance as to render 
comparison necessary in order to distinguish them. 

A sample of milk was then flavored with the vanillin and distilled 
and the reactions applied to the distillate with similar results. 

Further investigation of the subject showed that artificial vanillin 
and the vanillin contained in an extract made from the genuine 
vanilla bean behaved in exactly the same manner, and that unless 
the phenylhydrazine, phloroglucol, or one of the other tests men. 
tioned as not producing the reaction, were applied, the presence of 
formaldehyde in the solution would unhesitatingly be affirmed. 

It was considered desirable to know in this connection whether 
coumarin, which is sometimes associated with vanillin in the cheaper 
extracts, would produce similar results, but the results with every 
one of the tests as applied to coumarin were entirely negative. 

The following table of experiments upon a number of the sub- 



394 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { Al ^ujusc,?905 rm ' 

stances examined in this investigation show the comparative results 
which were obtained : 





Milk. 


Milk and 
Formalde- 
hyde 

i 

20(500 


Formalde 
hyde. 

2T5WO 


Coumarin 

1000 


Vanillin 

roVo 


Milk with 
Vanillin 

10000 




no reaction 


pink zone 


pink zone 


no reaction 


pink zone 


pink zone 


Resorcinol test .... 














Hehner's test .... 




violet zone 


violet zone 




violet zone 


violet zone 


Phloroglucol test . . 






cherry red 
color 




no reaction 




Phenylhydrazin test . 
{a) with sodium ni- 
troprusside .... 
[b) with potassium 
ferricyanide . . . 


yellow 


green 


blue 
red 




pale red 


yellow 


Hydrochloric acid test 


brownish 
rose color 


rose purple 








brownish 
rose color 


Resorcinal soda test . 


yellowish 
brown 
color 


red color 


red color 


no reaction 


no reaction 


yellowish 
brown 
color 



Solutions containing T ^ Ww[ and 2 \ 00 , of vanillin 

were then prepared and all were found to give positive results with 
the resorcinol-sulphuric acid test, although the 90 q 00 -q- dilution re- 
quired some time for the rose-colored zone to appear and no definite 
reaction could be obtained with any higher dilution than this. The 
phenol-sulphuric acid test was not quite so delicate, being sensitive 
to ! Q (/q q , while the Hehner test was found to be sensitive in about 
this degree also. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 
By Charles H. LaWau,. 

The twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association, which was held at Bedford Springs Hotel, Bed- 
ford Springs, Pa., on June 2ist, 22d and 23d, was one of the best 
meetings, both in point of numbers and in the interest displayed in 
the business sessions, of any that have been held in recent years. 

The first or opening session was held on Tuesday afternoon in the 
assembly room of the hotel. This session was called for the purpose 
of expediting the work of the convention by transacting many of 
the routine matters in advance of the opening session, which is al- 
ways held on Tuesday evening. The secretary's report was pre- 



A ^ugus r t\wo5. rm '} Pennsylvania Phamaceutical Association. 395 

sented, which showed that there had been over 900 notices sent out 
for the present meeting. The treasurer's report was presented by 
Mr. J. L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, and showed a total of 430 mem- 
bers in good standing, with 509 members who had not yet been 
heard from, most of whom only owed for the current year, however. 
The treasurer's report also showed that the association has a cash 
balance of over $1,500, which is the highest ever recorded. 

The report of the executive committee was presented by the 
chairman, Mr. Griffiths, of Johnstown, and dealt mainly with the 
subject of increasing the membership. 

The reports of delegates to the various associations were then 
heard. Mr. La Wall, the delegate from the New Jersey Association, 
presented the greetings from that association, after which the report 
of the Committee on Papers and Queries was presented by the 
chairman, Mr. La Wall, who stated that about thirty papers had 
been secured, many of which were of great scientific value, and that 
he desired time enough to present them in their entirety, instead of 
reading most of them by title, as is sometimes done. 

Mr. John Wallace, of Newcastle, presented the report of the Leg- 
islative Committee, which showed that this committee had been in- 
strumental in passing the Prerequisite Law and the Fruit Syrup Bill, 
and had exerted its influence against the Patent Medicine Bill, 
which had been introduced into the House, which if passed would 
have worked great hardships upon the druggists, but which they 
had succeeded in having referred back to the committee, where it 
remained. 

The report of the Pharmacy Board was read by Secretary Miller 
for Mr. Charles T. George, the Secretary of the Board, after which 
Mr. Charles Leedom, of Philadelphia, presented the report on 
Trades Interests, a long report containing several recommendations, 
and which was referred to the Committee on President's Address 
for consideration. 

The Entertainment Committee then presented an outline of the 
program which had been arranged for the pleasure of the members. 

An Auditing Committee, consisting of Messrs. Blair, Thomas and 
Grohman, was then appointed, as well as a Nominating Committee, 
of Messrs. Siegfried, Utech, Lee, Horn and Gorgas. 

Mr. D. J. Thomas, of Scranton, then presented the report of the 
Committee on Adulterations, which was a comprehensive piece ot 



396 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { An ^2u£,%? m " 

work in every respect, and which will prove to be a valuable addi- 
tion to the literature on the subject. 

A committee was appointed to discuss ways and means of obtain- 
ing funds for next year's entertainment, and consisted of Messrs. 
Cliffe, Bransome and Lemberger. 

The first formal, meeting of the association was held in the assem- 
bly room of the hotel, on Tuesday evening, at 8 o'clock, and was 
opened by prayer by the Rev. H. B. Townsend. The local secre- 
tary, Mr. Marcy, then introduced Burgess Jordan, of Bedford, who 
made a pleasant speech of welcome, which was responded to in be- 
half of the members by W. O. Frailey of Lancaster, and especially 
in behalf of the ladies by Mrs. W. F. Horn, of Carlisle. 

First Vice-President Wray then took the chair while President 
Koch presented his annual address. In his address President Koch 
began by relerring to the Prerequisite Law, which had been recently 
passed, and stated that it marked a new era in the history of phar- 
maceutical education, inasmuch as it now enabled the colleges of 
pharmacy to do that which they had long desired but were never able 
to do — raise the preliminary requirements. He said that in an im- 
portant matter of this kind the Board and the colleges should be in 
perfect harmony to achieve the best results, and that the elevation 
of the standard would necessarily have to be gradual and not revo- 
lutionary. He also referred to Section 6 of the present Pharmacy 
Law, which allows the sale of medicines by grocery and department 
stores, and recommended its repeal. The registration of apprentices 
and the ownership of the prescription, which latter question has 
recently been decided in North Carolina by legislative enactment, 
were also referred to the Legislative Committee for their considera- 
tion, with a view of pbtaining the necessary legal enactment. He 
commended the Legislative Committee particularly upon the work 
which had been done during the past year, not only along the line 
of obtaining beneficial legislation, but also in preventing obnoxious 
legislation. He re-endorsed the Mann Bill and recommended that 
its passage be secured at as early a date as possible. The N.A.R.D. 
was referred to in commendatory terms, and the American Pharma- 
tical Association was also endorsed unhesitatingly, and attention 
was called to the September meeting of that body in Atlantic City, 
and the fact that less than 4 per cent, of the druggists of the United 
States were members of the body. The membership of the State 



Am A.Sust,wo5y m '} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 397 

Association formed the closing portion of the president's address, 
which, upon motion of Mr. Lemberger, was accepted and referred 
to a committee consisting of Messrs. Lackey, Thomas, Heck, Wal- 
lace and Frailey. 

Professor Remington then addressed the meeting upon the sub- 
ject of the new Pharmacopoeia, a copy of which he exhibited as 
being an advance copy of the first edition which would be out in 
several weeks. He described many of the difficulties which the 
Revision Committee have labored under, which have contributed to 
delay the completion of the work, and described some of the points 
of difference between the old and the new editions and referred to 
the various styles of binding in which it would be issued. 

On Wednesday morning the Association convened at 10 o'clock 
and the reading of the minutes of the previous meeting was followed 
by the sending of congratulatory messages to the other State Asso- 
ciations which were in session at the same time. The Committee 
on Time and Place of Next Meeting then reported in favor of Glen 
Summit, near Wilkesbarre, June 26, 27, 28, 1906, which report was 
received and unanimously adopted. The reports of delegates to 
other associations were then heard, after which the chairman of the 
Committee on Papers and Queries took charge and the reading of 
papers was begun. 

The first paper read was " The Awakening of the Pharmacist," 
by B. E. Pritchard, and was followed by three papers in answer to 
Query No. 17, " Is the N.A.R.D. a Scheme to Get Something for 
Nothing?" by W. O. Frailey, J. Leyden White and T. H. Potts. 
These papers elicited a discussion which lasted during the remainder 
of this session, in which many of the statements were warmly de- 
bated. The discussion was participated in by Messrs. Redsecker, 
Emanuel, Lowe, Apple, Rehfuss, Millener, W. F. Horn, Pritchard, 
Mclntyre, Walton and Wray. 

The second session on Wednesday was opened at 3 p.m. and after 
hearing a long report from Mr. M. N. Kline, the delegate to the 
N.W.D.A. and the Proprietors' Association, the reading of papers 
was again resumed. The first paper read at this session was entitled 
" Rules for Prescription Filling," by E. F. Cook, and was read by 
Dr. C. B. Lowe, in the absence of the author. This paper was dis- 
cussed by Mr. H. C. Blair, who described the method of filling and 
checking prescriptions which has been in use in his store for so 
many years. 



398 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { A August, wo?™' 

Mr. Theodore Campbell, of Overbrook, then read two papers, one 
on " A Method of Advertising," and the other u A Check on Re- 
ceipted Bills." R. H. Lackey then described a new prescription 
difficulty which had recently come under his observation, after 
which Prof. Joseph P. Remington read a paper on the " Prerequisite 
Law." 

Dr. C. B. Lowe read a paper on " Drug-store Experience," which 
was followed by a paper on " The Use of the Mimeograph in Phar- 
macy," by E. F. Cook, which was read and explained by Prof. F. P. 
Stroup. 

A paper by H. F. Ruhl, in answer to a number of queries, led to 
an interesting discussion and was followed by a paper entitled " The 
Two Windows Which Sold the Goods," by M. W. Bamford, of 
Reading. 

Mr. Emanuel then read a long paper in answer to Query No. 18, 
concerning the lack of " Professionalizing Tendency of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association." 

The final business session of the week was held at 10 a.m. Thurs- 
day. The committee appointed to report upon a plan for financing 
the entertainments reported a plan which was referred back to them 
for further consideration. 

The Nominating Committee reported the following nominations : 
President, D. J. Thomas, of Scranton ; First Vice-President, S. A. 
Stright, of Braddock ; Second Vice-President, Albert ClifTe, of 
Ridgway ; Treasurer, J. L. Lemberger, of Lebanon ; Secretary, J. 
A. Miller, of Harrisburg ; Local Secretary, G. P. Raser, Wilkes- 
barre. Executive Committee, W. E. Lee, Philadelphia, Chairman ; 
L. L. Walton, Williamsport, and Croll Keller, Harrisburg. Upon 
motion of Mr. Redsecker, of Lebanon, Mr. Charles H. La Wall, the 
chairman of the Committee on Papers and Queries, was directed to 
cast the affirmative ballot for all of the nominees, which was accord- 
ingly done. 

The Committee on President's Address then presented a report 
containing a number of recommendations which were discussed 
seriatim and adopted, after which the report was adopted as a whole. 

Mr. P. H. Utech then read a paper on " The Nostrum Evil," 
which was followed by a paper by F. S. Nagle on " The Declining 
Art of Prescribing." Mr. W. L. ClifTe then presented a set of reso- 
lutions advocating the erection of a bronze monument in the grounds 



Am ASsMSo a 5 ! m "} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 399 

of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C, to William 
Procter, Jr., the Father of American Pharmacy. The American 
Pharmaceutical Association, which has already inaugurated the 
work, was named as the custodian of the fund, and a committee of 
five was directed to be appointed by the president to confer with 
the A. Ph. A. Committee and raise subscriptions. President Koch 
appointed the following members of the committee : Prof. Henry 
Kraemer, C. W. Hancock, William Mclntyre, David Horn, and Prof. 
J. P. Remington. 

Several papers were then read, after which the meeting adjourned 
until 8 o'clock Thursday evening, when the officers were installed 
with the usual ceremonies. 

A number of interesting papers were read at the last session, a 
few of which were read by title. 

The entertainment features of the Association were quite up to 
the usual high character and contributed largely to the enjoyment 
ol the meetings by those who were in attendance. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the College was held 
June 26th, at 4 p.m., in the Library, the President, Howard B. 
French, presiding. Twelve members were present. 

The minutes ot the annual meeting, held March 27th, were read 
and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for March 7th and April 
4th were read by the Registrar and approved. 

Report of Committee on Membership. — From this report it is learned 
that the active membership reside mainly in Philadelphia and the 
nearby towns. Other sections of Pennsylvania are represented by 
fifteen members, and sixteen other States are represented by 
thirty members. 

Of the associate members four reside in Pennsylvania and thirteen 
in other States ; the honorary members numbering forty-two, and 
the corresponding members numbering thirty-one. 

A number of names were reported as having " forfeited member- 
ship " by non-payment of annual dues for three years. 

Report of Committee on Necrology. — Active members deceased 
during the year numbered four : William J. Jenks, William Weight- 



400 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, { A ^K,i9ffif m " 

man, Julian Fajans, M.D., and Henry N. Rittenhouse. Honorary 
members deceased : Alfred H. Allen, Frederick Hoffmann, A. B. 
Prescott, Alfonso Herrera, Helen A. Michael, Albert Hilger. Cor- 
responding member deceased : C. R. C. Tichborne. 

The delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
by its Chairman, Prof. C. B. Lowe, presented a brief report, in which 
they told of the very successful meeting recently held at Bedford 
Springs. Twenty-eight papers were presented. D. J. Thomas, of 
Scranton, was elected President. The next meeting is to be held at 
Glen Summit, June 26-28, 1906. 

Announcement was made of the death of Mrs. Procter, widow of 
the late William Procter, Jr. Also of the death of Henry N. Rit- 
tenhouse, a member of the College since 1854. He served many 
years on the Committee on Publication, and also for some years on 
the Board of Trustees. 

The resignation of Edwin W. Murphy, of Macon, Miss., was 
accepted. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

Committee on Nominations. — Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Rem- 
ington, Henry Kraemer, Jacob M. Baer and O. W. Osterlund. 

Committee on Necrology. — Henry Kraemer, Samuel P. Sadtler 
and Gustavus Pile. 

Historical Committee. — George M. Beringer, Henry Kraemer, 
Thomas S. Wiegand. 

Delegates to American Pharmaceutical Association. — Henry 
Kraemer, Joseph P. Remington, Samuel P. Sadtler, C. B. Lowe and 
M. I. Wilbert; as alternates, M. N. Kline, E. M. Boring, Miers 
Busch, W. L. Cliffe and J. W. England. 

ABSTRACTS FROM MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

March 7. — Committee on Library reported a number of accessions 
to the Library by donation, purchase and exchange. John F. Han- 
cock, of Baltimore, Md., elected to associate membership. 

April 4. — M. N. Kline elected Chairman of the Board of Trustees ; 
George M. Beringer, Vice-Chairman ; Jacob S. Beetem, Registrar. 
Committee on Instruction recommended lengthening the first and 
second year courses and entrance requirements, detailed at length 
in the eighty-fifth annual announcement just issued. 

C. A. Weidemann, Secretary. 



HENRY TROTH, 
1794-1842. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, 1905, 



PLANT MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY. 1 

By Henry Kraemer. 2 

The history of botany, so far as the authentic and correct record 
of facts and observations is concerned, like the history of the other 
descriptive natural sciences, may be said to date from the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. While it is true that the works of the older 
writers, like Theophrastus, Bioscorides, Pliny and Galen, contain 
matter of historical interest, still from the modern scientific point of 
view they can scarcely be regarded as more than curiosities. 

With the discovery by Copernicus that the earth is not the center 
of the universe, and with the revival of learning in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, there was an awakening in scientific investiga- 
tion and the dawn of a new era in thought. This was the period of 
which Pater writes. He says :— 

" But it is in Italy, in the fifteenth century, that the interest oi 
the Renaissance lies, in that solemn fifteenth century which can 
hardly be studied too much, not merely for its positive results in 
the things of the intellect and the imagination, its concrete works 
of art, its special and prominent personalities, with their profound 
aesthetic charm, but for its general spirit and character, for its 
ethical qualities of which it is a consummate type." 

If we trace the history of the study of botany and of its different 
divisions, we find that taxonomy or classification preceded mor- 
phology as a distinct branch, but morphology being the basis of 
taxonomy, that is, one of the factors upon which the taxonomist 

1 Presented at the Lewis and Clark Pharmaceutical Congress, Portland, 
Oregon, July 12, 1905. 

2 The author's thanks are due Miss Florence Yaple, Philadelphia, for 
valuable assistance in the preparation of this paper. 

(401) 



402 Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. { A sSt J Sfc?3!l?" 

depends, morphology should rightly precede taxonomy, and I have 
therefore chosen first to consider the subject of morphology and 
afterwards to endeavor to show its relation to taxonomy. 

MORPHOLOGY. 

Before considering the modern meaning of the word morphology, 
it may be well, on an occasion like this, briefly to refer to some of 
the important steps in the evolution of this part of the study of 
botany. 

While Cesalpino (1583), an Italian botanist, was termed by Lin- 
naeus, the first systematist, he having furnished the first formal 
classification of plants, he was also among the earliest research 
workers in botany and may be regarded as the founder of plant 
morphology. He furnished very many excellent observations on 
the different parts of plants, such as the nature of tendrils, the 
position of leaves on the stem, the development of fruits, and the 
arrangement of seeds. 

In contrast to the older botanists or herbalists of Germany, Cesal- 
pino tried to discern the significance of the different parts of the 
plant, but was handicapped by the Aristotelian mode of treating 
natural phenomena still in vogue. His contemporary, or successor, 
the German scientist Jung was, however, an opponent of scholas- 
ticism, and in his studies in comparative morphology may be said 
to have introduced the positive method of investigation. 

The demonstration of the sexuality of plants by Camerarius, in 
1 691-1694, must always rank as one of the most important contribu- 
tions to the science of botany. Nearly a century later Camerarius's 
observations were extended and confirmed by Koelreuter (1761- 
1766), whose experiments in hybridization have become classical, and 
by Sprengel (1793), the results of whose work in cross-pollination 
and the study of the relation of insects to flowers, were used to such 
excellent advantage by Darwin in 1859. In addition, Gartner not 
only contributed to our knowledge of fertilization, but devoted much 
time to the consideration of the morphology of fruits and seeds, 
and in his great work, published in 1788, gave descriptions and illus- 
trations of the fruits and seeds of more than a thousand species. 
Another of the results of his work was the discovery that the spores 
of the Cryptogams differ lrom the seeds of the higher plants in 
that they do not contain a well defined or developed embryo. 



Septembers'} Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 403 

While the seventeenth century is marked by the important dis- 
covery made by Camerarius, the eighteenth century is especially 
noted for the establishment of the doctrine of epigenesis. In 1759 
Kasper Friedrich Wolff showed in a dissertation on the Theory of 
Generation, that instead of the young organism being preformed in 
the egg, as had been previously maintained, it is gradually developed 
from the substances contained therein. Wolff's extensive studies on 
the development of both animals and plants entitle him to the dis- 
tinction, given him by Goebel, of being the founder of the history of 
development, or, in other words, he may be regarded as the founder 
of our modern ontogenetic method of study. To Wolff also 
belongs the credit of discovering the vegetative point {punctum 
vegetationis) in plants, which is one of the distinguishing marks 
between the higher plants and animals. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century De Candolle proposed 
a natural system of classification of plants, and by many this is con- 
sidered to be his most enduring work. While this may be true it 
should not be forgotten that his system was based upon extensive 
morphologic work, and his doctrine of the symmetry of plants 
embodied a series of morphological observations which still hold true. 
De Candolle was able to a large extent to free himself of the erro- 
neous teachings of the past, and was among the first, as pointed 
out by Darwin, to show that species are not immutable creations. 
In spite of certain inconsistencies in De Candolle's work, Sachs says 
that to him " belongs the merit of being the first to point emphatic- 
ally to the distinction between morphological and physiological 
marks, and to bring clearly to light the discordance between mor- 
phological affinity and physiological habit." 

Notwithstanding the far-reaching importance of the researches of 
Wolff, up until this time no one appears to have appreciated the 
necessity of a study of the successive stages of development of the 
organs of plants in botanical work, it being the custom of the time 
to devote attention to mature organs only. To Robert Brown 
(1825) belongs the credit of developing and establishing the onto- 
genetic method in the study of plants, that is, the study of the 
development of the individual beginning with the germination of 
the seed or spore, and which now constitutes one of the most 
important lines of investigation. During the course of his investi- 
gations on the organs of fructification in the Cycads and Conifers he 



404 Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. {^ptember.w™' 

was able to show the close relation of these groups, and to demon- 
strate the value of such studies in establishing a scientific taxonomy. 

Contemporaneous with De Candolle and Brown was Goethe (1790), 
the German poet and naturalist, who promulgated the doctrine of 
metamorphosis, whereby he " derived all the different species of 
plants from one primitive type, and all their different organs from 
one primitive organ — the leaf." Following the lead of Wolff there 
was a tendency to reduce the plant to only two parts, namely, stem 
and leaves, the parts of the flower being considered modified leaves 
and the root a modification of the stem. While it is generally con- 
ceded that in the evolution of plants the development of leaves pre- 
ceded that of flowers; still we now look upon the flowers as arising 
independently and not as being derived from the leaves. That this 
is true seems also to be borne out by the fact that in many plants, 
particularly trees, the flowers appear before the leaves. While it is 
unfortunate that the doctrine of metamorphosis was taken up by 
the " nature philosophers" and made more or less ridiculous by their 
speculations, and while the evolutionary ideas of Goethe, as pointed 
out by Haeckel, like the analogous ideas of Kant, Owen, Treviranus 
and other philosophers at the commencement of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, did not amount to more than certain general conclusions, 
the great merit of Goethe's work lies in the fact that he was among 
the first to appreciate the value of the study of the living plant. He 
not only introduced the word " morphology," but has also given us 
a definition of the term. He says :■ — 

" Scientific men in all time have striven to recognize living 
bodies as such, to understand the relations of their external, visible, 
tangible parts, and to interpret them as indications of what is within, 
and thereby in some measure to gain a comprehensive notion of 
the whole. . . . We find therefore in the march of art, of 
knowledge, and of science, many attempts to found and construct 
a doctrine which we may call morphology." 

While Goethe gave us a new point of view in the study of the 
biological sciences, Wolff, De Candolle, Brown and others laid the 
foundations for the morphological study of plants, which was 
brought to such perfection under the guidance of Nageli, Hofmeistcr 
and others about the middle of the last century. 

In the work of Jung, which has already been referred to, we ste 
how the mathematical bent of his mind enabled him to give not only 



^puS^S?'} Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 405 

clear definitions, but to recognize a certain symmetry in the forms of 
stems and leaves. It was not, however, until the time of Schimper 
(1834) and Braun (1835) that mathematical conceptions with regard to 
plant members were formulated and made the basis of morphological 
study. Schimper introduced a system of phyllotaxy, known as the 
spiral theory, the principal feature of which was the assumption of 
the spiral arrangement of leaves, While the theory is a beautiful 
one on paper, it has been found in practice to have a limited applica- 
tion, and can not be said to account for the factors which influence 
the arrangement of leaves, as pointed out by Hofmeister, Its chief 
value lies in the fact that it directed attention to the study of the 
relative position of organs and caused botanists to inquire into the 
factors influencing their form, position, and arrangement on the 
plant. It possibly also led to the application of mathematical and 
mechanical principles in the study not only of the disposition of 
organs but also in the distribution of tissues as illustrated in later 
years in the work of Schwendener and his students, At any rate it 
is interesting to make mention here of Schwendener's great work on 
the mechanics of growth, which must be looked upon as a most im- 
portant contribution to the study of the fundamental principles of 
morphology, 

We now come to a period which was marked by a series of 
brilliant investigations, and which has been one of the most fruit- 
ful in the history of botanical science. In 1838 Schleiden announced 
the fact that the cell is the fundamental unit in plants and showed 
that all the different tissues of the plants are combinations of cells, 
Several years previous (183 1) Robert Brown had discovered the 
nucleus in the epidermis of the orchids, and it remained for Von Mohl 
(1846) to give the first accurate description of protoplasm and to 
establish its fundamental nature. 

In contrast to the cellular theory established by Schleiden and his 
followers, which appeared to be all-sufficient for so long, we now 
(1 892- 1 895) have the conception that the energids are the funda- 
mental units in the plant structure ; an energid, according to Sachs, 
being composed of a single nucleus and the protoplasm which it 
dominates. Thus a cell may be monergic or polyergic, depending 
upon the number of nuclei which it contains. 

It was also during the middle period of the last century that 
Nageli carried on his splendid researches on the development of 



406 



Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September, 1905. 



cells and showed by his studies on the starch grain and cell-wall 
how intricate and far-reaching the problems of morphology are. 
Von Mohl's studies on the nature and distribution of tissues in 
plants, together with the work of Hanstein and others, laid the 
foundation upon which De Bary in 1877, together with his own 
researches, wrote his book "The Comparative Anatomy of the 
Vegetative Organs of the Phanerogams and Ferns," which is still 
a recognized authority. 

It was during these same years that the series of investigations on 
the mode of reproduction in plants was begun, which culminated in 
the brilliant results obtained by Hofmeister, and which has been 
carried on with increasing interest even to the present time. The 
work begun by Brown on the mode of fertilization in the Phaner- 
ogams was carried to completion by Amici in 1846. The work of 
Bischoff, Mirbel, Unger and Nageli on the male sexual organs in 
the Archegoniatae was supplemented by that of Hofmeister, who 
discovered the archegonia or female organ of reproduction and who 
thus gave the first authentic description of the mode of fertilization 
in the lower plants. His work also brought to light one of the 
most interesting discoveries in the whole realm of botanical science 
— namely, the alternation of generation in plants. Hofmeister 
extended his studies to the Conifers and Angiosperms, and thereby 
not only established the affinity between these two groups, but 
showed their genetic relation to the Pteridophytes, and thus con 
tributed a series of the most important researches to what has now 
come to be known as phylogenetic morphology, or the study of 
the origin and relation of the various plant groups. 

During the period between 1850 and i860 the discovery of the 
alternation of generation in plants was further confirmed by Hof- 
meister's work on the Equisetaceae, Isoetes, etc., and by the investi- 
gations of Pringsheim, Cramer, Mettenius and others on other 
Pteridophytes. 

Considerable light was thrown on the nature of fertilization in the 
Algae by the fortunate discovery by Thuret (1854) of the process as 
it takes place in Fucus. This was followed by PringsheinVs studies 
onVaucheria, in 1855. It remained for De Bary to study the fungi, 
and he proved himself to be one of the greatest masters in botanical 
science. He originated methods by which the developmental his- 
tory of these organisms could be studied, and at the same time 
showed their relation to their hosts. 



A sTpt J ember h i a 9o^"} Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 407 

In considering the history of the morphological study of plants, 
mention should be made of the important work which was carried 
on by Sachs (1 858-1875). By the introduction of his method of 
plant cultures and apparatus for controlling the conditions under 
which plants grow he not only contributed to our knowledge of 
plant physiology, but also made many observations having a bearing 
on experimental morphology. The methods used by Sachs have 
been extended and perfected in recent years, and in the hands of 
Goebel and other investigators have yielded results which have 
materially assisted in raising plant physiology and plant mor- 
phology to the high plane which they now occupy, and which 
furthermore show the interdependence of these two divisions of 
botanical science. In the same manner have the methods of 
research instituted by De Bary yielded such fruitful results in the 
hands of Klebs and others in their studies on the lower orders of 
plants. 

Following Hofmeister, who may be regarded as the founder of 
experimental morphology, Sachs did very much to give direction 
to the newer morphology which has been developed, particularly 
in the past fifteen or twenty years. 

Sachs was, however, a representative of what may be considered a 
transition period between the older formal morphology which con- 
sidered the external configuration of plants independent of their 
function and physiological activities, and the newer morphology 
which considers that the form and function of an organ stand in the 
most intimate relation to each other. In the chapter on " Mor- 
phology of the External Conformation of Plants," as given in his 
text-book of botany, Sachs says 

The parts of plants which are ordinarily termed their organs, very vari- 
ous in their form and serving different physiological purposes, may be con- 
sidered scientifically from two different points of view. The question may be 
asked at the outset : How far are these parts adapted, by their form and 
structure, to perform their physiological work ? In this case they are regarded 
from one side only as instruments or organs, and this mode of regarding them is 
itself a part of physiology. Or else these relationships may, for the time, 
be completely put aside, and the question may be kept out of consideration 
what functions the parts of the plant have to fulfil, and the only point kept in 
view may be where and how they arise, in what manner the origin and growth 
of one member are related in space and time to those of another. This mode 
of regarding them is the morphological one. It is obvious that this mode 
is as one-sided as the physiological ; but investigation and description require, 



408 Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. {^eptembefS™' 

here as everywhere else in science, abstractions of this kind ; and they are not 
only not hurtful, but even of the greatest assistance to investigation, if the 
investigator is only clearly conscious that they are abstractions. 

It is thus seen that Sachs even during the most active period of 
his life not only admitted the propriety of separating the considera- 
tion of function from the study of morphology, but claimed that 
there was an advantage in so doing. As a basis for morphological 
investigation Sachs suggested the following lines of study : A study 
of the development of parts, that is the development of members 
or organs ; their mutual positions ; the relative time of their forma- 
tion ; and their earliest stages. From the modern point of view he 
has left out the most important factor in the study of morphology, 
namely, the study of the relation of the form and function of organs. 
In other words his proposition might be likened to an equation in 
chemistry in which one of the factors is left out. It is fortunate, 
however, that Sachs later changed his views with regard to this 
subject, for, as pointed out by Goebel, the teaching of such abstrac- 
tions has led to one-sidedness and incorrect generalizations. 

TRUE MORPHOLOGY OR ORGANOGRAPHY. 

According to the morphology of to-day the structure of an organ 
has a direct relation to its function, or, in other words, structure is 
modified by function, and the two can not be separated if we desire 
to treat the subject comprehensively. 

Herbert Spencer was among the first to insist upon the neces- 
sity of the study of function in connection with that of structure. He 
says : — 

The division of morphology from physiology is one which may be tolerably 
well preserved, so long as we do not carry our inquiries beyond the empirical 
generalizations in their respective phenomena ; but it is one which becomes in 
great measure nominal, when the phenomena are to be rationally interpreted. 
It would be possible, after analyzing our solar system, to set down certain general 
truths respecting^the sizes and distances of its primary and secondary members, 
omitting all mention of their motions ; and it would be possible to set down 
certain other general truths respecting their motions, without specifying their 
dimensions or positions, further than as greater or less, nearer or more remote. 
But on seeking to account for these general truths, arrived at by induction, we 
find ourselves obliged to consider simultaneously the relative sizes and places 
of the masses, and the relative amounts and directions of their motions. 
Similarly with organisms. Though we may frame sundry comprehensive 



^epimbw^ifloS'*} Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 409 

propositions respecting the arrangement of their organs, considered as so many 
inert parts ; and though we may establish several wide conclusions respecting 
the separate and combined actions of their organs; without knowing anything 
definite respecting the forms and positions of their present organs ; yet we can 
not reach such a rationale of the facts as the hypothesis of evolution aims at, 
without contemplating structures and functions in their mutual relations, 
Everywhere structures in great measure determine functions ; and everywhere 
functions are incessantly modifying structures. In nature the two are insepara- 
ble co-operators ; and science can give no true interpretations of nature without 
keeping their co-operation constantly in view. An account of organic evolu- 
tion in its more special aspect, must be essentially an account of the inter- 
actions of structures and functions, as perpetually altered by changes of con- 
ditions. 

At the present time Goebel probably stands as the chief exponent 
of the newer morphology, In his book on the organography of 
plants he has presented some of the arguments in favor of this 
newer conception in regard to plant structures, and in a most charac- 
teristic and clever manner has substituted the word *' organography " 
for that of " morphology," and thus frees himself of the older con- 
ceptions in regard to the subject, and at the same time adopts a 
more expressive term. According to Goebel the morphologist 
should look upon the form of plants as an expression of living pro- 
cesses. He should endeavor to determine in what degree the form 
of an organ shows an adaptation to external conditions and to what 
extent it is dependent upon these and internal conditions. To make 
a practical application of his meaning, Goebel says that he considers 
it infinitely more important to determine the factors which cause the 
inequilateral development of a leaf, as of begonia, than to construct 
a phylogenetic hypothesis unsupported by facts, and in summing up 
his arguments on the subject of morphology, or organography, he 
says : — 

The idea that morphology has nothing to do with the function of organs 
has been acquired entirely because the fact has been overlooked that the trans- 
formations seen in organs are conditioned by a change of function. Their 
functions therefore have been treated as subordinate in determining the charac- 
ters of organs, and the external relations alone have been taken as the chief 
points for consideration. But the relationships of mere form are by no means 
the permanent ones 'in the tide of phenomena.' They also change, The 
determination of this change, that is to say, of the alterations which have taken 
place, and are believed to take place, in the formation of organs of a natural 
group, is one of the weightiest tasks of organography. If we separate function 
from form we are at once led into altogether unfruitful speculations. 



41 o Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. { ^ptembw.wos 1 ' 

We thus see that morphology has become a science, which is not 
merely concerned with the form and structure of organs, but is more 
especially concerned in the study of the factors which influence form 
and structure, and it is therefore not only one of the most interest- 
ing departments of biological science, but may be regarded as its 
very soul, as pointed out by Darwin. According to Goebel there 
are two branches of experimental organography to be considered i 

(1) The reciprocal influence of organs upon one another, which is 
termed correlation. 

(2) The influence of external factors, which are designated by 
Herbst as formative stimuli. 

The reciprocal influence of one organ upon another may be either 
quantitative or qualitative, although there is no sharp distinction 
between the two. In quantitative correlation certain primordia are 
suppressed while others apparently develop and enlarge at their 
expense, as for example, it is a common occurrence for most of the 
ovules to be entirely suppressed while the available nutritive mate- 
rial is used in the development of the few remaining ones, as in 
the horsechestnut. In qualitative correlation an organ may assume 
a different direction, and even the function of another part, if this 
be injured, removed or arrested in its development. As an example 
of this Goebel mentions that the transformation of the leaflets of 
pea may be hindered by removing other leaflets. This plasticity is 
not confined to any one organ, but is more or less characteristic of 
all parts of the plant by reason of certain latent properties of the 
protoplasm. The external factors influencing the development of 
organs may be enumerated as follows : Light, moisture, temperature 
and gravity, and those of a purely mechanical nature as well. 

As a result of the studies in experimental morphology, or experi- 
mental organography, as it is termed by Goebel, certain underlying 
principles have been deduced, to which attention should be directed. 
These were brought out in an excellent paper on " The Cardinal 
Principles of Morphology," read before the Society for Plant Mor- 
phology and Physiology, in 1 900, by Professor Ganong, who was a 
student of Goebel's. 

The principles formulated by Professor Ganong are as follows : — 

(1) The Continuity of Origin. — No functional structure ever arises de novo, 
but only from the modification of a pre-existing structure. 

(2) Opportunism. — The direction taken in metamorphosis is not determined 



A septemfcri5oT} Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 41 ] 

by obedience to any preformed plan, but, except for the influence of the inertia 
of the heredity of the particular part, follows the factors potent at the 
moment. 

(3) Functional Domination. — In metamorphosis it is function which takes the 
lead and structure follows. 

(4) Indeterminate Anatomical Plasticity. — In all anatomical characters (size, 
shape, number, position, color, and cellular texture) plant- organs are not 
limited by anything in their morphological nature, but under proper influence 
may be led to wax and wane indefinitely in any of these respects. 

(5) Metamorphosis Along lines of Least Resistance. — When through a change 
in some condition of the environment, the necessity arises for the performance 
of a new function, it will be assumed by the part which happens at the moment 
to be most available for that purpose, regardless of its morphological nature. 

(6) Metamorphosis by Transformation. — Since all parts of the plant actually 
are organs, new organs can arise only by the transformation of previously 
existing ones. 

(7) Gradation in Morphological Membership. — In the progressive development 
of metamorphoses, difference of degree passes over gradually into difference 
of kind. 

TAXONOMY. 

It will not be possible in the scope of this paper to trace the his- 
tory of taxonomy with the same detail that was done under mor- 
phology. Nor does this appear to be necessary, for, as pointed out 
at the beginning of this paper, taxonomy is dependent upon mor- 
phology, and therefore the history of the latter is to a greater or 
less extent the history of the former, although this is not strictly 
true. 

The older systems of classification were called artificial because 
they took into consideration only the superficial and gross charac- 
ters of plants, while the aim of the so-called natural systems has 
been to group plants according to their essential or fundamental 
characters. But as a matter of fact our natural systems are more 
or less artificial or conventional because of our imperfect knowledge 
of plants. 

Practically speaking, our interest in taxonomic work dates from 
the time of Linnaeus, who was an all-round naturalist, and in his 
Systema Naturae ( 173 1 ) gave a classification of plants and animals so 
far as they were known to him. While Linnaeus's system was an 
artificial one, the main divisions being based upon the characters of 
the stamens and pistils, still he recognized the necessity for a natural 
system and even proposed one, although he did not follow it in prac- 
tice. To him we are also greatly indebted for the» development of 



Xi 2 Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. K^S^^SSi' 

the binomial system of nomenclature. In Tournefort's system 
(1693) °f classification the genera were considered to be the units, 
and while Linnaeus at first agreed with this, he later came to regard 
the species as distinct creations and therefore the units in systematic 

work. 

While it has been pointed out that Linnaeus's belief in the immu- 
tability of species was the one great defect of his teaching, still, 
considering the fragmentary knowledge of plants and the more or 
less chaotic condition of taxonomy at that time, it is doubtful if his 
work would have been any more accurate than it was had he not 
been dominated by the dogma of the creation of distinct species. 
But of course it should not be forgotten that the harm which lies in 
erroneous doctrines or teachings is the influence which they have 
on subsequent thought and work, and Linnaeus being such a high 
authority it is no doubt due largely to his influence that the belief 
in the fixity of species prevailed with more or less force until the 
appearance of Darwin's Origin of Species, in 1859. 

We are confirmed in this latter conclusion by the fact that when 
Jean Lamarck, in 1809,, clearly showed that species are not immu- 
table, his views were opposed by nearly all of the highest authorities 
and were practically buried for fifty years. Lamarck showed that the 
organism was modified by its environment and that the existing 
complex forms were derived from simpler ones, and it only remained 
for Darwin to supply the remaining element in the theory of 
descent, namely, the principle of natural selection. 

Darwin's views were backed by such a mass of empirical data and 
the time being ripe for the promulgation of his doctrine of evolution, 
they were, not long in gaining a following, and, as is now well known, 
marked the beginning of a new epoch in biological science. 

As pointed out by De Vries, Darwin recognized two possibilities 
with regard to the origin of species, the one being the sudden and 
spontaneous production of new forms from the old stock, and the 
other being " the gradual accumulation of those always present and 
ever fluctuating variations which are indicated by the common asser- 
tion that no two individuals of a given race are exactly alike." The 
view founded upon the supposition that individual fluctuations con- 
stitute the chief factor in organic evolution gained the ascendancy 
in the start, this view being accentuated by Darwin himself and 
supported by Wallace as the exclusive factor because there was more 
evidence in favor of it. 



^pt J ember,%5. K } P^nt MorpJwlogy and Taxonomy. 4x3 

De Vries, on the other hand, as a result of his own experiments 
and those of others, claims that new species arise by discontinuous 
variations, as termed by Bateson, or by mutations — that is, the 
sudden appearance of new characters — as termed by De Vries, who 
even goes so far as to state that species and varieties are not known to 
originate in any other way at the present time. De Vries considers 
that there are periods of mutation when new species suddenly make 
their appearance, or the type may remain constant for many, or per- 
haps even hundreds of years without the appearance of a new species, 
although it is claimed that the periods of mutability and stability 
alternate more or less regularly. 

In considering the subject of species and varieties it is essen- 
tial to make a clear distinction between specific and varietal marks, 
and mere individual variations or fluctuations, such as differences in 
size, color, etc. 

The true significance of this tendency to variation on the part of 
individual plants, while better understood by the horticulturist and 
experimental morphologist, is not always appreciated as it should 
be by the systematist, and he has attached more importance to these 
fluctuations than he should have done. It thus comes about that 
frequently transient and trifling characters are made the basis of 
taxonomic work. 

While I have no intention of attempting to indicate the lines 
along which taxonomic work should proceed, I may be permitted 
at this time to indicate one or two of the tendencies which are 
coming to the front in the determination of species. De Vries, in 
his recent book clearly shows what is meant by species and has sug- 
gested a way by which we may determine species with certainty. 

As is pretty well understood, there are two main lines of organic 
evolution at large, namely, progression and retrogression. With 
these principles in mind we are able to appreciate what constitutes 
a new species or variety. When a species arises which exhibits 
entirely new characters or characters different from its ancestors, 
and remains constant for some years, it is considered to be a new 
species. When a species shows a loss of some usually superficial 
character, this constitutes a variety, or, more properly, a retrograde 
variety. A species which has acquired some characteristic of an 
allied form likewise constitutes a variety. 



4H 



Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 



( Ana. Jour Pharm. 
I September, 1905. 



While species are considered to be the true units in organic life, 
there is still much uncertainty as to what constitutes a species, as 
already indicated, and, furthermore, it has been shown on experimen- 
tal grounds that many systematic species, as they are accepted 
nowadays, are as a rule compound groups. Sometimes they consist 
of two or three, or a few elementary types, but in other cases they 
comprise twenty, or fifty, or even hundreds of constant and well 
differentiated forms." It is interesting to note in this connection 
that while Linnaeus held to the view that species were distinct crea- 
tions, he nevertheless recognized the compound nature of the then 
existing species. 

According to De Vries the real units are the elementary species ; 
their limits often apparently overlap and can only in rare cases be 
determined on the sole ground of field observations. He then goes 
on to say that pedigree-culture is the method required and that any 
form which remains constant and distinct from its allies in the garden 
is to be considered as an elementary species. 

To obviate the difficulties which would arise from the multiplica- 
tion of species, their numbers being already cumbersome, De Vries 
suggests the recognition of two sorts of species. He says : " The 
systematic species are the practical units of the systematists and 
florists, and all friends of wild nature should do their utmost to pre- 
serve them as Linnaeus proposed them." On the other hand, he 
maintains that " both for the theory of descent and for our concep- 
tion of systematic affinities at large," a study of elementary species is 
essential. " For it is obvious that they only can be observed to 
originate, and that the systematic species, because they are only 
artificial groups of lower unities, can never become the subject of 
successful experimental inquiry." 

For some time past, in the study of certain of the cryptogams, as 
bacteria, yeasts and fungi, there has been a disposition to rely upon 
physiological rather than morphological characters, this being due not 
only to the fact that these are more constant and characteristic in these 
organisms, but also to the fact that distinct morphological charac- 
ters are entirely wanting in some cases. While the necessity for 
this additional study in the higher plants is not so apparent on 
account of the presence of well-defined morphological characters, still 
the value of physiological marks as one of the bases of classification 



^^SoT} Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 415 

is coming to be recognized. The best illustration of this is to be 
found in the monograph on the genus Eucalyptus by Baker and 
Smith. They say : — 

When this research was first started it was intended to follow the usual mor- 
phological systematic classification of previous botanists; but as the work pro- 
gressed it was found that nothing definite could be arrived at if such a course 
were followed. 

By working on morphological grounds alone it was found that many of the 
so-called individual species possessed different barks, timber, oils, dyes, etc., a 
state of things which quite differed from our definition of a species, and conse- 
quently, such an artificial system (as this research appeared to prove it) had to 
be discarded, and wuat is apparently a more real or natural system of classifi- 
cation had to be adopted, viz., founding a species, not on morphological char- 
acters of dried material alone, but on : 

( 1 ) A perfect field knowledge of the trees. 

(2) The nature and character of their barks. 

(3) The nature and character of their timbers. 

(4) Morphology of their fruits, leaves, buds, etc. 

(5) Chemical properties and physical characters of the oils, dyes, kinos, etc., 
and any other evidence, such as histology, physiology, etc., that will assist in 
establishing differences or affinities of species. 

Our experience shows that a species so founded is practically constant in 
specific characters, however great the range of distribution may be. 

It is thus seen that in both morphological and taxonomic work, 
experimental and physiological studies are coming to be recognized 
more and more as of fundamental importance, and that the old 
comparative method alone is no longer adequate in dealing with 
the problems which confront either the morphologist or taxono- 
mist. It is apparent that a large amount of research work along 
various lines is necessary to establish species with certainty, unless 
indeed recourse be had to physiological studies and pedigree cul- 
tures alone, which are not less laborious. 

While lack of thoroughness in both morphological and physio- 
logical investigations is no doubt partly responsible for the confu- 
sion existing in systematic work, still there has been another factor 
which has been more or less demoralizing, and this is the manner 
in which the nomenclature question has been handled in recent 
years. To say the least, our system of nomenclature is truly 
mediaeval. When we think of the efforts of Linnaeus to simplify 
botanical nomenclature, we cannot but wonder what he would think, 
were he living, of the botanical names of to-day, burdened as they 



416 



Plant Morphology and Taxonomy. 



\ Am. Jour. l J harm. 
I September. 1905. 



are with authors' names ; or of the fact that the mere discovery of 
an error in the spelling of a botanical name may entitle the dis 
coverer of the error to attach his name to the plant name in addi- 
tion to that of the original author. Professor Bailey has well defined 
our position with regard to taxonomy and nomenclature. He says : 

Our ideas of what constitutes species and varieties are free and extensible 
nough, but our methods of designating those ideas still follow the formalism 
of a century ago — are in fact more inflexible than they were in the time of 
Linnaeus. If nomenclature is inelastic, schemes of classification within the 
genus or species must likewise be inelastic, for the classification is but an 
expression of our ideas of the relationships of the objects that we name. Our 
nomenclature does not express either the knowledge or point of view of our 
time. 

REFERENCES TO LITERATURE. 
Bailey, L. H. : The Survival of the Unlike. 1899. 

Systematic Work and Evolution. Science, XXI, No. 536, April 7, 1905 ; 

P- 532. 

Baker, Richard T. and Henry G. Smith : A Research on the Eucalypts, 
especially in regard to their Essential Oils. 1902. 
Darwin, Charles : The Origin of Species. 1859. 

De Vries, Hugo : Species and Varieties, their Origin by Mutation. Edited 
by D. T. MacDougal. Chicago and London. 1905. 

Farlow,*W. G. : The Conception of Species as affected by Recent Investi- 
gations on Fungi. Chairman's Address before the Section of Botany, 
A. A. A. S. Boston. 1898. 

Ganong, W. F. : The Cardinal Principles of Morphology. Botanical 
Gazette, XXXI, June, 1901 ; pp. 426-434. 

Goebel, Karl : Organographie der Pflanzen, insbesondere der Archegoniaten 
und Samenpfianzen. 1898. 

— — - Organography of Plants. Authorized English edition by Isaac Bay- 
ley Balfour. Part I, General Organography. 1900. 

The Fundamental Problems of Present-Day Morphology. Congress 

of Arts and Science. St. Louis, 1904. Science, XXII, No. 550, July 14, 1905, 
PP- 33-45- 

Haeckel, Ernst : The Riddle of the Universe. 

Sachs, Julius : History of Botany. Translated by Henry E. F. Garnsey ard 
Isaac Bayley Balfour. Oxford. 1890. 

— — A Text-book of Botany. Translated and annotated by A. W. Bennett, 
assisted by W. T. Thiselton Dyer. Oxford. 1875. 

Spencer, Herbert : Principles of Biology. 



A s^pt J embe?, h i a 9c™'} International Botanical Congress. 417 

INTERNATIONAL BOTANICAL CONGRESS. 1 

The second International Botanical Congress was held at Vienna, 
June 1 1— 1 8, 1905, and was highly successful in every way. There 
was a large and unusually representative attendance, the list of 
members containing about 600 names. Deducting ladies registered 
with husbands or relatives, and the considerable number of amateurs 
from Vienna and the neighborhood, it is certainly safe to say that 
there were present nearly 400 professional botanists. Of that number 
nearly one-half would be known by name to any one familiar with 
botanical literature, and among these were many whose reputation 
is world-wide. Naturally Austria was most numerously represented, 
but Germany sent a large contingent, and nearly all the European 
countries were represented, except perhaps those of the Iberian and 
the lower Balkan peninsulas. The English were few — a half-dozen 
at most. Sixteen American botanists were present : Arthur, Atkin- 
son, Barnes, Barnhart, Blakeslee, Britton (Mr. and Mrs.), Brown, 
Campbell, Coville, Duggar, Robinson, Shear, Trelease, Underwood, 
and Woods. But American societies were sadly negligent, and 
many were unrepresented which might have delegated authority to 
some of the sixteen. 

The Congress was opened in the Festsaal of the University by 
Wiesner, with addresses of welcome by the minister of agriculture, 
speaking for the Emperor; by the burgomeister, for the city; and 
by the rector, for the university. Bonnet, secretary of the Paris 
Congress, gave a historical statement of the organization of the 
present congress, and Reinke (Kiel) delivered an address on " Hy- 
pothese, Voraussetzungen, Probleme in der Biologie." 



1 This interesting and concise account of the proceedings of the Vienna Con- 
gress by Prof. Charles R. Barnes, is reprinted from the July number of the 
Botanical Gazette. 

The proceedings, particularly as they relate to botanical nomenclature, are not 
only of interest to botanists, but are also of interest to pharmacists, as the true 
botanical origin of drugs is a question in which they are especially concerned. 
Fortunately, the botanical nomenclature adopted in the Pharmacopoeia has 
not been unduly influenced by the more radical views on this subject. In fol- 
lowing Engler and Prantl, in the main, the botanical nomenclature of the new 
Pharmacopoeia is thus in line with the action of the congress just closed, and 
further changes in nomenclature are not likely to be made until after the meet- 
ing of the Pharmacopceial Convention in 1910. — Editor. 



41 8 International Botanical Congress. {^ptSeMooS 1 * 

In the afternoon the Nomenclature Conference organized in the 
hall of the Museum in the Botanical Garden by electing as President, 
Flahault ; as Vice-Presidents, Rendle and Mez ; and three secre- 
taries ; received the report of the standing committees and of the 
Rapporteur-General (Briquet) ; and adopted rules of procedure. 
The report of the Commission was presented as a quarto of 160 
pages, having the text of the code of 1867 in the first column, the 
new formal proposals of various bodies in the second, notes by the 
Rapporteur in the third, and the text recommended by the Com- 
mission in the fourth. This texte synoptique was the work of Briquet, 
whose arduous labors for the past five years thus made possible the 
revision of the rules of nomenclature by this Congress. His untiring 
industry, unfailing patience, uniform courtesy and impartiality, as 
well as his linguistic facility, won the admiration of all. 

Afternoon sessions thereafter, from 3 to 7 or even later, were de- 
voted to the discussions and actions of the texte synoptique. 

Morning sessions and on some days also afternoon sessions, which 
were held in the lecture-room of the Engineer-Architects' Club, were 
devoted to addresses upon special topics. Thus on Tuesday there were 
six papers on the development of the European flora since the Ter- 
tiary period ; two introductory, on the geographical problems by 
Peack (Vienna) and the botanical problems by Engler (Berlin), while 
Andersson (Stockholm) spoke specially for the Scandinavian penin- 
sula, Weber (Bremen) for the North German lowlands, Drude 
(Dresden) for the mountainous region of central Germany, and 
Briquet (Geneva) for the alpine region. 

On Thursday the topk was the present position of the doctrine of 
photosynthesis, Molisch (Prag) speaking of photosynthesis in chloro- 
phyllous and Hueppe (Prag) in chlorophyll-free organisms, Kasso- 
witz (Vienna) giving a short talk on photosynthesis from the 
standpoint of metabolism. After a brief intermission the general 
problems of regeneration were discussed by Goebel (Munich), Lo- 
priore (Catania) presenting a more special paper on the effects of 
wounding on regeneration of stems and roots. In the afternoon 
there were papers by Arthur (Lafayette) on the classification of 
the Uredinales ; by Istvanfi (Budapest) on the life history of Botrytis 
cinerea, and by Pettkoff (Sofia) on the algal flora of Bulgaria. 

On Friday, Scott (Kew) spoke on the fern-like seed plants of the 
carboniferous flora ; Lotsy (Leiden) on the influence of cytology on 



A s™ptei2be?, h i9o™'} International Botanical Congress. 419 

taxonomy ; and Hochreutiner (Geneva) on the Botanical Garden at 
Buitenzorg. 

In the afternoon and on Saturday papers were mostly ecological : 
Beck (Prag), " The Significance of the Karstflora upon the Develop, 
ment of the Central European Flora ; " Drude (Dresden), " Sugges- 
tions for an Agreement upon the Terminology of Phytogeographical 
Formations, and Terminology Used in the Cartography of Plant 
Formations ; " Wille (Christiania), " Schiibeler's Theory as to the 
Changes which Plants undergo in Acclimatization at Higher Lati- 
tudes ; " Tanfiljeff (St. Petersburg), "The Russian Steppes ; " Tscher- 
mak (Vienna), "The Production of New Forms by Crossing;" 
Adamovic (Belgrade), " Phytogeography of the Balkan Peninsula; " 
Palacky (Prag), " Genesis of the African Flora ; " Kurtz (Cordoba), 
"The Fossil Flora of Argentina;" Borbas (Klausenburg), "The 
Stipas of Hungary ; " Hua (Paris), " Report on the establishment 
of a new international organ for the Publication of New Names ; " 
Schindler (Briinn), " Regulatory Processes in the Plant Body in 
Relation to Cultivation." 

On Wednesday a meeting of the Association Internationale des 
Botanistes was held, at which reports of the treasurer and secretary 
were presented. The most important action taken, by an over- 
whelming majority, was the direction of the Executive Committee, 
as soon as the present contracts permit, to print all resumes in type 
of the same size, abandoning the attempted discrimination. The 
next meeting will be held in Montpellier in 1908. The new officers 
are : Wettstein, president; Flahault, vice-president; the present sec- 
retary and treasurer were re-elected. 

The botanical exposition, under the auspices of this Association, 
occupied the Orangery at Schbnbrunn, the Emperor's summer palace 
on the outskirts of the city. The horticultural exhibit was open 
only during the week of the Congress, but the other exhibits re- 
mained for two weeks. There was an historical section, comprising 
books, atlases, original drawings, engravings, portraits, busts, herba- 
rium specimens, instruments, and preparations of historical interest. 
This portion of the exhibit was limited to Austria, and naturally 
the most important contributors were the botanical section of the 
Imperial Museum of Natural History, and the two botanical institutes 
of the university. 

The largest section of the exposition consisted of modern appli- 



420 International Botanical Congress. { A sept J embef h i9o™' 

ances for instruction and research. With many of the instruments 
demonstrations were given daily (10-12). In this section were 
shown living cultures of algae, fungi, and bacteria; photographs of 
plants and plant-formations, and microphotographs of immense 
variety and all sizes, including many lantern slides ; drawings and 
paintings; wall charts and maps; current books by the publishers; 
exsiccatae; and apparatus of many kinds (microscopes and their 
accessories), balances, ovens, and baths, glassware, physiological 
instruments, seed-control and wood-testing appliances, etc. 

Particularly noteworthy in this section was a display of materials 
actually used in the Realschule and Gymnasia for botanical instruc- 
tion, " whose purpose," the exhibitors say, " is to put before the 
eyes of visitors the advance which botanical instruction has made 
in the last decades. . . . Inasmuch as the phenomena of plant 
life must be brought close to the interest and understanding of 
pupils there stands in the foreground of the display the apparatus 
for conducting experiments in plant physiology, which break the 
path for the understanding of biological processes. Then come 
models and preparations for elucidating the anatomical and morpho- 
logical features. . . ." This exhibit shows clearly how thorough 
and wise the courses are. The equipment puts to shame all of our 
high schools and nine-tenths of our colleges. 

The unique mechanical balances of Nemetz; the living algal cul- 
tures of the Biological Station in Vienna ; the apparatus and methods 
of the Imperial Seed-control Station in Vienna, and of the Imperial 
Forestry Station in Mariabrunn ; and the display of pure cultures of 
fungi by the bureau established for this purpose by the Association 
Internationale des Botanistes (in Utrecht, in charge of Prof. F. A. F. 
C. Went), deserves special mention. The attempt of the Association 
to secure an exhibit of separates and works of many writers was 
practically a failure, only eleven sending papers. As a whole the 
exhibition was highly interesting and useful. 

The third meeting of the Freie Vereinigung der Systematischen 
Botaniker und Pflanzengeographen also occurred on Wednesday, at 
which, in addition to a considerable list of papers, there was held a 
discussion on the introduction of a uniform nomenclature in phyto- 
geography. 

On Friday the agricultural botanists came together in the Imperial 
Station for seed-control, in the Prater. No papers were read, but 



^pimbeMgos?"} International Botanical Congress. 421 

discussions were held on several topics, such as : " Methods of in- 
vestigating sugar-beet seeds," " Weighing methods in determina- 
tions of germinative capacity," " Organization in seed-control 
stations," " Culture and study of barley," etc. 

The actions on nomenclature are too extensive to summarize, and 
only a few of the more important decisions can be mentioned here. 
The word laws is to disappear, rules and recommendations taking its 
place. The rules for nomenclature of " cellular cryptogams," i e., 
the Bryophyta and Thallophyta, are remanded to a special commis- 
sion of specialists, which is to present recommendations to the Con- 
gress of 1910, to be held at Brussels. In like manner a report on 
rules for the nomenclature of fossil plants is to be made by a com- 
mission of paleobotanists. The word ordo (order) displaces cohors, 
recommended by the Commission for a group of families ; but the 
American proposition to substitute phylum for divisio was lost. The 
date 1753 Linn. Sp. Plant, ed. I. was adopted by a vote of 150 to 
19. A vote on an article permitting laxity in the application of the 
rule ol priority to generic names, and providing for a list of genera 
to be maintained en tous cas, was 133 yeas, 36 nays. Later, Harms's 
list of such genera (400 and over) was adopted by a vote of 118 to 
37. This list had been referred to a committee composed of Bonnet, 
Harms, Britton, Prain, and Briquet, and was recommended (by a 
majority) for adoption. Some amusement was caused by the pro- 
posal of two corrections by the author while the motion to adopt 
was pending. 

The proposition to except some old family names for the rule 
requiring such names to be derived from an important genus was 
carried by only 10 1 to 62. 

The voting in regard to publication of a new species by plates 
and exsiccatae was confused, and the article was referred back to 
the Commission for editing. It is intended to exclude as valid 
publication in future plates without diagnoses, and past plates (with- 
out diagnoses) which contain no analytic drawings. Citation in 
synonymy and accidental mention are also declared invalid as publi- 
cations. It was agreed (184 to 2) to adopt the compromise reported 
by a conference committee requiring the name of a section or species 
when transferred to another genus, or the name of a variety when 
transferred to another species, to be preserved or re-established ; but 
when the rank is changed the preservation of the name is optional, 



422 



International Botanical Congress. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 September, 1905. 



and if not preserved its later re-establishment is not permissible. 
This is accompanied by a recommendation to preserve the primitive 
name whenever possible. 

The vote on the use of double names (like Linaria Linaria) was 
unexpectedly close ; 116 against them and 72 in favor. Generic 
names differing merely by their last syllable and even by one letter 
will be retained. Only typographic or orthographic corrections may 
» be made in generic names. 

After January, 1908, diagnoses must be written in Latin; so a 
close vote, 105 to 88, decided on Friday. A vote to reconsider was 
made on Saturday but was lost, 125 to 56. The metric system is 
recommended, and it is declared that " the foot, inch, line, pound, 
ounce, etc., should be rigorously excluded from scientific language." 
Fathoms, knots, and marine miles likewise fall under the ban. 
Authors are requested to indicate clearly the scale of magnification 
of figures. 

On the whole the action of the Congress was conservative from 
the American point of view, yet marks great progress toward a 
stable nomenclature. Our European friends have not yet grasped 
the idea of generic types, and the rules relating to genera will 
doubtless be the next region of advance. When the final editing is 
accomplished and the new code is available, we may reasonably ex- 
pect the rules to be generally followed until a further revision is 
possible. 

The work on cryptogams and fossil plants will doubtless be prose- 
cuted with vigor. The Commission of Cryptogams consists of 
Migula, Lister, Lauterborn, Gomont, Wille, Nordstedt, Wildeman, 
Sauvageau, DeToni, Chodat, Farlow, Arthur, Magnus, Saccardo, 
Patouillard, Jaczewski, Marshall- Ward, Vuillemin, Atkinson, Bresa- 
dola, Clements, Golenkin, Hua, Malmo, Zahlbruckner, Schiffner, 
Stephani, Levier, Evans, Cardot, Brotherus, Fleischer, Mrs. Britton, 
Salmon, and a few others whose names could not be secured. Some 
others could profitably be added to the list. 

The entertainments, excursions, and visits to various institutions 
were numerous and attractive. A reception by the Emperor was 
arranged, but the death of Grand Duke Josef on Tuesday estopped 
that, as well as a reception by the burgomeister at the Rathaus. 
Various long excursions after the Congress were provided, and all 
were sufficiently patronized to be undertaken. 



A s"pt J e°mbe^ h . a 4 ra -} A Retrospect of Pharmacy. 423 

The Committee of Organization and the various local committees 
are to be congratulated on the success of their arrangements. These 
quinquennial international congresses may now be considered a fixed 
feature of the botanical world. C. R. B. 



A RETROSPECT OF PHARMACY WITH A HISTORY OF 
AN OLD PHILADELPHIA DRUG HOUSE. 

By Samuel Troth. 

We are living in an age of rapidity of thought and action ; dis- 
covery is no longer localized nor limited by national dialect, but is 
heralded with lightning speed over the globe, translated into all 
languages and publicly displayed among all peoples. 

Thought-interchange through the medium of printed literature, 
so scarce and highly prized by our grandfathers, has become plenty 
and commonplace, and our boys and girls are thinking out problems 
which would have puzzled men of olden time. 

Higher education is the plea of the students, and old systems of 
philosophy are studied with respect to truth rather than revered by 
reason of antiquity. 

New things attract, but only as they lead up to practical advance- 
ment, and the community is coming into a keener knowledge of the 
secrets of nature by applying such new light to the promotion of 
bodily comfort arid mental improvement. Modern civilization is 
moved by a desire for financial profit, and individual selfishness is 
alive to such discoveries and improvements as may have a commercial 
value. 

In no country is this more evident than in ours, where wealth has 
increased to such a degree that property has accumulated faster than 
population. Institutions of learning have been supported from this 
surplus, and opportunity is offered of free scholarships and liberal 
terms for education in the Arts and Sciences to those who wish to 
learn. 

Pharmaceutical knowledge by technical instruction has become a 
positive science, and old-time charlatanism is shorn of its influence. 

Newspaper advertisements like this from the London Gazette of 
1673 were common to those days : 

"These are to give notice that the eminently successful medicine, 
commonly known by the name of Dr. Goddard's Drops, are now 



424 



A Retrospect of Pharmacy. 



) \ <u. Jour Pharm 
I. September, 1905. 



most faithfully prepared by Dr. C. G., to whom the said medicine 
and method of using was long since communicated by Thomas 
Goddard, Esq., nephew to the said Dr. Goddard, to whom alone 
(except to His Majesty) the whole receipt of making the medicine was 
communicated. The said medicine having been these twelve months 
in preparing;, is now to be had in St. John's Close, at the House 
where Dr. Goddard lived and dyed, being the next door to the Star 
in the Passage to Clerkenwell." 

This medicine of Dr. Jonathan Goddard purported to be a prepa- 
ration of hartshorn with portions of the skull of a criminal who 
had been hanged, mingled with dried vipers' bodies and other pecu- 
liar substances not disclosed. It had an enormous sale and the 
recipe was sold to King Charles II, of England, for £5,000 sterling. 

It is interesting to study history in its relation to scientific coloni- 
zation along the line of what are termed seats of learning. 
Cambridge and New Haven became pioneers in college education 
devoted to the study of general literature, but Philadelphia was the 
cradle of medicine and pharmacy, and from its colleges have gone 
out men of power to foster like institutions elsewhere. 

The history of pharmacy in Philadelphia is intimately connected 
with the conditions of settlement in the colony of Pennsylvania. 
At that time London was the great commercial metropolis, and 
many of her merchants were associated in business interests with 
those of Penn's growing city upon the Delaware, so that Philadel- 
phia became the principal mart for English wares, and the drug 
trade flourished in a fertile soil. Old files of our newspapers picture 
these conditions as thus set forth : 

" Imported in the last vessels and to be sold Wholesale and Retail 
at the very lowest prices, by 
Charles Osborne, 
Druggist from London, at the Golden Pestle, opposite 
Mr. Joseph Trotter's in Second Street." 
"A large assortment of Druggs, chymical and galenical Medicines; 
also Daffy's Elixir, James' Powders, Bateman's Drops, Godfrey's 
Cordial, Anderson's Pills, Squire's Elixir, Spirits of Scurvy Grass, 
Bostock's Elixir, Lockyer's Pills, British Oil, Stoughton's Bitters, 
with Nipple Glasses, pots, pill-boxes, vials, &c, &c. 

« N. B. — Masters of ships not carrying Surgeons with them may 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
September, 1905. J 



A Retrospect of Pharmacy. 



425 



be furnished with Medicine Chests and Directions. Families living 
distant from a Doctor may be furnished also with Chests of all sizes 
at very low rates." 

"Townsend Speakman and Christopher Carter, Chymists and 
Druggists from London, on the north side of Market Street between 
Second and Third Streets," advertise their goods in detail, adding, 
"also a small quantity of very fine French plumbs and pruans, 
Muscatine raisins and Turkey figs." 

" Imported and sold by 

Christopher Marshall, 
At the sign of the Golden Ball near the Three Tun Tavern, 
opposite Strawberry Alley in Chestnut Street." 



" A fresh and large assortment of drugs, chemicals and galenical 
medicines, Daffy's Elixir, Bateman's Drops, British Oil, James' fever 
powders, Stoughton's Bitters, Hooper's female pills, Schwanberg's 
fever powders, Godfrey's Cordial, and preparations for the Stone and 
Gravel, fine and common flour of mustard. Also most sorts of oils 
and colours either for ship or house painting, dry or ready ground, 
viz., carmine, vermillion, prussian blue, drop lake, masticotes, verdi- 
grease, Dutch, English and rose pinks, white and red lead, yellow 
oker, Spanish brown, whiting, litherage, Venetian red, lampblack, 
with varnishes, brushes, tools, gold and silver leaves & shells ; with 
sundry sorts of dye stuffs as madder, ground redwood; likewise 




426 A Retrospect of Pharmacy. 

Bristol and London crown glass of most sizes, vials, galley pots, 
lancets, pill boxes, alum, brimstone, copperas, rosin and glue, with 
a great many other things too tedious to mention." 

Some of Christopher Marshall's bills of lading mention casks of 
medicines to Silvanus & Timothy Bevan, at London ; flour, wheat, 
corn, bread and pork to Lisbon; fish to Jamaica; 5,025 horns in one 
invoice to Dublin; linseed oil, turpentine, white lead, beeswax and 
rum to other ports. 

Distinguishing signs of a London character were popular in the 
drug trade. Say & Bartram, afterwards Isaac & Moses Bartram, 
"at the Sign of the Bottle and Three Bolt Heads in Second Street 
a little above the Sign of the George ; " and later Isaac Bartram, 
" Chymist and Druggist is lately moved into Third Street between 
Market and Arch at the Sign of the Unicorn's Head." 

William Drewet Smith, " Late Apothecary to the Pennsylvania 
Hospital at his store, the Sign of Hippocrates' Head, between 
Chestnut and Market Streets." 

William Smith, " at the Rising Sun in Second Street between 
Market and Chestnut and next door below Jonathan Zane's." 

Sharp & William Delaney, " at Fothergill's Head on the west side 
of Second Street between Chestnut and Market." 

Townsend Speakman, " at the Bell and Dragon, Four doors below 
the Friends' Meeting House on the west side of Second Street." 
Samuel Emlen, " at the Golden Heart, High Street." John White, 
"at the Mortar and Dove on Second Street." William Chancellor, 
" at the Pestle and Mortar on Market Street opposite the Presby- 
terian Meeting House." John Sparhawk, " at the Unicorn and 
Mortar on Market Street between Front and Second. Duffield & 
Delaney, "at the Boerhave's Head, Second Street near Walnut." 

In 1773 Moses Bartram, "in Second Street between Arch and 
Race, three doors above Thomas Say's and opposite Samuel Miles 
and Michael Hillegas," in a nota bene to his drug advertisement, 
"wants to purchase a good smart Dutch lad about 13 or 14 years 
of age." 

In 1730 Evan Jones, a druggist, was located on the north side of 
High Street near Third, at the sign of " Paracelsus' Head." A few 
years after he sold out to William Shippen and removed to the 
corner of Letitia Court, where he displayed a " Blue Paracelsus' 
Head," but subsequently took it down and put up the " Blue Oynt- 
ment and Galley Pot." 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. \ 
September. 1905. J 



A Retrospect of Pharmacy. 



427 



This same Evan Jones was principal in an affair that was the 
subject of town-talk and serious results. Daniel Rees, his appren- 
tice, was interested in the current stories of the mysteries of Free 
Masonry, so Mr. Jones and some friends, from a spirit of fun, offered 
to show him the character of the initiation ceremonies of the Order. 
They had him led blindfolded into the cellar of the shop one even- 
ing, where the party, disguised as devil's imps with horns and other 
appropriate insignia, were assembled around a pan of blazing alcohol. 
When his eyes were uncovered they attempted by their antics to 
terrify him, and in the scrimmage his clothes caught fire, and he 
was so badly burned that he died a few days after. This led to a 
judicial trial for manslaughter and Jones was convicted and sentenced 
to be officially burnt in the hand, but a lawyer friend of his, a certain 
John Remington, interceded and procured his pardon. 

In England the Church, through the Order of Monks, claimed a 
right to the monopoly of healing the body as well as the soul. Then 
came the Guild of Barber-Surgeons, who procured Acts of Parlia- 
ment giving them special privileges ; these were followed by the 
College of Physicians and the Fraternity of Apothecaries, each at- 
tempting to regulate trade relations by laws favorable to their re- 
spective interests. 

Although the sale of drugs, by the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, was a leading interest in the general business of this city, 
there had as yet been no practical co-operative effort to introduce 
the London idea of guild or fraternity as a trade protection and 
stimulus. 

In Philadelphia the University of Pennsylvania was at this time 
the leading educational institution. Under the direction of Dr. 
John Morgan it had introduced a medical department, which may 
be said to have taken a leading part in the medical teaching in the 
young Republic. Possibly to increase influence and to forestall others 
taking advantage of the indifference of the drug trade to its own 
interest, they instituted a pharmaceutical department, the history of 
which is given by Dr. George B. Wood, in 1827, as follows : 

" The degree of Master of Pharmacy was instituted with the very 
laudable view of improving the profession of the apothecary, which 
in this city has assumed an importance far beyond what it possesses 
in other parts of the Un